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Research Highlights in                      Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011                  ...
Research Highlights in               Technology and             Teacher Education                    2011                 ...
Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011ArticlesPreface..................................................
Improving Student Science Knowledge and Skills: A Study of the Impact of Augmented-Reality Animated	   Content on Student ...
Sharing Digital Resources among Teacher Educators	   Lena Olsson, Eeva Koroma, and Jennifer Monroe...........................
MEMBERSHIP                                                            INFORMATION                                         ...
Journal Articles                                                                                       Conference Papers  ...
SITE BOOK REVIEWERS - 2011Peter Albion, University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba, Queensland, AUSavilla Banister, Bowli...
Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011                                              FOREWORDIn its t...
PREFACEThe 2011 book of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education is the third in the series. Once agai...
Keith Wetzel from Arizona State University and Summer Marshall from the Ecker Hill International School collaboratedin thi...
Lisbeth Amhag of Malmö University, Sweden is the author of Students’ Argument Patterns in Asynchronous Dialoguesfor Learni...
SHARING RESOURCES IN A NETWORKED WORLDCleborne D. Maddux, Leping Liu, Wenzhen Li and Jenna Sexton collaborated on this cha...
RETHINKING PEDAGOGY
Game Changers for Teacher Education                                                                                      3...
4                                                                                                   Gibson and Knezekand h...
Game Changers for Teacher Education                                                                                     5l...
6                                                                                                     Gibson and KnezekTab...
Game Changers for Teacher Education                                                                                     7o...
8                                                                                                     Gibson and Knezek   ...
Game Changers for Teacher Education                                                                                  9    ...
10                                                                                                            Gibson and K...
Game Changers for Teacher Education                                                                                       ...
Developing a HEAT Framework for Assessing and Improving Instruction                                                   13  ...
14                                                                                                                        ...
Developing a HEAT Framework for Assessing and Improving Instruction                                                       ...
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  1. 1. Research Highlights in Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011 Technology and Teacher Education 2011 Edited by Cleborne D. Maddux, Ph.D. Senior Book Editor Book Editors: David Gibson, Ed.D. Bernie Dodge, Ph.D. Matthew J. Koehler, Ph.D. Punya Mishra, Ph.D. Carl Owens, Ph.D.ISBN: 1-880094-88-6site.aace.org
  2. 2. Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011 Edited by Cleborne D. Maddux, Ph.D. Senior Book Editor The University of Nevada, Reno David Gibson, Ed.D.Arizona State University and The Global Challenge Award Bernie Dodge, Ph.D. San Diego State University Matthew J. Koehler, Ph.D. Michigan State University Mishra Punya, Ph.D. Michigan State University Carl Owens, Ph.D. Tennessee Technical UniversitySociety for Information Technology and Teacher Education site.aace.org
  3. 3. Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011ArticlesPreface.............................................................................................................................................................................i RETHINKING PEDAGOGYGame Changers for Teacher Education David Gibson and Gerald Knezek...................................................................................................................................3Developing a HEAT Framework for Assessing and Improving Instruction Marge Maxwell, Matthew Constant, Rebecca Stobaugh, and Janet Tassel.....................................................................13Problem Upon Problem: Integrating PBL Throughout a Computing Curriculum Samuel B. Fee. ................................................................................................................................................................21 TPACKDeveloping Secondary Mathematics Preservice Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) Influencing Positive Growth Jeremy Zelkowski............................................................................................................................................................31Testing a TPACK-Based Technology Integration Observation Instrument Mark Hofer, Neal Grandgenett, Judi Harris, and Kathy Swan...................................................................................39Learning by Design: TPACK in Action Technology Integration Preparation for Preservice Teachers Liangyue Lu, Laurene Johnson, Leigh M. Tolley, Theresa Gilliard-Cook, and Jing Lei.........................................47Using the TPACK Framework to Study a Sixth Grade Classroom with High Access to Technology Keith Wetzel and Summer Marshall...............................................................................................................................55 INTEGRATING NEWER TECHNOLOGIESIntegrating an Open Textbook into Undergraduate Teacher Education Terence Cavanaugh........................................................................................................................................................65Web Video Project as an Instructional Strategy in Teacher Education Denys Lupshenyuk, Martha M. Hocutt, and Ron Owston. ..........................................................................................73YouTube Annotations: Reflecting Interactive, Web based Hypervideos in Teacher Education Thomas Winkler, Martina Ide, and Michael Herczeg. .................................................................................................81Identifying Affordances and Barriers to Student-centered Collaborative Learning in the Integration of Interactive Whiteboard Technology Cesar C. Navarrete.........................................................................................................................................................89Poetry in Motion: Using VoiceThread to Prepare 21st Century English Teachers Leanna Archambault and David Lee Carlson..............................................................................................................97
  4. 4. Improving Student Science Knowledge and Skills: A Study of the Impact of Augmented-Reality Animated Content on Student Learning Scott Elliot and Cathy Mikulas....................................................................................................................................105 BLENDED AND DISTANCE ENVIRONMENTSLessons Learned from Teaching in Hybrid Learning Environments for In-Service Mathematics Teachers Heng-Yu Ku, Chatchada Akarasriworn, Lisa A. Rice, David M. Glassmeyer, Bernadette Mendoza, and Shandy Hauk.................................................................................................................................................................115Preparing for Doctoral Supervision at a Distance: Lessons from Experience Peter R Albion and Ronel Erwee. ................................................................................................................................121Engaging Students through 21st Century Art Learning: Three-dimensional Virtual World Pedagogy Lilly Lu. .........................................................................................................................................................................129Students’ Argument Patterns in Asynchronous Dialogues for Learning Lisbeth Amhag. .............................................................................................................................................................137Social Networking And Education: Using Facebook As An Edusocial Space Pamela Pollara and Jie Zhu.........................................................................................................................................145 ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONSTeachers’ Perspectives on Using Graphical Representations in Enhancing the Process of Mathematical Modeling Andrzej Sokolowski and Elsa Gonzalez y Gonzalez...................................................................................................157Pre-Service Teacher Survey and Collaboration Between the United States and Jordan Christine J. Anderson, Marisa Beard, and Lama Bergstrand Othman.....................................................................165What Makes Preservice Teachers Trust Digital Technology? Andrea Francis. ............................................................................................................................................................173Multimedia Juvenile Victimization: School Faculty Perspectives about Youth Behavior Thanh Truc Nguyen......................................................................................................................................................181Impediments to Technology Integration: Individual Factors, School-Based Factors, and System-Wide Factors Identified by High Technology-Using Teachers Priscilla Norton and Dawn Hathaway........................................................................................................................189Two Teachers’ Technology Use: Recommendations for English Teacher Preparation Sara Flanagan and Melanie Shoffner.........................................................................................................................199Instructional Technology Adoption Strategies for College of Education Faculty Robert Bowe..................................................................................................................................................................209Recruiting Appalachian Girls to STEM Educational and Career Paths: Implications for Teacher Education Reagan Curtis, Gary Winn, Robin Hensel, Philip Adu, and Neelam Kher...........................................................217 SHARING RESOURCES IN A NETWORKED WORLDThe Semantic Web: Reviewing Its Potential in Teacher Education and a Concept Analysis of Related Educational Literature Cleborne D. Maddux, Leping Liu, Wenzhen Li, and Jenna Sexton...........................................................................229
  5. 5. Sharing Digital Resources among Teacher Educators Lena Olsson, Eeva Koroma, and Jennifer Monroe.....................................................................................................237 GAMESUsing Games to Prepare Ethical Educators Karen Schrier and David Gibson. ...............................................................................................................................247Video Game Design Principles in Logo Impact Teacher Candidates’ Technology Integration Aaron C. Bruewer and Kathryn G. Shafer..................................................................................................................255Use of Targeted Games to Support Instruction Marilyn Ault, Jana Craig Hare, Bruce Frey, and Gail Tiemann...........................................................................263 Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011 (ISBN # 1-880094-82-7) is published by the Society for Information Tecnology & Teacher Education (SITE), an international, educational, nonprofit organization. Published by: SITE, PO Box 1545, Chesapeake, VA 23327-1545, USA 757-366-5606; Fax: 703-997-8760; E-mail: info@aace.org © Copyright 2011 by Site site.aace.org Available at http://www.aace.org/bookshelf.htm
