Theories of Instructional Design Psychological Foundations, Learning Environments & Learner Motivation Jordan Carswell February 4, 2008 Assignment 2 INST 5131
PhilosophicalFoundationsMany psychologicaltheories have contributedto the field of instructionaldesign.Underlying them all,however, is the belief thatinstruction will lead tolearning. (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
• Perceive, recognize, Mind as Computer Sensory and code patterns Memory The central hypothesis of cognitive science is that thinking • Temporary holding; can best be understood in terms Short-term make connections of representational structures in Memory the mind and computational procedures that operate on • Remember and apply those structures. Long-term information over time (Stanford University, 2007, para. 9) Memory (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
Constructivism is a philosophy of The Learning Scienceslearning founded on the premise Grounded in the cognitivethat, by reflecting on our sciencesexperiences, we construct ourown understanding of the world Learner as active agent,we live in. Each of us generates responsible for creating understandingour own “rules” and “mentalmodels,” which we use to make Design Researchsense of our experiences.Learning, therefore, is simply the Formative experimentsprocess of adjusting our mentalmodels to accommodate new Learning takes place withinexperiences. the context of research (Funderstanding, 2001, para. 1) (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
The activity in which knowledge is developed and deployed, it is Learning as Participation now argued, is not separable from or ancillary to learning and cognition. (Brown, 1989, p. 32) IndividualDefining Characteristics Learning takes place within a Community community of practice Knowledge is gained in the Organization process of participating in the activities of the community (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007) (Wenger, 1998, as cited in Reiser and Dempsey 2007)
Connectivism is the Defining Characteristicsintegration of principles Diversity of opinionsexplored by chaos, network,and complexity and self- Connecting nodes of informationorganization theories. Learning can reside anywhereLearning is a process that Connections must be nurturedoccurs within nebulous Recognition of connectionsenvironments of shifting core Staying current with informationelements – not entirely underthe control of the individual. Individual decision-making (Siemens, 2004, paras. 25-27)
Learning takes place in cognitivediverse settings. No onetheory holds true for allsituations.Therefore, good design connectivist design constructivistis agnostic, analyzingeach unique problemand finding theappropriate solution situationalwhatever the source.
LearningEnvironmentsWhether in a lecture hall,on the job, or from a homecomputer, learning isshaped by place.The learning environmentis a key component of anytheory of instructionaldesign.
Learning EnvironmentStudents observe the practices ofexperts as they learn to performtasks on their own In ancient times, teaching and Abstract tasks are presented in a real-life context learning were accomplished through apprenticeship: We taught our Task’s processes are visible children how to speak, grow crops, to all learners craft cabinets, or tailor clothes by Tasks are varied to encourage showing them how and by helping skill transfer by learners them do it. (Collins, 1991) (Collins, 1991, para. 1)
Key AttributesCommunities of practice are 1 The Domaingroups of people who share Shared competence and identitya concern or a passion for 2 The Communitysomething they do and Shared activities and informationlearn how to do it better asthey interact regularly. 3 The Practice Shared experiences (Wenger, n.d., para. 3) and resources (Wenger, n.d.)
PLEs aren’t an entity, structural What constitutes a PLE?object or software program in the Learner constructedsense of a learning management environmentsystem. Iterative, constantly open to revision and growthEssentially, they are a collection of Mash-ups of web-based tools–tools, brought together under the not one size fits allconceptual notion of openness,interoperability, and learner control. (Siemens, 2007, para. 2)
iCampiCamp is a research and development projectfunded by the European Commission underthe IST (Information Society Technology)programme of FP6. The project aims atcreating an infrastructure for collaboration andnetworking across systems, countries, and Facilitators and learners in adisciplines in Higher Education. single virtual environment Comprised of a collection ofPedagogically it is based on constructivist open source software toolslearning theories that puts more emphasis onself-organised learning, social networking, and Social constructivist approachthe changing roles of educators. (iCamp, n.d.) (iCamp, n.d., para. 1)learn more: http://www.icamp.eu/
Massachusetts Institute Learning Problemof Technology Project Physics students were not Lecture and hands-on lab engaged in the lecture hall experiments combined environment (MIT, 2006) Classroom redesigned for group interaction Initial Results Media-rich software for simulation and visualization Students significantly improved their understanding of physics in Technology-based the TEAL environment learning materials (MIT, 2006) (Dori and Belcher, 2005)
On Visibility… On Modeling…“As a web design “Teaching faculty andinstructor, I noticed that staff how to use a newthe quality of my technology, I first showstudents’ mastery of a them how to do antask improved when they activity and then sit withwere able to observe the them as they repeat thework of their classmates.” activity on their own.”
Learner I’d rather be kayaking…MotivationHuman performance technologyrecognizes three influences onperformance which must beaddressed in successfulinstructional design.Of these, motivation is critical as itplays a decisive role in whether alearner chooses to choose a goalor pursue an activity. (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
Design Process Recognize elements ofMotivation human motivation Analyze and determine motivational requirements• Attention Identify instruction that will• Relevance stimulate motivation• Confidence Apply and evaluate plan• Satisfaction (Keller, 2006)
Learners’ motivations and Reciprocal Determinism actions are based more on what they believe to be true than what is actually true Behavior Learners’ beliefs about their abilities often outweigh knowledge, skill, or experience in determining success Success can be predicted based on what learners believe Environmental Personal themselves capable of Factors Factors achieving (Adapted from Pajares, 2002) (Pajares, 2002)
Success is variously attributed Internal Attributionto internal factors within one’s Success is determined by personal ability and effortcontrol or external factorsoutside one’s control. External Attribution Success is determined by outsideLearner’s interpretations are factors, i.e. task, environment,based on self-perceptions and or othersa desire to maintain a positive (Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2001)self-image. (Vockell, n.d.)
Focused on the uncovering the key properties of a goal Self-efficacy Specificity and difficulty level Goal effects on the individual, group and organization Learning vs. performance goals Assigned Goal Performance Mediators and moderators of goal effects Goals as mediators Goal source (self, assigned, Personal Goal group) (Locke and Latham, 2002, p. 714) (Adapted from Locke and Latham, 2002, p. 709)
Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1988). Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center. Brown, J. S. (n.d.). New Learning Environments for the 21st Century. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from: http://www.johnseelybrown.com/newlearning.pdf Collins, A. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Things Visible. American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers. 15 (3), 6-11,38-46. Dori, Y. J., & Belcher, J. (2005). How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts? JOURNAL OF THE LEARNING SCIENCES. 14 (2), 243-279.
Funderstanding (2001). Constructivism. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from: http://www.funderstanding.com/content/constructivism Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (2001). Attribution theory. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000382 iCamp (n.d.). Crossing the border to the future of education. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from: http://www.icamp.eu/ Keller, John (2006). What are the elements of learner motivation? Retrieved February 4, 2009 from: http://www.arcsmodel.com/Mot%20dsgn%20A%20cate.htm Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation. American Psychologist. 57 (9), 705-17. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2006). Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL). Retrieved February 3, 2009 from: http://icampus.mit.edu/projects/TEAL.shtml
Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. Siemens, George (2004). Connectivism: a learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from: http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm Siemens, George (2007). PLEs – I Acronym, Therefore I Exist. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from: http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/2007/04/15/ples-i-acronym-therefore-i-exist/ Vockell, Edward (n.d.). Attribution Theory. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from: http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/EdpsyBook/Edpsy5/edpsy5_attribution.htm Wenger, E. (n.d.). Communities of practice. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from: http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm