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Single-Page-Application & REST security


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  • The client credentials grant type must only be used by confidential clients. The client can request an access token using only its client credentials (or other supported means of authentication) when the client is requesting access to the protected resources under its control. The client can also request access to those of another Resource Owner that has been previously arranged with the Authorization Server (the method of which is beyond the scope of the specification).
  • A JSON Web Token (JWT) is a JSON-based security token encoding that enables identity and security information to be shared across security domains.
    In the OAuth 2.0 JWT flow, the client application is assumed to be a confidential client that can store the client application’s private key. The X.509 certificate that matches the client’s private key must be registered in the API Manager. The API Gateway uses this certificate to verify the signature of the JWT claim.

    POST /api/oauth/token HTTP/1.1
    Content-Length: 424
    Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8
  • Transcript

    • 1. Igor Bossenko 23.05.2014 SPA & REST security
    • 2. Agenda Authentication How protect REST services API-Key Secret-key Signature Nonce, non-repuduation OAuth1 vs OAuth2 Authorization Profiles Stateless vs stateful HATEOAS Atom/RSS
    • 3. „Legacy“ solutions HTTP Basic authentication Username/password in URL
    • 4. Google Translate example
    • 5. Authentication with API Key Simplest way for REST authentication Used for public or open APIs Twitter, Google Maps, New York Times, … API key usually used for Identify the caller Check IP addresses of caller To limit the number of requests Authentication with API Key only is unsecure
    • 6. Public Google API Public API is usually very atomic
    • 7. New Google credential generation Usually you must have separate API-Key for every API group
    • 8. Authentication with secret key API-key for identity Secret-key (symmetric shared key) for authentication Authentication with additional secret in header is not enough secure (man-in-the-middle attacker risk)
    • 9. Authentication with signature API-key for identity Secret-key for authentication, but secret key never sent with request Signature header is a HMAC-SHA256 hash of the nonce concatenated with the full URL and body of the HTTP request, encoded using your API secret-key. Authentication with signature is secure.
    • 10. Amazon solution Request example Signature calculation
    • 11. Nonce Nonce is an arbitrary (unique) number/string Randon number Number based on timestamp Nonce included into signature Requests with signature and nonce is very secure and protect from replay attacks
    • 12. Oauth (1.0) In 2006 were no open standards for API access delegation. OAuth was designed to solve the application-to-application security problem. OAuth Core 1.0 was released in 2007.
    • 13. OAuth 1.0 concept Terms User, Consumer, Service Provider, Protected Resource, Provider API 5 parameters to work with OAuth 1.0 Consumer key & Consumer secret Request token URL Authorize URL Access token URL OAuth 1.0 components Token = Key + Secret Message = Document + Digital Signature Application = Consumer + Access to API
    • 14. OAuth 1.0 Authentication Flow
    • 15. OAuth 1.0 summary OAuth 1.0 = Fetch Request Token + Redirect to Authorization + Fetch Access Token + Call API + Signature calculated with secret-key
    • 16. vs OpenID - protocol for fast user registration on the current website (“protocol for users”) OAuth - protocol for authorized access to the third-party vendor API („protocol for robots“ ).
    • 17. Non-repudiation Non-repuduation - method to ensure that a transferred message has been sent and received by the parties claiming to have sent and received the message Nonrepudiation can be obtained through the use of: Digital signatures Confirmation services Timestamp
    • 18. OAuth 1.0 vs Estonian xRoad xRoad OAuth PKI public/private certificates string as secret key or public/private certificates Certificate storage Secure server Any verified certificate storage, such as AD, .. Organization RIA (Estonian Information System Authority) Required API Developed by RIA (in estonian) Required Special software xRoad server No Scope Estonian standard International standard Protocol SOAP REST
    • 19. OAuth 2.0 OAuth 2.0 focuses on client developer simplicity while providing specific authorization flows for web applications, desktop applications, mobile phones, and living room devices. OAuth 2.0 is more a framework than it is a defined protocol. OAuth 2.0 is not backwards compatible with OAuth 1.0. In July 2012, Eran Hammer resigned his role of lead author for the OAuth 2.0 project, withdrew from the IETF working group, and removed his name from the specification. Hammer: „OAuth 2.0 is more complex, less interoperable, less useful, more incomplete, and most importantly, less secure."