  6. 6. MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION Advancing Instructional Technology in Teacher Education http://site.aace.org/Mission: The Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education is an international associationof individual teacher educators, and affiliated organizations of teacher educators in all disciplines, whoare interested in the creation and dissemination of knowledge about the use of information technologyin teacher education and faculty/staff development.The Society seeks to promote research, scholarship, collaboration, exchange, and support among itsmembership, and to actively foster the development of new national organizations where a need emerges.SITE is the only organization that has as its sole focus the integration of instructional technologies intoteacher education programs. SITE promotes the development and dissemination of theoretical knowledge, conceptual research, and professional practice knowledge through the SITE conference, books, collaborative projects with other organizations, and the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education.Join SITE Today!You are invited to join SITE and receive the following benefits of professional membership. And, as amember of SITE, you automatically become of member of the Association for the Advancement of Com-puting in Education (AACE).Benefits of SITE membership: • Subscription to the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education • Subscription to the AACE member periodical [electronic] • Early announcements on Calls for Papers and CITE electronic journal issues • SITE Conference registration discounts • Discounts on all other AACE journals and conference proceedings • Opportunities to work and collaborate with members on activities in areas of common interest and concern Professional Membership: $115 (US); $130 (non-US) Student Membership: $35 (US); $50 (non-US) To join SITE, see http://site.aace.org/membership/ Join Us at Next Year’s SITE Conference http://site.aace.org/conf/ International Headquarters: SITE PO Box 1545, Chesapeake, VA 23327-1545 USA Tel: 757-366-5606 • Fax: 703-997-8760 • E-mail: info@aace.org
  7. 7. Journal Articles Conference Papers Special Topic Books Conference Invited Speaker Talks Videos Conference Presentation Slides EdITLib is your source for 15+ years (with your subscription) of peer-reviewed, published articles (20,000+) and papers on the latest research, developments, and applications related to all aspects of Educational Technology and E-Learning. Ten (10) Four (4) Academic Journals Conferences including: including:• Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia • ED-MEDIA – World Conference on Educational Multimedia,• International Journal on E-Learning Hypermedia & Telecommunications (Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education) • E-Learn – World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate,• Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching Healthcare, Government, and Higher Education• Journal of Interactive Learning Research • SITE – Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference• Journal of Technology and Teacher Education• AACE Journal Adding soon! (electronic) • Global Learn Asia Pacific – Global Conference on Learning• Contemporary Issues in Technology & Teacher Education and Technology (electronic) • Global TIME – Global Conference on Technology, Innovation, Media & Education Individual subscriptions Does Your Library $19/month Subscribe? Free access to abstracts so you can try the Digital Library at no cost! • Conduct research • Keep current on the latest research and publications in your field • Access and fully search publications • Create and store personal collections of articles by topic • Receive table of contents alerts prior to journal publication • Share article abstracts and search results with colleagues via email and include your comments • Export citations to BibTex, EndNote, and RefWorkswww.EdITLib.org Email: info@aace.org • Phone: 757-366-5606 • Fax: 703-997-8760
  8. 8. SITE BOOK REVIEWERS - 2011Peter Albion, University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba, Queensland, AUSavilla Banister, Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, OH USSally R. Beisser, Drake University Des Moines, IA USMuhammad Betz, Southeastern Oklahoma State University Durant, OK USNiki Davis, Iowa State Univ & Univ. of London Inst. of Ed. Ames, IA USNatalie Johnson-Leslie, Arkansas State University State University, AR, USGerald Knezek, University of North Texas Denton, Texas USCleborne Maddux, University of Nevada, Reno Reno, NV USSara McNeil, University of Houston Houston, TX USMahnaz Moallem, UNC Wilmington Wilmington, NC USChrystalla Mouza, University of Delaware Newark, DE USMargaret Niess, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR USPriscilla Norton, George Mason University Fairfax, VA USDavid Pugalee, University of North Carolina at Charolette Charolette, NC USMark A. Rodriguez, Sacramento State Sacramento, CA USMichael Searson, Kean University, NJ USKathryn Shafer, Ball State University Muncie, IN USScott Slough, Texas A&M University College Station, TX USDavid Slykhuis, James Madison University Harrisonburg, VA USDebra Sprague, George Mason University Fairfax, VA USJames Telese, University of Texas — Brownsville Brownsville, TX USMaryellen Towey, Schulz College of Saint Mary Omaha, NE USJana Willis, University of Houston — Clear Lake Houston, TX USDee Anna Willis, Northwestern State University of Louisiana Natchitoches, LA USHarrison Yang, State University of New York — Oswego Oswego, NY USSIG members and SIG chairs also reviewed for this book.
  9. 9. Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2011 FOREWORDIn its third year of publication, SITE’s Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education has be-come one of the “most viewed” journals in the extensive holdings in the AACE digital library (EdITLib). Theevolution of Research Highlights reflects a careful nurturing by previous SITE presidents Gerald Knezekand Ian Gibson, along with the critical organizational support provided by AACE CEO Gary Marks.Of course, an academic journal has little merit without critical and timely scholarship. SITE’s ResearchHighlights is quite fortunate to have Cleb Maddux, University of Nevada Reno, serve as its Senior Editorsince its inception. Dr. Maddux has provided steady and rigorous guidance to all those associated withpublication of Research Highlights. I am happy to report that he believes that the quality of the publications“has been improving steadily,” with a bumper crop of stellar articles in this year’s edition.Each year, SITE designates leaders from its membership to serve as co-editors for the Research High-lights to be published in conjunction with its annual conference. This year, Drs. Matthew Koehler andPunya Mishra worked closely with Dr. Maddux, and other SITE leaders, in producing the 2011 ResearchHighlights in Technology and Teacher Education. To be considered for publication in Research Highlights, asubmission first has to be accepted as a “full paper” at the annual SITE conference. Subsequently, thosefull papers undergo additional rigorous review and editing (I have been told that no papers are publishedsimply on the basis of their “full paper” status alone. Authors are always required to do additional edits andrevisions to meet the high standards of Cleb and his team.) This year, a total of 1272 submissions, from the351 accepted as conference “full papers were considered. Of those, only 31 were selected for publicationin the 2011 Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education.In the end, a successful journal succeeds only based on the quality and rigor of the work submitted forpublication. SITE’s Research Highlights is fortunate to have an outstanding cohort of international scholarsand practitioners who have chosen to share their innovative work in this volume. I trust you will be as stimu-lated as I am by the high-level scholarship they have produced. AT SITE, we are honored to have their workpublished in the 2011 Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education.Please enjoy this volume and consider using SITE, through its conferences and publications, to share yourwork with our growing international community.Regards,Michael SearsonPresident, Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education SITEExecutive Director, School for Global Education & Innovation, Kean University
  10. 10. PREFACEThe 2011 book of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education is the third in the series. Once again,the articles in this collection are clear evidence that the field and our society continue to advance and mature.We have organized the chapters this year into seven main sections:Rethinking PedagogyTechnology, Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (TPACK)Integrating Newer TechnologiesBlended and Distance EnvironmentsAttitudes and PerceptionsSharing Resources in a Networked WorldGamesOver 80 articles were considered for publication. Of those, two review processes involving detailed edits and feedbackresulted in 31 selections, which were then further shaped by the editors. We think you will agree that the result is aninteresting and valuable record of the diversity of interests of Society members.Next, we briefly outline the contents.RETHINKING PEDAGOGYDavid Gibson of Arizona State University and Gerald Knezek of the University of North Texas authored GameChangers for Teacher Education. This chapter introduces ideas for a new framework for teacher education based onComplex Systems Knowledge, and Global Flatteners.Developing a HEAT Framework for Assessing and Improving Instruction is co-authored by Marge Maxwell of WesternKentucky University and colleagues Matthew Constant, Rebecca Stokbaugh and Janet Tassell. HEAT standsfor Higher-order thinking, Engaged Learning, Authentic Learning, and Technology integration. The authors havedeveloped an instrument based on these ideas and intended for use assessing instruction and lesson plans of pre-service and advanced teacher education students.Problem Upon Problem: Integrating PBL Throughout a Computing Curriculum is the work of Samuel B. Fee fromWashington and Jefferson College. This chapter discusses the use of Problem Based Learning to engage students indeep problem solving and independent critical thinking.TPACKDeveloping Secondary Mathematics Preservice Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge(TPACK): Influencing Positive Growth is by Jeremy Zelkowski from The University of Alabama. Zelkowski investigatedthe effectiveness of a secondary mathematics teacher education program in developing Technological PedagogicalContent Knowledge (TPACK) in preservice teachers who rarely used technology in their own K-14 mathematicscoursework.Testing a TPACK-Based Technology Integration Observation Instrument, by Mark Hofer from the College of Williamand Mary and colleagues Neal Grandgenett, Judi Harris, and Kathy Swan reports on successful efforts to construct aTPACK-based observation rubric. The instrument is available online.Learning by Design: TPACK in Action. Technology Integration Preparation for Preservice Teachers is a chapter byLiangyue Lu and her colleagues at Syracuse University including Laurene Johnson, Leigh M. Tolley, Theresa Gilliard-Cook and Jing Lei. The authors present initial efforts to apply TPACK and Learning By Design in the design anddevelopment of a series of technology integration courses for elementary preservice teachers.
  11. 11. Keith Wetzel from Arizona State University and Summer Marshall from the Ecker Hill International School collaboratedin this chapter entitled Using the TPACK Framework to Study a Sixth Grade Classroom with High Access toTechnology. They report on their qualitative study investigating the ways an experienced middle school teacher usesthe TPACK framework.INTEGRATING NEWER TECHNOLOGIESIntegrating an Open Textbook into Undergraduate Teacher Education by Terence Cavanaugh from the University ofNorth Florida presents a discussion of the use of open textbooks as a cost effective strategy as well as a preparatoryactivity for future classroom applications.Denys Lupshenyuk from York University, Canada, Martha M. Hocutt, of the University of West Alabama, and RonOwston, also from York University authored this chapter entitled Web Video Project as an Instructional Strategy inTeacher Education. The chapter presents a conceptual framework for the integration of user-generated web video intostudent learning, and shares practical experiences of web video application in the teacher education curriculum in aregional university in Alabama.YouTube Annotations: Reflecting Interactive, Web based Hypervideos in Teacher Education is by Thomas Winkler,Martina Ide and Michael Herczeg from institutions in Germany. The authors present their experiences and conclusionsrelated to using hypervideos.Cesar C. Navarrete from the University of Texas at Austin authored Identifying Affordances and Barriers to Student-centered Collaborative Learning in the Integration of Interactive Whiteboard Technology. The study presented in thechapter made use of text analysis and identified four systematic barriers to transformative technology integration:(a) need of time for professional learning, (b) need for leadership involvement, (c) usability issues, and (d) lack ofsupplemental resources.Poetry in Motion: Using VoiceThread to Prepare 21st Century English Teachers is a chapter by Leanna Archambaultand David Lee Carlson from Arizona State University. The chapter explores how technology can be used to improveteaching within the content area of English/language by examining the artifacts and reflections of 21 pre- and in-service secondary English teachers at a large university in the southwestern part of the United States.Scott Elliot and Kathy Mikulas from SEG Measurement collaborated on this chapter entitled Improving StudentScience Knowledge and Skills: A Study of the Impact of Augmented-Reality Animated Content on Student Learning.These researchers asked if fourth grade students using both the books and augmented-reality animated contentachieve greater increases in science knowledge and skills than a comparable group of students who use only thebooks or a comparable group of students using nothing at all?BLENDED AND DISTANCE ENVIRONMENTSLessons Learned from Teaching in Hybrid Learning Environments for In-Service Mathematics Teachers is acollaborative effort by Heng-Yu Ku from the University of Northern Colorado and colleagues Chatchada Akarasriworn,Lisa A. Rice, David M. Glassmeyer, Bernadette Mendoza and Shandy Hauk. The authors used a mixed methodsstrategy to investigate middle and secondary in-service teachers’ attitudes towards participation in a graduate levelprobability and statistics course in a hybrid learning environment.Peter R Albion and Ronel Erwee from the University of Southern Queensland authored this chapter entitled Preparingfor doctoral supervision at a distance: Lessons from experience. Motivation for the research they conducted camefrom the increasing shortage of professors in Australian universities. These authors explore the use of distanceeducation in doctoral education.Engaging Students through 21st Century Art Learning: Three-dimensional Virtual World Pedagogy is a chapter byLilly Lu from Northern Illinois University. The chapter seeks to explain the characteristics of 3D Virtual Worlds andaddresses how they can serve as virtual learning environments (VLE) for art education.
  12. 12. Lisbeth Amhag of Malmö University, Sweden is the author of Students’ Argument Patterns in Asynchronous Dialoguesfor Learning. This research investigated how distance students can learn to use argumentation processes as a tool forlearning. A dialogic model for argument analysis is also described.Pamela Pollara and Jie Zhu from Louisiana State University collaborated on Social Networking and Education: UsingFacebook as an Edusocial Space. This paper explores the use of Facebook within a high school science-mentoringprogram. The authors report of research indicating that the use of Facebook positively affected the relationshipsbetween mentors and mentees. In addition, students believed that they learned more by using Facebook and wouldlike to use Facebook for other educational purposes.ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONSAndrzej Sokolowski and Elsa Gonzalez y Gonzalez from Texas A & M University jointly authored Teachers’Perspectives on Using Graphical Representations in Enhancing the Process of Mathematical Modeling. Thisqualitative study investigates the teacher’s role in using modeling and visualization in the teaching of mathematics.Christine Anderson from Western Illinois University collaborated with Marisa Beard and Lama Bergstrand Othmanin Pre-Service Teacher Survey and Collaboration between the United States and Jordan. This project was aimed atincreasing the awareness of the educational systems in both countries and uniting 34 pre-service special educationand early childhood teachers from two countries through technology in an interactive assignment.What Makes Preservice Teachers Trust Digital Technology?is a chapter by Andrea Francis from Albion College. Sheused exploratory regression analyses and found one of the most important factors in participants’ decision to trustand use educational technology in future classes was the extent of a person’s positive experience with technology inteacher education classes.Thanh Truc Nguyen from The University of Hawaii is the author of Multimedia Juvenile Victimization: School FacultyPerspectives about Youth Behavior. More than 400 faculty members in three states were surveyed. Faculty identifiedonline sexual predators and cyber bullies as their greatest concern, whereas misinformation and bias was the leastconcern.Impediments to Technology Integration: Individual Factors, School-Based Factors, and System-Wide Factors Identifiedby High Technology-Using Teachers is a collaborative effort by Priscilla Norton and Dawn Hathaway from GeorgeMason University. The authors investigated barriers to integrating technology. Results identified seven categoriesrelated to Individual Factors, ten related to School-Based Factors, and four related to System-Wide Practices andPolicies Factors.Sara Flanagan and Melanie Shoffner from Purdue University collaborated on this chapter entitled Two Teachers’Technology Use: Recommendations for English Teacher Preparation. This qualitative study explored two secondaryEnglish teachers’ use of technologies for instruction. Both teachers – one novice, one experienced – took part in aseries of 10 observations and 3 interviews.Instructional Technology Adoption Strategies for College of Education Faculty is a chapter by Robert Bowe ofNational Louis University and National College of Education. Multi-year survey data, Q Methodology, and videotapedinterviews were used to identify three distinct groups of IT-using faculty. Professional development activities areidentified for each group.Recruiting Appalachian Girls to STEM Educational and Career Paths: Implications for Teacher Education is acollaborative effort by Reagan Curtis of West Virginia University and colleagues Gary Winn, Robin Hensel, Philip Adu,and Neelam Kher. The research was undertaken because the authors believed traditional recruiting and retentionmethods are not efficacious for Appalachian girls. A survey of 107 high school sophomores and juniors suggestedways recruiting and retention efforts should be modified to attract more Appalachian girls to engineering.
  13. 13. SHARING RESOURCES IN A NETWORKED WORLDCleborne D. Maddux, Leping Liu, Wenzhen Li and Jenna Sexton collaborated on this chapter entitled The SemanticWeb: Reviewing Its Potential in Teacher Education and a Concept Analysis of Related Educational Literature.This article clarifies the idea of the Semantic Web and uses a discourse analysis tool to analyze the content of 92published articles on the Semantic Web in education.Sharing Digital Resources among Teacher Educators is written by Lena Olsson of Stockholm University incollaboration with Eeva Koroma and Jennifer Monroe. This chapter reports on a 3-year project devoted to develop andcultivate a digital culture in Teacher Education.GAMESKaren Schrier of Columbia University and David Gibson of Arizona State University authored Using Games toPrepare Ethical Educators. The researchers set out to explore how to develop teachers who are reflective and criticalthinkers of ethics. They suggest that one potential solution is to incorporate digital games and simulations into teachereducation curricula.Video Game Design Principles in Logo Impact Teacher Candidates’ Technology Integration is by Aaron C. Bruewerand Kathryn G. Shafer, both of Ball State University. The researchers sought to determine which assignments ina math education course for middle school and high school teachers engaged the students’ developing sense oftechnology integration. Conclusions include the importance of supporting teacher candidates at the RecognitionStage of technology integration as a pre-requisite to developing their Technological Pedagogical Content andKnowledge (TAPCK).Marilyn Ault, Jana Craig Hare, Bruce Frey, and Gail Tiemann of the University of Kansas collaborated to writeUseof Targeted Games to Support Instruction. The use of targeted games in education was investigated. The resultsindicated that students have a strong preference for competitive games over single-player and collaborative games,and sustain play outside of the school day. An additional follow-up survey suggested that students have strongpreferences for characteristics inherent to targeted games. These include autonomy, feedback, competition, andchallenging levels of play.Cleborne D. Maddux, Ph.D.Senior SITE Book EditorThe University of Nevada, RenoDavid Gibson, Ed.D.SITE Book EditorArizona State University and The Global Challenge AwardBernie Dodge, Ph.D.SITE Book EditorSan Diego State UniversityMatthew J. Koehler, Ph.D.SITE Book EditorMichigan State UniversityMishra Punya, Ph.D.SITE Book EditorMichigan State UniversityCarl Owens, Ph.D.SITE Book EditorTennessee Technical University
  14. 14. RETHINKING PEDAGOGY
  15. 15. Game Changers for Teacher Education 3 Game Changers for Teacher Education David Gibson Arizona State University Gerald Knezek University of North Texas Abstract This article introduces ideas for a new framework for teacher education based on two sets of forces that are radically transforming the way educational researchers and practitioners see their world: 1. Complex Systems Knowledge, and 2. Global Flatteners. Complex systems knowledge is part of a new approach in science, a transformation in thinking now maturing towards dynamical systems and evolutionary computational modeling. The global flatteners represent economic game changers brought about by the Internet and the changed business practices it allows. These ideas are game changers for teacher education, preparation and continuing support.Global Transformation The global information society fueled by the Internet and digital media has produced a flattened playingfield for vast numbers of people to participate in the world’s education and economic opportunities (Friedman, 2005).Ubiquitous low-cost access to information has opened the floodgates. Exemplified by carrying smart phones enabledwith global positioning software, people can acquire personally useful information from anywhere at any time to findanswers to questions such as where is the nearest coffee shop, what is the name of the street four blocks away, whereare my friends now and where will be they in 10 minutes? The same device can show you a movie, tell you whatthe likely temperature will be tomorrow (or what it was 100 years ago), engage you with an animation of a complexmathematical curve, or define and spell a difficult word for you, and then translate it into 40 other languages. Clearly,information is not the most important thing being learned in schools and colleges today, because it is being acquiredeverywhere, anytime people need it. The age of global knowledge workers forecast in the 1980’s is in full swing. These global workers arethe circulation system feeding a vast transfer of wealth occurring among countries. They live in countries thatwere impoverished a few short years ago, but that now own important stretches of the information superhighway.Technologies in the East, such as smart phones and high bandwidth networks, have allowed these countries to leapfroginto the future with new infrastructure that is more flexible and powerful than in the West. As a result, vast numbersof people can now learn more than ever before, with lower barriers to entry and access, and with more personalizationand autonomy. People all over the world now understand that knowledge is indeed power and it can be had for theasking. Universal education for all is now a global matter: the game has changed. At the same time, a game-changing transformation in world-view has reached maturity in the sciences.Many of the sciences are converging on an evolutionary view of how new aspects of reality emerge locally from thesurrounding and interpenetrating global complexity. The roots of this altered worldview seem simple; when somethingchanges in a small way, most of what it was remains the same and some new small thing is added. As that newcapability is consolidated and used, if it helps, it stays; otherwise it disappears. The criteria of whether it “helps”is determined by the encompassing environment, which passes harsh judgment on unhelpful things. Those are theseemingly simple roots of evolutionary development. Taken together, they imply a multifaceted and complex openecology with the possibility of multiple causes, strange loops of feedback and reflection, dramatic jumps in behavior,nonlinearity and chaos. Computers now allow us to see, manipulate and understand this more nuanced world in newways, and that is transforming the way the world does science. The new evolutionary worldview of complex systems isa result of science coming to grips with the implications of its simple beginnings in the face of errors that accumulatefrom applying those ideas to complex realities; it is an example of the structure of scientific revolutions (Kuhn, 1970). The revolutionary perspective is now transforming many other fields and education research needs to wake upand get moving in this direction; the game has indeed changed. The transformation, for example, is impacting the arts
  16. 16. 4 Gibson and Knezekand humanities; fields which in some ways foresaw, and now celebrate the changes as part of a cultural shift towardcreativity, building upon but completely renovating and surpassing the old worldview of simple, linear, positivist,empiricism (Kauffman, 2010). The grip of traditional knowledge authorities and the methods and ways of knowingthat were developed for a paper-based world and that supported a learning economy, are giving way to more fluid,flexible, shared form of discovering and validating knowledge in a complex, open ecology of learning (Carroll, 2010). Driven by conceptual as well as technological advances, which are entwined in a co-evolutionary dance thatself-organizes and adapts each to the other at ever more complex levels (Dennett, 1995; Holland, 1995; Kauffman,2000), researchers at the leading edges of the sciences, arts and humanities have been observing and documentinga dramatic transformation of society writ large. A new zeitgeist or mental model of the era has arrived. The changehas come about largely because new ideas and methods bolstered by digital media tools are in the hands of creativeresearchers and practitioners. Their intuitions about structure and processes have been sharpened through vastlyexpanded capabilities of inquiry, scholarship, experimentation, and expression made possible by the new modelsand tools. We hope to broadly outline these models and tools here and draw linkages to and implications for teachereducation. These facts have been chronicled, and their integration heralded, by writers from many fields: politicaland economic (Beinhocker, 2006; Friedman, 2005; Radzicki, 2003), philosophical and practical (Manning, 1995;Newman, 1996; Putnam, 1992; Tetenbaum, 1998), scientific and mathematical (Holland, 1995; Prigogine, 1996),historical and sociological (Diamond, 2005; McNeill, 1998; Wicks, 1998). Now is a good time to consider how theseforces have created “game changers” for teacher education. This paper attempts to build a new vision for teachereducation institutions, for future discussion and elaboration, by outlining two of the game changers and synthesizingtheir implications for educator preparation programs. Oddly out of step with the global transformation, educational bureaucracies across the world are for themost part still clanking along their tracks with rusty industrial-age models of authority, economy, and control. Reformmovements come and go with minor impact on the norms, roles and relationships of traditional structures. This is so inspite of the scholarship from the cognitive and behavioral sciences indicating how people learn and how they should betrained for rapidly changing environments (Bransford, 2007; Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000), how a generationof learners has been shaped by their digital experiences (Beck & Wade, 2004; Gee, 2004; Prensky, 2001), and howeducational institutions can begin to rethink their role in society (Carroll, 2009; Davidson & Goldberg, 2009). In educator training and research on educational systems, there is a need for better understanding of complexdynamic systems represented by learning organization entities such as learners, classrooms, school buildings, andschool district systems (Gibson, 2000; Lemke & Sabelli, 2008; Senge, 1990). Some have referred to this emergentunderstanding as the “ecological” model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Morgan, 1995). By whatevername we refer to it, if educators are going to join in constructing the knowledge and practice base needed by teachersand school leaders, it entails teacher educators learning some new basics.The New Basics of Complex Adaptive Systems This section presents some of the key concepts and definitions that interdisciplinary researchers use tomake sense of complex adaptive systems, and draws out a few epistemological and methodological implications forteacher education (Table 1). The concepts selected here don’t completely define the field. They are offered as a setof initial sensitizing concepts to raise awareness of the need for new arenas of research and development in educationscholarship. Michael Quinn Patton, in his book “Developmental Evaluation,” applies complexity ideas to innovation anduse-focused evaluation and offers concepts such as adaptation, dynamics, uncertainty, and co-evolution, which needto be integrated and further developed into the framework outlined here (Patton, 2011). A significant new field ofmethodological development awaits as well. We are grateful to Paul Resta, professor of Curriculum and Instructionat the University of Texas at Austin, who offered the following suggestions concerning the new methodologies:“knowledge modeling, data mining, visualization and representation that, although not yet widely embraced in teachereducation, are emerging as viable approaches to dealing with this complexity.”  He also suggested that we include
  17. 17. Game Changers for Teacher Education 5learning analytics, which deserves an extended quote from George Siemens, of the Technology Enhanced KnowledgeResearch Institute at Athabasca University, who blogs on ELEARNSPACE: Learning analytics is the use of intelligent data, learner-produced data, and analysis models to discover information and social connections, and to predict and advise on learning. EDUCAUSE’s Next Generation learning initiative offers a slightly different definition “the use of data and models to predict student progress and performance, and the ability to act on that information”. Their definition is cleaner than the one I offer, but, as I’ll detail below, is intended to work within the existing educational system, rather than to modify it. I’m interested in how learning analytics can restructure the process of teaching, learning, and administration. LA relies on some of the concepts employed in web analysis, through tools like Google Analytics, as well as those involved in data mining (see educational data mining). These analytic approaches try to make sense of learner activity (through clicks, attention/focus heat maps, social network analysis, recommender systems, and so on). Learning analytics is broader, however, in that it is concerned not only with analytics but also with action, curriculum mapping, personalization and adaptation, prediction, intervention, and competency determination. Added to these suggestions, we also recommend looking at Paul Thagard’s work on coherence (Thagard, 2000),which includes a computational modeling program that can be flexibly applied to many problems of epistemology:explanation, deduction, conceptualization, reasoning by analogy, perceptual reasoning such as pattern finding innoisy data, filtering and so forth. Elsewhere (Gibson, 2010), we’ve begun to outline a theoretical foundation forassessing digital media-based learning, based on evidence centered design theory, traditional decisions and dilemmasof assessment, and the affordances of immersive digital media learning environments. We recommend that schools of education develop faculty with the expertise to develop and utilize newmethods of inquiry and analysis in order to create a new knowledge base and understanding of complexity in education.Table 1. Complex adaptive systems concepts Complex System Concept Brief definition Nonlinearity A nonlinear system is one in which the output is not directly proportional to its input; the cause of some response by the system is not the simple sum of the stimuli, as it is in linear systems. This can give rise to surprising, unpredictable behavior. Feedback loops Information is recycled, connecting the current state to past states of the system. This cycling is in large part the cause of the nonlinearities, and is also the foundation for growth, learning, and other emergent properties. Co-evolution through openness The system accepts “inputs from” and “outputs to” a larger external environment. Systems co-evolve with the niche as well as with other nearby systems through openness. Self-organization & Adaptation Impacts on the current state of the system are carried forward into future states of the system. Systems adapt to their environment, including its other systems and dynamics. Nested relationships & Dynamics Components of the system may themselves be complex systems and as part of a network of relationships, give rise to trajectories, rhythms, and cycles of activity, rituals, routines and so forth. The dynamics generally lead to three types of overall system behavior (1. events that rise or expand until exploding or becoming chaotic, 2. events that begin, sustain and die away over time, and 3. cycles of events that sustain for longer periods of time through periodic ups and downs).
  18. 18. 6 Gibson and KnezekTable 1 Continued Emergent properties Properties of the whole system depend upon the nonlinear nested relationships of the components and often need a new level of analysis and representation from that of the components. Macro-patterns can emerge. In educational contexts these might be mesosystems of overlapping cultures (family, race, gender, socioeconomic, historical). Intersectionality This concept has recently been introduced in the context of complex social systems and represents a particular multi-element dynamic in which sets of elements overlap, combine, collide, and settle into a temporary equilibrium through coherence of their mutually causal relationships. Boundaries Since the system has nested relationships, there are boundaries that separate the elements from each other as well as from the larger encompassing environment. In social systems research the idea of “boundary-crossing objects” or “boundary objects” points out that things like concepts, terms, definitions, values, words, etc. that have meaning in one context might take on different meanings after crossing a boundary into another context. Nonlinearity. In real systems, nonlinearity is everywhere and it is more prevalent than our current linearmodels and the majority of present-day research would lead us to believe. Educational research traditions persist inallowing linear simplifications to dominate the discourse, even though the world does not behave in a straight line,neither do its learners, classrooms, teachers and communities. The linear worldview feigns that we can understandcomplex systems by considering them well behaved and at root, no more complex than a sand pile. In spite of the well-accepted fields of knowledge from developmental psychology, classroom observations, educator development, and thesocial foundations of education, many current educational research approaches are founded on the assumption thatvariance in data is itself constant! Linear models are satisfied to view the average or mean of data and assume that theunderlying reality can be represented as a line. The observed means and their measures then become crucial buildingblocks for finding correlations and making inferences. But this worldview has reached its limits; the time has come tointroduce “time” into the equations. Educators need to become comfortable with hyperlinked learning progressionsand “Internet time” ((Bjerede, Atkins, & Dede, 2010) replacing linear scope and sequence conceptions of knowledgetransmission. Classroom realities are dynamic - changing over time - and they display surprising behavior from time totime; such as a student who is learning a new mathematical method, or a group of students experiencing the arc of aclassroom’s history from the beginning of school to the end of the semester. A better analogy than a line for these kindsof evolving systems is a musical composition, which at times has a single melody, then suddenly breaks into multipartharmony, and may become quiet after a storm of sound. At each point in time in the composition, listeners experience“frequencies,” but that experience is not represented by the average frequency at a particular moment, and certainlynot the mean frequency of the piece as a whole. Imagine the absurdity of asserting that Beethoven’s Ninth Symphonycan be summarized as “on average 256 cycles per second.” Instead, the whole is more than the sum of its parts, and ithas to be perceived as it is unfolding in order to comprehend it. This is a challenge for quantitative methods, but it isnot insurmountable. Feedback Loops. Information cycling in a system, or feedback loops, are mechanisms that relate the past statesto the present. The current state of a student’s mind or a classroom’s profile is not randomly related to the immediatepast state; it is a mixture of reverberations of the state just past, with some newly evolved and additional informationarising in the present. This property of feedback more often than not violates an assumption of the ordinary leastsquares method used in linear regression analysis, which says that error terms are not supposed to be related to eachother. So the typical methodology of most educational quantitative research may be unfit to represent the evolution ofreal systems. Perhaps this is part of the reason that analytic methods view “reflection” as a qualitative matter, when itis instead, also a highly important matter for a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of systems that are changing
  19. 19. Game Changers for Teacher Education 7over time. Teacher education programs that have embraced the language of reflection in the qualitative sense, haveyet to appreciate the significance of information cycling in quantitative models. In order to remedy this problem, newdirections in quantitative methods are needed. Openness. Openness refers to a function of exchanges of matter or information at the boundary of any systemand its environment. This exchange zone is a co-producer of the system’s behavior and is inseparable in any analysisthat attempts to account for dynamic behavior. Qualitative methods have long appreciated the importance of context forunderstanding the relationships influencing system evolution. Learners are better understood, for example, when weknow their culture, home life, first language, as well as their interests, aspirations and learning preferences. However,in most quantitative models, these aspects are left aside, or they are added in as explanatory descriptions that meantto enhance the primarily linear analysis. In a few rare cases, attempts are made to quantify and integrate exogenousvariables into the linear framework, but the models created by traditional linear methods still ignore the dynamicfeatures of nonlinearity, recycling and openness. Openness in the learning environment is achieved by promoting the exchange of information betweenstudents and people outside of the classroom. Teachers need to know how to initiate exchanges and leverage themfor student learning, treating the vast open knowledge system as a potential ally. Ubiquitous mobile technologieswill quicken the establishment of openness in the educational system (Bjerede et al., 2010). If educators preservethe right to remain close advisors to their students, then the benefits of openness far outweigh any potential dangers(e.g. from bad information, predators, commercial advertising interests); every external exchange is an opportunityfor learning if the teacher is a trusted guide. Benefits to both the teacher and students include the renewal of energyfor essential questions, access to higher levels of expertise, a built-in external audience for performance, higher levelsof realism and authenticity, and better more up to date information, among many others. Crucial to understandingopenness, teachers need to believe that they and their students can make contributions of real value to the outsideworld, because healthy sustainable exchanges, across the boundary between classroom and outside world, are two-way streets (Gibson, 2000, 2008). Co-evolution. The initial concept here is of simultaneous change and mutual adaptation with others, butthis dance also leads to structural changes; so we can also include the idea of structure as memory. While one mightfirst think of memory as “in the brain” and persisting no more than the lifetime of an individual, there is more toit. Biological structure, for example, is a form of species memory. In like fashion, school structure is for the mostpart, frozen memory of the cultural transmission model and hierarchical bureaucratic form of education that is stillprevalent in education. Just as short term memory becomes long term through repeated practice or in moments ofemotional stress (or both), educational change of structure is a long drawn-out process involving establishing newpractices in the presence of highly valued incentives to persist with the needed changes. This conception of memorylinks to “collective intelligence” and “distributed cognition” (Jenkins, Purushotma, Clinton, Weigel, & Robison, 2006)in the sense of understanding the cultural nature of knowledge; for example, that our knowledge about the “sun” is notlearned first hand through experience, but from a shared culture that “already knows that.” The fundamental fact of thesocial construction of knowledge should cause teachers to abandon the notion that knowledge is primarily what is inthe student’s head and what they can access from unaided memory when prompted on a quiz or test. Knowledge is equally all of Wikipedia and the rest of the entire Internet, plus what peers know in the classroomtoday, and what family and community members know. What may be most important for “learning to learn” is whethera student knows when and where such knowledge is appropriate to acquire and remix (a digital media literacy, see(Jenkins et al., 2006)) in their search for meaning, understanding, and explanation. Nested relationships and dynamics. Hierarchical linear modeling efforts attempt to understand nestedrelationships and are helpful in analyzing the nested layers of educational system policy and practice complexity.Since the entities are relationships, the essence of the analysis focuses on networks. Educational researchers needadditional training in network analysis in order to leverage the considerable advances taking place now in biology,earth systems sciences, physics, medicine and elsewhere. Leadership and policy research and practice has exploreda variety of nested systems visions; e.g. (McLaughlin, 1987; P. Senge, Kleiner, Roberts, Ross, & Smith, 1994; You,1993; Zimmerman, 1995). If we reorient
  20. 20. 8 Gibson and Knezek Emergent properties. The nonlinear worldview implies that the “averaging over time” way of looking atcomplex systems is inaccurate for some purposes. It also means that schools of education need to 1. employ newresearch methodologies with nonlinear dynamical approaches and 2. acculturate new researchers with well-informedand balanced critical awareness of the limitations of linear methods. The new methods may include helpful devicesfrom the traditional statistical toolkit, such as nonparametric statistics, but more important, schools of education needto develop new nonlinear quantitative methods and tools of research to join the current toolkits in qualitative andquantitative methods.What Teacher Education Programs Need to Know In order for education to leverage the new basics on the global playing field, those in teacher education,researchers and teachers need to be able to contribute to knowledge and model building, experimentation,implementation, and critique. We offer an adaptation of Friedman’s “Ten World Flatteners” as a starting point forenvisioning the future of teaching in the 21st Century, and invite discussion, critique and enhancement from our peers.Ten Concepts for 21st Century Teacher Education Thomas Friedman’s analysis of ten events and capacities that have flattened the world’s barriers to educationaland economic opportunity (Friedman, 2005) provide a second game changing framework for reflection about newpractices and tools needed for 21st Century teacher education. For each of the ten concepts, we have generated ideasthat connect to the major forces and ideas described above and suggested some educational implications. Ten “Flatteners” Educational Implications Teacher Education Implications Berlin Wall Collapse A new generation of learners with Diversify the teaching workforce; Lower high motivation and a greater barriers to entry and re-entry to formal diversity of people with the desire to education; Integrate and acknowledge achieve. informal education; Teach to the world, about the world, using boundary-crossing collaborative methods; Promote universal education by enacting roles as teacher educators of the world. Browser Easy and unfathomable access to Develop teachers as knowledge workers world knowledge resources (human, (participatory creators of knowledge) who technical, political and symbolic). are trained to develop learning environments for assisting the development of other knowledge workers. Workflow software Automated processing and agents; Develop teachers as designers of new types games and simulations; self-paced of instructional experiences that leverage multimedia tutorials; collaborative emerging learning technologies, such as authoring tools; learning experiences communal bookmarking, wiki-coauthoring, will evolve from static textbooks interoperable data systems; mashup to immersive, interactive learning authoring systems (media appropriation) as environments (CED, 2009) part of new media literacy (Jenkins et al., 2006). Uploading Network-based file spaces for Develop teachers who know how to personal and team work and sharing assemble, assess, and validate ePortfolios “self” (e.g. Wave, Facebook, Flickr, that are out on the open-web, and can mine delicious) “the Web footprint” of a learner across time.
  21. 21. Game Changers for Teacher Education 9 Outsourcing Remote team learning, allows and Develop teachers who de-emphasize promotes division of labor into individual “knowledge acquisition” and remote locations - not “same labor balance it with both team and individual by all;” utilizing the cognitive performance capabilities and the creation of surplus and collective intelligence of evidence of knowledge-in-use. the world Offshoring Leveraging to reduce costs, including Develop teachers with learning environment cognitive costs. Leverage thinking planning skills that assume and utilize tools. Not all thinking goes on in the distributed knowledge, collaboration, and head. peer-to-peer support and feedback. Supply-chaining Multidisplinary distribution. Develop teachers as coaches, with the habits Learning team leaders need to and expectations of being only one stop in be able to manage their human the chain of expertise students learn to use resources and make best use of the in every inquiry and expressive learning diversity of the team; opportunity. Such teachers allow students to split their work within the class and they have the expertise to parse credit among team members; peer coaching and learning teams (even teams beyond the classroom!) as learning communities. Teacher “communities of practice” are sponsored and resourced by teacher education programs, and offer 24-7 support to growing networks of teachers. Insourcing Students performing useful service Teachers act as resources for authentic and creating valued products that problem solving within the school’s larger benefit society. communities. In-forming Remove barriers to all forms of Teachers are comfortable in modeling access in the classroom! Get the responsible use of technology. They are blockers off. Assume that kids can experts in helping students learn “to validate find what they need to know. the credibility and accuracy of sources, detect bias, and draw conclusions by analyzing and synthesizing large quantities of varied input.”(Bjerede et al., 2010) Personal electronics Let the smart phones in! and Teachers need access to a variety of cameras. Let students HAVE all technologies too, especially at home as well the technology they use outside of as at school! They should have hands-on “school.” experience with a wide range of technology tools and develop the expectation of learning and using a new tool in their chosen area of inquiry and expression every few months – for life.Summary This document briefly outlined a new framework of ideas for considering the future of teacher education, inwhich faculty and students develop an understanding of how to induce change and evolution in the homeostatic systemsof schools, with their many change-resisting feedback loops. The concepts of complexity dynamics, the 21st Centuryglobal context and a new vision of teacher preparation were presented and lead to the following recommendations. 1. Schools of education should develop a faculty with expertise in complex systems’ basic terms, relationships, and tools of research (e.g. collection, representation & analysis). Schools of education should consider form- ing study teams to develop the theoretical and practical base needed for research and practice innovations with growing depth in this scientific perspective.