    • 20. List of OAuth service providers (May/2014) Service provider OAuth protocol Amazon 2.0 AOL 2.0 Basecamp 2.0 Bitbucket 1.0a Dropbox 1.0, 2.0 Evernote 1 Facebook 2.0 draft 12 Flickr 1.0a Foursquare 2 GitHub 2 Goodreads 1 Google 2 Google App Engine 1.0a Instagram 2 Intel Cloud Services 2 LinkedIn 1.0a, 2.0 Microsoft (Hotmail, Windows Live, Messanger, Xbox) 2 Netflix 1.0a PayPal 2 Twitter 1.0a, 2.0 Ubuntu One 1 Vimeo 1.0a Yandex 2
    • 21. OAuth 1.0 vs OAuth 2.0 Problems of OAuth 1.0 Authentication and Signatures on client side User Experience and Alternative Token Issuance Options Performance at Scale OAuth 2.0 changes: OAuth 2.0 relies completely on SSL for some degree of confidentiality and server authentication. Cryptography-free option for authentication which is based on existing cookie authentication architecture. Simplified signatures Separation of Roles (SSO support) Short-lived tokens with Long-lived authorizations
    • 22. OAuth 2.0 flows Web Server Flow – for clients that are part of a web server application, accessible via HTTP requests. This is a simpler version of the flow provided by OAuth 1.0. User-Agent Flow – for clients running inside a user-agent (browser). Device Flow – suitable for clients executing on limited devices, but where the end-user has separate access to a browser on another computer or device. Username and Password Flow – used in cases where the user trusts the client to handle its credentials. Client Credentials Flow (JWT) – the client uses its credentials to obtain an access token. This flow supports what is known as the 2- legged scenario. Assertion Flow – the client presents an assertion such as a SAML assertion to the authorization server in exchange for an access token.
    • 23. OAuth2 Web Server Flow
    • 24. OAuth2 Web Server Flow details
    • 25. SSO Particular case of Web Server Flow when Client App and Resource Server use the same Authorization Server
    • 26. OAuth2 User Agent Flow
    • 27. OAuth2 Resource Owner Password Credentian Flow
    • 28. OAuth2 Client Credential Flow
    • 29. OAuth2 JSON Web Token (JWT) Flow
    • 30. OAuth2 Revoke/Info request
    • 31. OAuth2 Refresh Token
    • 32. Does OAuth1 better than OAuth2? Does OAuth1 better than OAuth2? No, they have different purpose: OAuth1 for server to server communication and OAuth2 for user/device to server Does OAuth1 more secure than OAuth2? Yes and No OAuth 1.0 may be used without HTTPS But, OAuth2 same secure as SSL
    • 33. When to use OAuth1 & OAuth2? OAuth 1.0 – server-to-server OAuth 2.0 – browser/device/client-to- server
    • 34. I use OAuth. Does my app protected? No JSON may be changed before sending Any URI may be called OAuth just authentication for your app and authorization to 3d-party apps You may wants to do Authorization and role/privilege check Check of data consistency State check or check of allowed actions
    • 35. Authorization You must check permissions every time when REST service runs inside service You must also identify client and context by cookie or by certificate
    • 36. Data consistency REST design “Big” API vs “small” API Profiles Atom/RSS
    • 37. “Big” API vs “small” API 1 REST service or 3 services?
    • 38. Profiles Тhe server checks the data sent regarding the xsd or profile or... Profile example Servoice LivingSubject Profile „Ivoice 1" Profile „Invoice 2" Profile „Invoice 3" Recipient/Person N/A M N/A Recipient/Organization N/A N/A M Owner/-organization N/A O M Owner/Person N/A O O Row/Article M M M Row/Quantity N/A M M Row/Sum N/A N/A O Payment/Sum O O N/A constraints Row.size()==1 Row.size()==1 Row.size()>0
    • 39. State validation Stateless OAuth2 provides token expiration You can store frequently used data in HTTP Cookie Local storage Memory DB Cache (like Ehcache) Use HATEOAS (Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State or hypermedia-driven system) for form validation Stateful You can use it too, but why?
    • 40. HATEOAS Data and links content separated one from another Server may store allowed links and refuse all other REST queries A simple JSON presentation is traditionally rendered as: { "name" : "Alice" } A HATEOAS-based response would provide relevant links like this: { "name": "Alice", "links": [ { "rel": "self", "href": "http://localhost:8080/customer/1" } ] }
    • 41. HATEOAS and the PayPal REST Payment API [ { "href": "", "rel": "self", "method": "GET" }, { "href": "", "rel": "approval_url", "method": "REDIRECT" }, { "href": "", "rel": "execute", "method": "POST" } ] rest-payment-hateoas-links/
    • 42. Use of OАuth OAuth can be used as an authorizing mechanism to consume secured RSS/ATOM feeds RSS/ATOM feeds mechanism helps to manage state
    • 43. Thank you! Questions?