  22. 22. 10 Gibson and Knezek 2. Educational research programs in schools of education need to develop new directions in quantitative re- search that are bounded by and help explain nonlinear dynamics, the role of feedback loops in creating struc- ture (including personal and organizational memory), openness of all systems to their environment, nested relationships and emergent properties in complex systems. 3. Schools of education should share in the creation and validation of a global framework for reflection about new practices and tools needed for 21st Century teacher education. We offer ideas based on ten “Flattening” principles to begin the conversation. 4. Schools of education should acknowledge the inseparability of technology with the advancing horizons of the science of education and embrace it as a core feature of research and practice, utilizing leading edge tools for instruction, research and policy leadership. Research without a strong technology component in data collection, representation and analysis should become seen as lacking the toolset for advancing the leading edge of the science of education.AcknowledgementsWe are grateful to Chris Dede of Harvard, Tom Carroll and Kathleen Fulton of the National Commission for Teaching andAmerica’s Future, and Paul Resta, of the University of Texas at Austin, for their comments and helpful feedback and for pointingout additional game changers and emerging themes in technology and teacher education. A special thanks is also due to Ken Kay,of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills and EdLeader21, for stimulating discussions in Sydney that further shaped these ideas.ReferencesBeck, J., & Wade, M. (2004). Got game: How the gamer generation is reshaping business forever. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Beinhocker, E. (2006). The origin of wealth: Evolution, complexity and the radical remaking of economics. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Bjerede, M., Atkins, K., & Dede, C. (2010). Ubiquitous mobile technologies and the transformation of schooling. from http://www. qualcomm.com/common/documents/articles/Wireless_EdTech_Article_EducationTechnology.pdfBransford, J. (2007). Preparing people for rapidly changing environments. Journal of Engineering Education, 96(1).Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Washington: DC: National Academy Press.Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.Carroll, T. (2009). Transforming schools Into 21st century learning environments: eSchool News.Carroll, T. (2010). Ideas to enhance the game changers line or argument. In D. Gibson (Ed.) (pp. Personal email). Stowe, VT: David Gibson.CED. (2009). Harnessing openness to improveresearch, teaching, and learning in higher education. Retrieved. from.Davidson, C., & Goldberg, D. (2009). The Future of Learning Institutions in a Digital Age. Chicago, IL: John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundationo. Document Number)Dennett, D. (1995). Darwin’s dangerous idea: Evolution and the menaings of life. New York: Simon & Schuster.Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking Penguin.Friedman, T. (2005). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.Gee, J. (2004). What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Gibson, D. (2000). Complexity theory as a leadership framework. Montpelier, VT: VISMT Available: http://wwwvismtorg/pub/ ComplexityandLeadershippdfGibson, D. (2008). Make it a two-way connection: A response to “Connecting informal and formal learning experiences in the age of participatory media. Contemporary Issues in Technology & Teacher Education, 8(4), n.a.Gibson, D. (2010). Assessment and digital media learning: prezi.com.Holland, J. (1995). Hidden order: How adaptation builds complexity. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Clinton, K., Weigel, M., & Robison, A. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st Century [Electronic Version]. New Media Literacies Project, 72. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from http://www.newmedialiteracies.org/files/working/NMLWhitePaper.pdf
  23. 23. Game Changers for Teacher Education 11Kauffman, S. (2000). Investigations. New York: Oxford University Press.Kauffman, S. (2010). Reinventing the sacred: A new view of science, reason, and religion. New York: Basic Books.Kelly, M. (2010). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): A Content Analysis of 2006-2009 Print Journal Articles. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2010, San Diego: CA.Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd edition).Lemke, J., & Sabelli, N. (2008). Complex systems and educational change: Towards a new research agenda. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 40(1), 118-129.Manning, P. K. (1995). The challenges of postmodernism. In In J Van Maanen (Ed) Representation in ethnography Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.McLaughlin, M. W. (1987). Learning from experience: Lessons from policy implementation. In Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Vol 9, No 2 pp 171 -178.McNeill, W. (1998). History and the scientific worldview. Hisotry and Theory, 37(1), 1-13.Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.Morgan, P. (1995). Reconceiving the foundations of education: An ecological model. In F. Margonis (Ed.), Philosophy of education (Yearbook). Urbana-Champaign, IL: Philosophy of Education Society.Newman, D. V. (1996). Emergence and strange attractors. Philosophy of Science, 63(2), 245-261.Patton, M. (2011). Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5).Prigogine, I. (1996). The end of certainty: Time, chaos, and the new laws of nature.Putnam, H. (1992). Renewing philosophy.Radzicki, M. J. (2003). Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Forrester, and a Foundation for Evolutionary Economics. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(1), 133-173.Senge, P., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R., & Smith, B. (1994). The fifth discipline fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learning organization. New York, NY: Currency Doubleday.Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. NewYork: Doubleday.Siemans, G. (2011) Elaernspace: What are Learning nalytics? retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.elearnspace.org/ blog/2010/08/25/what-are-learning-analytics/.Tetenbaum, T. J. (1998). Shifting paradigms: from Newton to chaos. Organizational Dynamics, 26(4), 21-32.Thagard, P. (2000). Coherence in thought and action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Wicks, D. (1998). Organizational structures as recursively constructed systems of agency and constraint: compliance and resistance in the context of structural conditions. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology v35(3), 369-390.You, Y. (1993). What can we learn from chaos theory? An alternative approach to instructional systems design. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 41 (3), 17-32.Zimmerman, D. (1995). A systems approach to assessing school culture. In In Assessment in the learning organization: Shifting the paradigm Costa, A and Kallick, B (eds) Alexandria, VA: Association for supervision and curriculum development.
  24. 24. Developing a HEAT Framework for Assessing and Improving Instruction 13 Developing a HEAT Framework for Assessing and Improving Instruction Marge Maxwell Western Kentucky University, USA marge.maxwell@wku.edu Matthew Constant Davies County Schools, USA matthew.constant@daviess.kyschools.us Rebecca Stobaugh and Janet Tassell Western Kentucky University, USA rebecca.stobaugh@wku.edu janet.tassell@wku.edu Abstract: Higher-order thinking, Engaged Learning, Authentic Learning, and Technology integration combine to form HEAT to boost the rigor of instruction to impact K-12 student learning. Through thorough examination of current research on each component, a HEAT Framework or instrument was developed for the purpose of assessing instruction and lesson plans of pre-service and advanced teacher education students. This article presents the theoretical background for the instrument as well as discussion of the levels and approaches for using the instrument.Introduction The trend of educational technology use is supplemental and often solely used for getting the attentionof students. While teachers feel required to use technology due to state teacher standards, the technology use isdispensable. Similarly, as a need to satisfy university teaching standards, college instructors are perpetuating thisproblem by requiring technology to be “somewhere” in the lesson plans, not realizing that they are contributing tothe trend. The International Society for Technology Education standards for Teachers (ISTE, 2008) and for Students(ISTE, 2007) advocate for a holistic and comprehensive approach to technology integration. Technology should beindispensable and inseparable from higher-order thinking, authenticity, and engagement in designing instruction. The researchers believe in the potential to improve K-12 student performance through targeted levels ofinstructional design by pre-service and advanced teachers. One vehicle to infuse this potential is through thedevelopment of the HEAT Framework. (See Table 1.) The researchers use this instrument in scoring lesson plansdeveloped by pre-service and advanced teacher education students at a southeastern university. The assertion is thatas teachers design lessons at higher HEAT levels, higher K-12 student performance can be achieved. The HEATFramework was originally based upon work by Moersch (2002) and expanded by the researchers using more currentresearch studies. The HEAT instrument consists of six levels of performance for each component: Higher-orderthinking, Engaged learning, Authentic learning, and Technology integration (see Table 1 for HEAT Framework). Thefollowing section describes the research and theoretical background of each component of the HEAT Framework.
  25. 25. 14 Maxwell, Constant, Stobaugh, and Janet Tassell HEAT Levels Higher-Order Engaged Learning Authentic Learning Technology Integration Thinking Level 0 ✤ Lecture; Students ✤ Teacher directed ✤ No connection to real ✤ No technology use is evident by students Non-Use ✤ Taking notes only completely world or teacher ✤ No questions asked ✤ No student interaction Level 1 ✤ Students learning ✤ Students report facts they ✤ Non-relevant ✤ Teacher uses technology for demonstration Awareness at Remembering have learned on tests problems using or lecture and Understanding or questions posed by textbook/ worksheets ✤ Minimal or no student technology use Lower-order ThinkingÜ level of Bloom’s teacher ✤ Short one-method/ Taxonomy ✤ One single correct one-answer problems answer Level 2 ✤ Students learning at ✤ Students are engaged in ✤ Learning experiences ✤ Students technology use for lower-order Application Applying level of a task or activity directed use real world objects thinking tasks Bloom’s Taxonomy by the teacher or topics and provide ✤ Teacher questioning ✤ Multiple solutions some application to accepted real world Level 3 ✤ Students learning ✤ Student choice for ✤ Learning may be ✤ Technology use appears to be an add- ÛHigher-order Thinking Exploration at an Analyzing, projects or to solve a relevant to the real on or alternative—not essential for task Teacher-directedÜ Evaluating, or problem posed by teacher world or the past completion Creating levels of ✤ Students are engaged ✤ Learning occurs in a ✤ Technology is used for higher-order Bloom’s Taxonomy in projects based on simulated real-world thinking tasks such as analysis and ✤ Teacher-directed preferred learning styles, situation such as a decision-making. questioning and interests or passions class store instruction ✤ Multiple instructional strategies Level 4 ✤ Student-generated ✤ Students partner with the ✤ The learning ✤ Technology use is integrated and essential ÛStudent-directed Integration questions/projects teacher to help define experience provides to task completion at Analyzing, the task, process, and/or real world tasks ✤ Technology use promotes collaboration Evaluating, or solution which can be among students for planning, Creating levels of ✤ Problem solving based integrated across implementing, and/or evaluating their Bloom’s Taxonomy on student questions subject areas work. ✤ Multiple indicators ✤ Students partner with ✤ Learning has a ✤ Technology is used as a tool to help of learning other students to classroom or school students identify and solve higher-order collaborate on learning emphasis and impact thinking, authentic problems relating to an projects overall theme/concept. Level 5 ✤ Student learning/ ✤ Students partner with the ✤ The learner ✤ Technology use is directly connected to Expansion questioning teacher to help define the experiences the real task completion involving one or more at Analyzing, task, the process, and/or world; opportunity to applications Evaluating, or the solution apply their learning to ✤ Technology extends the classroom by Creating level of ✤ Students partner with a real world current expanding student experiences and Bloom’s Taxonomy local community/field issue collaboration beyond the school to the ✤ Complex thinking experts on learning ✤ Authentic assessment; local community. involves extensive projects Access to expert ✤ Technology supports collaboration, higher- non-linear ✤ Opportunity to express thinking and order thinking, and productivity. problem solving, different points of view modeling processes decision making, ✤ Mutual feedback between ✤ Local or community experimental teacher and student emphasis and makes a inquiry and positive impact investigation over ✤ Student beginning time to think like a field expert or discipline Level 6 ✤ Student learning/ ✤ Students partner with the ✤ The learner ✤ Technology use is directly connected and Refinement questioning teacher to help define the experiences and needed for task completion and students at Analyzing, task, the process, and the makes a positive determine which application(s) would best Evaluating, or solution impact on real, global address their needs Creating level of ✤ Students partner with issues and events. ✤ Technology is a seamless tool used by Bloom’s Taxonomy global experts on ✤ Student produce students through their own initiative to find ✤ Complex, open- learning projects on products like a field solutions related to an identified “real” ended learning global issues expert global problem or issue of significance to environment ✤ Student-designed them. problem-solving and ✤ Technology provides a seamless medium issues resolution are the for information queries, problem solving, norm and/or product development.
  26. 26. Developing a HEAT Framework for Assessing and Improving Instruction 15HEAT FrameworkHigher-Order Thinking There is great emphasis in today’s 21st-century landscapes for problem solving and open-ended challenges.Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) define higher-order thinking as “the mental processes that allow students to developfactual, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge within the creative and critical domains.” Bloom (1956) providedthe firm teaching and learning foundation from which most classrooms continue to operate. Defining and quantifyinglevels of student thinking, Bloom (1956) identifies Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis,and Evaluation levels. The model is designed to allow for foundational knowledge (knowledge and comprehension)in order to apply higher levels of thinking (Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation) which integrate amongand across content areas. Krathwohl (2002) recognizes the 21st-century need to better identify teaching strategiesthat may further engage learners thereby producing higher-level thinkers. Based on his researched observations,cognitive processes are better defined and observable based upon an expansion of Bloom’s work. The updated levels,then, include: Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating (Krathwohl 2002). Theproposed HEAT instrument focuses on the aggregate effect of the four variables (higher-order thinking, engagement,authenticity, and technology) to primarily focus on the Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating levels of the RevisedBloom’s Taxonomy (Krathwohl 2002). The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy’s most notable difference from the original Bloom’s Taxonomy lieswithin the complexity of each cognitive level. In effect, the revised taxonomy moves into a two-dimensional model,whereby more specific types of knowledge, for instance, are identified and observed (Krathwohl, 2002). In the revisedtaxonomy, knowledge is specified by factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive. As teachers plan lessons, thisKnowledge level is identified and subsequently charted against the higher levels of the revised taxonomy. Kreitzer(1994) and his associates argue that there are more demands of knowledge than other levels might involve and thusmust be delineated for the teacher.  As the taxonomy further evolved, a cognitive process domain became moreaccepted for use. The Knowledge level, then, was replaced by Remembering and Understanding. Krathwohl (2002)and his colleagues believed this better described and captured students’ initial thinking processes. The Applying levelremained with subdomains of executing and implementing.  Analyzing, then, was described as breaking material intoconstituent parts and could be thought of in terms of differentiating, organizing, or attributing. Krathwohl (2002)also interchanged the original taxonomy Synthesis and Evaluation, and ultimately changed Evaluation to Creating.Evaluating, or making judgments based on criteria and standards, could be considered as checking or critiquing. TheCreating level, according to Krathwohl et. al (2002), replaced the original taxonomy level of Evaluation and added anoriginal student product or thought by generating, planning, and producing. Liu Ru-De (2010) investigated the importance of companion resources in accommodating and leveraginghigher-order thinking. Her study looked at the construction of word problems along with the availability of datacollection software that also prompted and guided users (through feedback, tutoring, and reflection prompts). Studentswho were able to understand at a deep level were able to construct their own rationalizations, explanations, andextrapolations (Ru-De, 2010). Supporting a complete and radical change of today’s traditional education system,Ru-De (2010) believes reform steeped in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) will lead to knowledgecreation and innovation, the top levels of thinking. In Marzano’s exploration about delivering high-quality teaching and learning in the 21st-century classroom,cognitive thinking skills were identified and codified into writing techniques, thinking techniques, and generalinformation processing strategies. Marzano reported positive results when coaching students to make inferences aboutprocesses. Inferential methods are routinely skipped or ignored by classroom teachers but are the foundation forhigher-order thinking processes (Marzano, 2010). The learning target or objective of a lesson can be raised to higherlevels of cognitive thinking. As teachers raise the learning target of a particular lesson, it can be argued that instructionhas improved. When objectives, activities, and assessments are properly aligned at higher levels of cognitive thinking,not only has instruction improved but also student learning improves (Raths, 2002).
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