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Migrant Workers Safety Manual in Construction

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Migrant Workers Safety Manual in Construction by KOSHA(English)

Migrant Workers Safety Manual in Construction by KOSHA(English)

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  • 1. No entry No pedestrians No vehicle allowed No use No ride No goods transport No Smoking No open fire allowed Warning: Flammable material Warning: Oxidizing Warning: Explosive Warning: Acute toxic Warning: Corrosive Warning: Warning: high- Warning: Hanging Warning: Falling Warning: High Radioactive tension electricity objects objects temperature Warning: Carcinogen, Mutagen, Warning: Low Warning: Loss of Warning: Laser rays Reproduction toxicant, Systemic toxic Warning: temperature body balance agents, Respiratory senvsitizers Hazardous site Wear eye protection Wear respiratory Wear dustproof Wear face Wear head protection mask protection protection Wear ear protection Wear foot Wear hand Wear protective protection protection clothing Emergency relief Green Cross sign sign Stretcher Eyewash Exit Emergency exit on Emergency exit on the left the right
  • 2. www.kosha.or.kr Chapter 1 Current Situations on Accidents Involving Foreign Construction Laborers 02 Chapter 2 Understanding the Risk Assessment 08 1. The Purpose of Risk Assessment 08 2. Definitions 08 3. The Importance of Risk Assessment 10 4. When Risk Assessment Is Required 10 5. Considerations during Risk Assessment 12 6. Risk Assessment Procedures and Flow by Stage 12 7. Review and Report of Risk Assessment Validity 18 8. Monitoring Risk Assessment Results 18 Chapter 3 Disaster Prevention by Work Type 22 1. Scaffolds 22 2. Scaffolding 50 3. Reinforcing Rods 60 4. Concrete 72 5. Steel Frame 90 6. Bricklaying and Plastering (Polishing) 104 7. Painting 122 Chapter 4 Prevention of Occupational Diseases 138 1. What is Occupation Disease? 138 2. Prevention of Occurrence of Occupational Diseases 138
  • 3. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Construction Laborers Industry English English 01 Current Situations on Accidents Involving Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 4. Chapter 1 Current Statistics on Accidents Involving Foreign Construction Laborers Korea has become a foreign labor force import power with the advancement of its economic infrastructure since the late-1980's. This phenomenon first appeared in 1989. With the Summer Olympics in 1988, Korea became known in third world countries as a wealthy country, thus increasing the foreign laborer entry into Korea. Foreign Laborer [Figure 1.1] Employment of Foreign Laborers by Year (Ministry of Justice) However, foreign laborers currently employed in Korea mostly work in labor- intensive areas such as textile manufacturing, rubber/plastic manufacturing, furniture manufacturing, automobile/trailer and other machinery/equipment manufacturing, which all suffer from a severe shortage of production staff. Therefore foreign laborers are highly susceptible to work-related accidents in these dangerous and laborious 3D industries with poor work environments. Aside from the mining industry, the casualty ratio per thousand persons, the frequency ratio of labor accidents, and the intensity ratio of labor accidents are the highest in the manufacturing and construction industry. Industrial disaster cases involving foreign laborers in the construction industry in 2006 shows that 387 out of 17,956 persons (2.1%) were involved 2008 958 20,835 4.6 in an accident, and 32 out of 690 persons (5.1%) were killed. Death and 62 632 9.0 accident prevention for foreign construction laborers is desperately needed. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 5. <Table 1.1> Accidents involving foreign laborers by year(Based on industry estate Statistics) Category Total 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Construction Industry Total 92,403 18,896 15,918 17,956 18,798 20,835 Injured Number of Foreign Laborers 2,610 395 283 387 587 958 Foreigner Ratio(%) 2.82 2.1 1.8 2.1 3.1 4.6 Construction Industry Total 3,361 779 609 632 651 690 Deceased Number of Foreign Laborers 199 34 34 32 37 62 Foreigner Ratio(%) 5.92 4.4 5.6 5.1 5.7 9.0 As a result, in order to secure the reliability of the data, we seek to prevent the recurrence of these accidents by analyzing the source of disasters. The analysis is based on 110 cases of construction site accidents involving foreign 159 laborers as reported in the Report of Support for Investigation of Major Disasters by the industrial estate.(2004~2008). [Figure 1.2] Major disaster occurrence by work type According to the analysis, major disasters most frequently occurred during frame construction operations including form operations, reinforcing rod operations, and concrete operations. The next most frequent was in finishing operations (painting, waterproofing, plastering) and steel frame operations. Therefore, we seek to prevent disasters involving foreign laborers in these particular vocations by presenting risk assessment methods, case studies and counter measures. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 6. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Construction Laborers Industry English English 02 Understanding the 1. The Purpose of Risk Assessment 08 Risk Assessment 2. Definitions 08 3. The Importance of Risk Assessment 10 4. When Risk Assessment Is Required 10 5. Considerations during Risk Assessment 12 6. Risk Assessment Procedures and Flow by Stage 12 7. Review and Report of Risk Assessment Validity 18 8. Monitoring Risk Assessment Results 18
  • 7. Chapter 2 Understanding the Risk Assessment 1. The Purpose of Risk Assessment Potential risks in construction work must be systematically identified and the size of the danger assessed. Then, hazards which exceed the acceptable range must undergo improvement. The purpose of risk assessment is to provide technical items in establishing a risk assessment system which controls the acceptable danger level, thus preventing industrial disasters. 2. Definitions (1) Incident An undesirable event in which a risk develops, or could have developed, into an accident which causes personal and/or material loss such as injury, disease, and property damage. This includes near accidents which did not cause any personal or material loss. (2) Accident Caused by the failure to fundamentally remove a hazard and being exposed to a danger which leads to an undesirable result. It is an unforeseen event and phenomenon which causes death, injury, disease, or other financial loss. (3) Hazard Potential harmful/danger factor which contains a factor (element) or combined factors (elements) which cause personal casualty, material loss, or environmental damage. Requires a stimulus to develop into an accident. Such stimulus can include mechanical malfunction, system condition, and human factor, and can have physical, chemical, biological, psychological, or behavioral causes. (4) Hazard Identification Identification of physical and chemical factors with potential danger within a system which may cause personal casualty, environmental and/or property damage. (5) Danger A state of exposure against a hazard Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 8. (6) Risk Refers to the severity or the degree of danger. When a certain hazard is exposed in a dangerous situation, the combination of the possibility (frequency) of such a hazard developing into a certain incident and the significance of its result (severity of damage) is called a risk. (7) Risk Assessment Scientific and systematic danger evaluation method which assesses the risk of a potential hazard developing into an accident (that is, the frequency and the severity of loss). When a risk exceeds the acceptable range, risk reduction measures are formulated and the risk level is brought down to an acceptable range. (8) Acceptable Risk A risk which is below the acceptable level of risk previously decided in accordance with the safety requirements of the law and the system. (9) Safety Although this can be defined as the absence of hazard, this is realistically impossible at a construction site and in a construction system. Therefore, Safety can be realistically defined as the management of the potential risk of a hazard to an acceptable level. 3. The Importance of Risk Assessment (1) Fortified preventive measures against accident or health damage (2) Potential accident or disaster predicted (3) Efficient safety management made possible (4) Site-oriented safety management system established 4. When Risk Assessment Is Required (1) Prior to starting a new job (2) When work operation needs to change (3) When new work method or material is employed (4) When periodically reviewing the risk level of a previous type of work (5) When a major accident or disaster occurs Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 9. 5. Considerations during Risk Assessment (1) In order to account for every risk at a work site, an assessment target list should be established beforehand, and all unsafe conditions, actions, and management practices from each target must be assessed. (2) Assessment performed only by the supervisor can be inadequate. Therefore, when putting together an assessment team, a worker who is directly exposed to danger at the work site must be included. (3) A hazard identification process can be done by a brainstorming session of team members. However, in order to reflect the experience of a near accident or close call, in particular, by a laborer who is directly exposed to the danger, a near accident report must be generated. (4) The frequency (possibility of occurrence) and the intensity (significance of accident or severity of loss) as well as the acceptable risk level must be pre-determined by the risk assessment team according to the size of the work site and the type of work being performed. (5) All data related to danger of the organization must be provided to the assessors. When there is insufficient amount of data for the assessment, expert advice must be obtained. (6) Risk reduction measures must be formulated in such a way that the danger level is maintained As Low As Reasonably Practical (ALARP) after taking into account the technical and economical efficiency. 6. Risk Assessment Procedures and Flow by Stage Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 10. (1) Stage 1: Selecting assessment target operation Assessment target is categorized by work type, and then selected. - Assessment target operation is divided into work units. Risk assessment is performed on each work unit. When assessment target operation is decided according to work flow, assessment target and range are established. Data regarding safety issues of risk assessment target operation is researched in advance (2) Stage 2: Hazard Identification Hazard from unsafe manoeuvres by laborer identified Hazards from employed material and substance identified Hazard from work methods identified Hazard from machinery/equipment in operation identified (3) Stage 3: Risk calculation (prediction) The frequency (possibility of occurrence) and the intensity (significance of accident or severity of loss) of the danger/hazard developing into accident are categorized into levels. Risk (severity of danger) is calculated by combining these two factors. Risk (severity of danger) level regarding each hazard is decided by combining frequency and intensity level. (4) Stage 4: Risk assessment Risk level is evaluated according to the risk value of each harmful/danger factor attained in stage 3 Risk level and management standards are determined according to assessed risk - Level is determined by relative comparison of work unit risk within assessment target operation - Management standards may vary due to work site particulars Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 11. Risk level defined Management standard by risk grade (5) Stage 5: Formulating Improvement Measure For serious risks, detailed risk reduction measures must be established and employed so that the risk level is brought down to the acceptable range. For each hazard, new risk reduction measures must be established within the current safety measures and inserted into the improved measures. When employing improved safety measures for each hazard, post- assessment must take place to evaluate the degree of risk reduction. Risk level after employing the improved safety measures must be within the acceptable range. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 12. 7. Review and Report of Risk Assessment Validity (1) Reviewing Risk Assessment Validity The risk reduction measures attained through the 5-stage risk assessment must undergo a final review for effectiveness. The following must be considered. Has the risk reduction measure take into account technical efficiency? Is the danger level As Low As Reasonably Practical (ALARP)? Are the procedural steps appropriately prioritized? Will it incur any new risks? Is the risk level reduced to an acceptable range after executing the risk reduction measures? (2) Reporting Assessment Results The risk assessment result which includes the final draft of the risk reduction measures must be reported to management, and the risk reduction measures must be taken by both the laborers and the company. 8. Monitoring Risk Assessment Results (1) For each type of work, any significant dangers must be recorded and carefully managed at all times. (2) Laborers must be notified of risk assessment results including risk reduction measures. Any potential hazard for which further risk reduction is impossible must be jointly recognized by the laborers and the company. (3) After employing risk reduction measures, disaster reduction and production improvement must be periodically monitored and evaluated. Its result must be reflected in the following year's business plan along with a disaster reduction goal for continuing improvement. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 13. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Construction Laborers Industry English English 03 Disaster Prevention 1. Scaffolds 22 by Work Type 2. Scaffolding 50 3. Reinforcing Rods 60 4. Concrete 72 5. Steel Frame 90 6. Bricklaying and Plastering (Polishing) 104 7. Painting 122
  • 14. Chapter 3 Disaster Prevention by Work Type 1. Forms (1) Disaster frequency and intensity by work unit (2) Illustration Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 15. (3) Risk assessment Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 16. Case 1 Falling During Slab Floor Form Installation Overview While installing plywood on the floor joist material for floor slab form installation, part of the plywood gives in, causing the laborer death after a 2.95 fall. Illustration Safety Prepare form and timber assembly drawing Measures - When installing form and timbers, their structure shall be inspected, and an assembly drawing prepared of a stable structure which specifies material quality, cross-section dimension, spacing, and the connection method of framework members such as timber, yoke, and floor joists. Assembly/installation shall be performed according to the assembly drawing. Use proper floor joist material - For floor joist material of slab floor form installation, the use of scaffold iron round pipes shall be prohibited. Square pipes or rectangular lumber which will not slip or roll shall be used instead. Hard hat mandatory - When wearing a hard hat, the chin strap shall be fastened so that the hat does not slip off. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 17. Case 2 Falling While Installing Forms On Scaffolding Overview While installing a form on a scaffolding with no foot support at a new commercial building construction site, the laborer loses his balance, falls from a height of 8.5 m and dies. Illustration Safety Install scaffolds Measures - When working at a height of 2 m or more on an external scaffolding, a scaffold whose width is 40 cm or more shall be installed to prevent falling. Personal protective equipment mandatory - When working on scaffolding where the risk of falling is high, safety harnesses and hard hats shall be provided/worn with strict supervision to prevent falling accidents. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 18. Case 3 Falling During Beam Form Assembly Preparation Work Overview At a new church construction site, the victim climbs a wall form made of euro form to install a beam form on the previously installed wall form. While turning in the direction of assembly, he loses his balance, falls from a height of 3.7 m and dies. Illustration Safety Install scaffolds appropriate to the work environment Measures - When assembling beam forms at a height of 2 m or more, if the installation of scaffolds such as double row staging is not feasible due to the work conditions, scaffolds such as a mobile rolling tower shall be installed. Personal protective equipment mandatory - When working in an environment with a risk of falling, hard hats shall be worn. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 19. Case 4 Falling During Form Assembly In Stairways Overview At a form assembly site in a stairway, a two pipe support is horizontally placed against the wall. The laborer moves along the pipe to assemble the horizontal member on the interior wall form. He falls from a height of 1.84 m and dies. Illustration Safety Scaffold installation mandatory Measures - When working in an environment with a risk of falling, scaffolding shall be assembled considers the shape of the structure and risk of accidents. Either a scaffold with a minimum width of 40 cm made of a material such as lightweight aluminum shall be installed or a mobile rolling tower shall be used. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 20. Case 5 Falling During Retaining Wall Form Assembly Overview At an LPG charging station construction site, the laborer loses his balance while pulling on the form tie bolt to assemble a retaining wall form. He falls from a height of 2.2 m and dies. Illustration Safety Install guardrails - Sturdy guardrails shall be installed when there is a risk of Measures falling at the end of a scaffold at a height of 2 m or more. Guardrail structure Upper rail : Between 90 cm and 120 cm from the floor/foot support or the slope. Middle rail : Installed between the upper rail and the floor/foot support or the slope Railing post : Installed with spacing that stabley supports the upper and the middle rail. Railing material : A metallic pipe (or stronger) with a minimum diameter of 2.7 cm. Guardrail : A sturdy structure that can endure a load of 100 kg or more moving from any given point in any given direction. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 21. Falling During Frameworking At the Upper Case 6 Section of System Support Overview During the frameworking process, at a bioreactor girder, the laborer loses his balance while installing a yoke on the U- head of the upper section of a system support. He takes a 6.2 m fall from the upper section of the system support and dies. Illustration Safety When installing a form such as a yoke at the upper section Measures of a system support where there is a risk of falling, a scaffold shall be installed to prevent falling accidents. When this is not feasible, mounted equipment shall be separately installed and a harness worn before starting the job. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 22. Case 7 Falling During Form Removal On a Balcony Overview At a multigenerational housing construction site, the victim loses his balance during form removal and falls from the balcony. He dies after falling from a height of 5.2 m. Illustration Safety Install guardrails Measures - When performing form removal and other operations on a balcony where there is a high risk of falling, guardrails shall be installed on the slab platform. Personal protective equipment mandatory - When working in an environment where there is a risk of falling, the wearing of a hard hat with the chin strap fastened shall be strictly supervised. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 23. Case 8 Falling From External Scaffolding During Form Removal Overview While removing euro form fixing pins to remove forms, a laborer falls from a double row staging at a height of 6 m and dies. Illustration Safety Scaffold installation mandatory Measures - When removing forms on external scaffolding at a height of 2 m or more, a sturdy scaffold that can support the load (weight of the laborer + weight of the material) shall be installed. The minimum width shall be 40 cm and the maximum spacing between scaffolds 3 cm. Safety harness mandatory - A laborer who works on high places shall attach the safety harness to the mounted equipment at all times during work. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 24. Case 9 Falling From Scaffolding During Form Removal Overview At a cafeteria extension (and other construction) site, a worker loses his balance from a double row staging while using a lever to remove exterior wall forms. He falls from a height of 6.2 m and dies. Illustration Safety The business owner shall install guardrails on the ends of a Measures scaffold where the laborer has the risk of falling. Guardrail installation standards Install the upper rail at a height of 90~120 cm. Install the middle rail in the middle section. Must be able to endure an external force from 100 kg or more. Install a foot guard that is 10 cm or higher at the lower section of the rails. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 25. Case 10 Falling While Moving Material From Beam Form Overview At an army barracks headquarter slab form assembly, a laborer takes square pipes for a floor joist that a fellow worker passes to him and piles them on the slab. While doing this he falls from a height of 3.3 m and dies. Illustration Safety Employ strict fall prevention measures Measures - If there is a risk of falling when working at a height of 2 m or more, fall prevention measures such as scaffold installation shall be employed. If this is not feasible, a mounted equipment shall be installed and the harness worn before starting work. Improve material transfer methods - When transferring material to the top of a slab, materials such as plywood and rectangular lumber shall be piled on the slab after transfer. Material transfer machinery such as a mobile tower crane shall be used whenever possible. When working at the end of a floor where temporary structures such as external scaffolding are not yet in place, a safety harness shall be worn before starting work. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 26. Case 11 Falling From Roof Floor Form During Material Transfer Overview While receiving rectangular lumber bundles from a mobile crane on the roof floor form, a laborer attempts to avoid a bundle coming his way. He trips backwards on a rectangular lumber, falls from a height of 3.3 m and dies. Illustration Safety Install mounted equipment Measures - When working near an opening of a floor slab form (an unstable temporary structure) where there is a high risk of falling, mounted equipment shall be installed in advance so the laborer may put on the harness before starting the job. Strict supervision over providing and wearing safety harness - When working at a height of 2 m or more, strict supervision will be provided to ensure that safety harnesses are provided to the laborer and harnesses are worn while working. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 27. Form Falling During Form Transfer Case 12 Due To a Broken Wire Rope Overview While turning the boom of a jib crane with the form panel to be used as an elevator shaft wall form, the wire rope snaps and the panel falls on a labourer who is assembling forms on a mobile scaffolding. Illustration Safety Strictly inspect and replace wire rope before starting the job. Measures - When handling/transporting loads using a wire rope, the wire rope shall be strictly inspected for any damage, bearable weight, fastening method, fastening condition, and appropriateness for the work environment. Wire ropes shall be periodically replaced to remove any potential for failure. Strictly prohibit laborer presence within range of crane operation - Crane danger radius will be established to avoid the failure of a hook wire rope when transferring heavy loads such as forms. Work shall be stopped during transfer and resumed after the transfer has finished. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 28. 2. Scaffolding (1) Disaster frequency and intensity by work unit (2) Illustration Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 29. (3) Risk assessment Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 30. Scaffolding Topples When Lowered to Slab Case 1 for Assembly Overview A transferred scaffolding could not be assembled. The scaffolding is taken to the upper slab of the underground parking area for assembly. As the scaffolding is lowered onto the slab, the hooks on the chain block slip off of the scaffolding hooks. The scaffolding topples over and falls on top of a laborer who was signalling. He is fatally injured Illustration Safety Install hook removal device Measures - Hooks with removal devices shall be used to prevent transfer hooks from slipping if hooks are used on the transfer hooks, while transferring scaffolding using a lifter like a tower crane. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 31. Laborer Falls While Moving Horizontally Case 2 Into Gangform Overview A worker moves vertically from an apartment window into the scaffolding for vertical adjustment after its installation. He loses his balance and falls from a height of 9.1 m and dies. Illustration Safety Work methods shall be improved by using an entryway (a Measures hinged door to be installed) in the center of the scaffold inside the gang form. The laborer shall move vertically using this entryway and secure the wire rope and the turn buckle on the slab anchor When moving vertically and horizontally inside the scaffolding, a safety harness shall be attached to objects such as square pipes used to support the scaffolding. (A vertical safety net shall be installed on the scaffolding opening.) Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 32. Laborer Falls With Scaffolding During Case 3 Scaffolding Removal Overview A worker removes a form tie bolt with the stairway wall gang form unattached to the tower crane at an apartment building construction site. The scaffolding pulls away from the surface of the building. The laborer falls with it from a height of 44 m and dies. Illustration Safety Comply with operation procedures Measures - During scaffolding removal/transfer, form tie bolts shall be removed with the transfer hook of the scaffolding fixed against a lifter such as a tower crane. - Scaffolding removal shall take place once a sufficient curing period has passed after the concrete placement. - Determine the removal order and operation methods by sections and members. Once this is done, supervisors will oversee laborers and the lifter operation. - A restricted access area under the scaffolding should be designated when transferring scaffolding. Monitors shall supervise the area to restrict worker access.. - When transferring scaffolding, laborers shall be prohibited from entering the cage (detachable scaffold). Rocking of the scaffolding shall be minimized by using a secondary rope when a tower crane is used. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 33. 3. Re-bars (1) Disaster frequency and intensity by work unit (2) Illustration Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 34. (3) Risk assessment Reinforcing rod transport Processing and transport Reinforcing rod assembly Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 35. Case 1 Binding Wire Failure During Transfer Overview Re-bars on the truck are handled with a mobile crane. The wire breaks while raising the re-bars with a binding wire to be placed on the hauler rope. The load falls and strikes a laborer who was installing wooden props on the cage, killing him in the process. Illustration Safety Improve operation methods Measures - When installing wooden props for transferring heavy loads such as re-bars, directly attachment of the shackle on the binding wire shall be prohibited. The load shall be lifted only as high as wooden props can be installed. The operation shall be carried out in order. That is, one side shall be lifted for installation of the wooden props and then the other side lifted for installation. Appoint operation supervisor - When handling heavy loads, a supervisor shall be appointed to determine operation procedures and oversee the process. Prepare work plans - When handling heavy loads, a work plan shall be prepared concerning the order of work and operation procedures. All applicable laborers shall be instructed in the work plan. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 36. Case 2 Re-bars Fall During Transfer Overview The binding wire(#6) was temporarily attached to the sling belt shackle of the tower crane, lifting the re-bars. The wire breaks at the height of about 1.7 m. The load falls and strikes a worker, killing him in the process. Illustration Safety Prepare work plans Measures - When handling heavy loads, the type and shape of the load, the operation environment, and the terrain shall be investigated. A work plan will be established and prepared that details proper handling methods and operation procedures. Appoint an operation supervisor - When handling heavy loads of 100 kg or more like a re- bar bundle, a supervisor shall be appointed. The supervisor shall oversee the activity by determining operation procedures. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 37. Case 3 Form Collapses When Piling Re-bars Overview At a church extension construction site, a worker lowers re- bar bundles on the form for assembly. The beam form and the slab form collapses and the victim falls from a height of 7.5 m and dies. Illustration Safety Take safety measures on frame work members such as Measures form timbers - When assembling forms, take the necessary safety measures. These measures include placing support beams so that the forms do not fall over. (When the structure puts the weight of the slab on the side panel of the beam (as in horizontal beams), tools such as form ties shall be used to secure the space between two side panels before piling heavy loads.) Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 38. Re-bars Collapse During Wall Re-bars Assembly Case 4 Due To External Shock Overview A worker assembles spacers between vertical re-bars of a retaining wall at a road pavement/extension construction site. External force from the operation causes the re-bars to collapse. The re-bars crush the victim, killing him in the process. Illustration Safety Take strict collapse prevention measures when assembling re-bars Measures - X-Bracing and horizontal re-bars shall be assembled first to secure the standing of the re-bars, preventing collapse. - When installing temporary structures for collapse prevention, steel pipes shall be used as horizontal framework members and tilted support beams fastened with a clamp at the joint. On the opposite side of the longitudinal gradient, an anchor shall be installed at the base (or the floor of a framework member nearby), and proper tension maintained in both directions at a regular interval by installing a wire rope (9~12 mm or more) and a turn buckle to prevent toppling. - During a re-bar operation in retaining walls where there is a risk of toppling, binding shall be rigidly distributed to every joint point. The taller the re-bars, the higher the center of gravity. Tall vertical re-bars are susceptible to toppling at the slightest impact. Therefore, when preparing a detailed drawing of re-bars, the re-bars shall be designed as short as possible. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 39. 4. Concrete (1) Disaster frequency and intensity by work unit (2) Illustration Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 40. (3) Risk assessment Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 41. Case 1 Getting Caught Between Ready Mixed Concrete Truck And Pump Truck Overview The assistant driver of the pump truck places slab concrete at a new elementary school construction site. The ready mixed concrete truck backs up down the slope. The driver gets caught between the truck and the delivery hose at the lower section of the pump truck hopper and dies. Illustration Safety Appoint a guide when operating vehicular transport Measures machinery - When working with vehicular transport machinery such as a ready mixed concrete truck, a guide shall be appointed and a pre-determined signal method used to keep laborers safe. Inspect vehicular transport machinery before operating, and take strict safety measures when parking on a slope - Perform a thorough inspection of the vehicle before operating. - When parking on a slope, take safety measures such as placing a wooden wedge under the wheels to prevent any accidents that can result from a brake failure. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 42. Getting Caught By Excavator Bucket During Case 2 Concrete Placement Overview At a burrow bit restoration construction site, a concrete floor for the retaining wall installation is being placed with the excavator bucket. When the operator attempts to re-align the excavator track, he gets caught under the bucket and dies. Illustration Safety Prohibit random use of heavy construction equipment Measures - When placing concrete, a pump truck shall be used instead of an excavator for the operation. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 43. Case 3 Falling During Concrete Placement Overview During the placement of a concrete slab, the laborer loses his balance. He falls from the platform at a height of 8.15 m and dies. Illustration Safety Follow strict fall prevention measures Measures - When placing concrete, sturdy guardrails shall be installed to prevent falling from the platform. · Upper rail : 90~120cm · Medium rail : Half-way between the upper rail and the floor surface · Foot guard : 10cm or taller from the floor surface · Diameter of the rail : Metallic pipe of 2.7 cm in diameter or larger. · Must be able to withstand a load of 100 kg or more. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 44. Collision With Broken Pump Truck Hose During Case 4 Concrete Placement Overview The tremie pipe and the concrete pump truck hose are connected while the concrete is delivered for a site placing pile. The pump truck hose breaks and fatally strikes a worker. Illustration Safety Thoroughly inspect construction equipment in Measures - When placing concrete with a concrete pump truck, the connecting hose shall be inspected for possible damage and/or change in condition. When there is a malfunction, the hose shall be immediately replaced. - Before placing concrete with a concrete pump car, the interior of the hose shall be thoroughly cleaned before use. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 45. Falling From Retaining Wall During Concrete Case 5 Placement Overview During concrete placement at the top of a retaining wall, the soil around the support beam of the concrete pump truck outrigger collapses. The end of the boom collides with the retaining wall form. The worker is killed after losing his balance and falling. Illustration Safety Abide by strict pump truck rollover prevention Measures procedures - When placing concrete, the soil shall be compacted or displaced to provide a firm place for the outrigger in order to prevent the pump truck from rolling over Adhere to strict fall prevention measures - If there is a risk of falling from the vibration of a hose when placing concrete, take the necessary steps such as installing guardrails to prevent falling. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 46. Case 6 Lumber Collapse During Concrete Placement Overview At a highway expansion construction site, laborers are placing concrete slabs. During this process, form timber collapses and 11 laborers are injured. Illustration Safety Thorough timber installation Measures - Fixing pins shall be installed at the upper and the lower joints of the pillar member. - Bracing shall be installed to prevent buckling. - The U-head, the yoke, and the floor joist material shall be connected. - Vibration shall be prevented by placing a wedge in the clearance between the U-head and the yoke. A yoke shall be installed in the middle of the U-head to vertically align the applied weight axis. Install special timber when slab thickness is 1 m - H-section timber support - Bent support - Load tower - The height of the timber shall be lowered by filling up the ground with hard packed soil. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 47. Case 7 Colliding With Concrete Pump Truck Backing Up Overview At a drainage improvement construction site, the concrete pump truck finishes placing the drainage base concrete. The pump truck backs up on the temporary road and runs into a worker, killing him in the process. Illustration Safety Follow strict collision prevention measures Measures - When backing up construction machinery like a concrete pump truck, laborer access shall be restricted in a zone with a risk of collision. A guide shall also be provided. Prepare detailed instructions - When working with construction machinery, instructions shall be established that account for the type of vehicle being used, its route, intended use and method of operation. Laborers shall be notified before starting the job. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 48. 5. Steel Frame (1) Disaster frequency and intensity by work unit (2) Illustration Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 49. (3) Risk assessment Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 50. Case 1 Falling During Steel Frame Transfer Overview The laborer teams up with a co-worker to transfer a steel frame to the roof. He attaches the wire rope to the steel frame on the truck cage and the frame is transferred. The laborer hangs onto the frame as it is being lifted, falls from a height of approximately 10 m and dies. Illustration Safety When handling a heavy load, a supervisor shall oversee the Measures process and determine the work flow and method. If the material being transferred is out of the operator's sight when using a crane, a signaling system shall be established and a signaler placed. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 51. Case 2 Steel Frame Collapse During Assembly Overview While installing a steel frame member to the vertical frame at a steel frame or reinforcing rod concrete construction site, a frame structure (width 26.9 m, height 23.8 m) collapses. Two steel frame workers fall, and nine framework workers on the ground floor are crushed by the framework that collapses due to the shock. One steel frame worker and two framework workers die while 8 laborers are injured. Illustration Safety When building structures such as steel frames, a sufficient Measures safety inspection shall be performed in advance to prevent potential collapse and overturning. A steel frame work plan shall then be prepared. Laborers shall be notified and the work performed in compliance with the work plan. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 52. Case 3 Falling From a Steel Frame Beam Overview While on a steel frame beam on the 7th floor, a worker secures and adjusts the transport path for a secondary beam that is transferred by the tower crane. He misses his footing, falls from a height of 10.3 m and dies. Illustration Safety Mounted equipment shall be installed while working at a Measures high altitude (as in steel frame operations) where there is a high risk of falling on the work site. Laborers shall wear a safety harness, and safety nets shall be installed at the lower section of the construction site. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 53. Case 4 Falling While Moving On a Steel Frame Beam Overview A laborer installs a steel arch for a storage building roof installation on a 9 m-high steel frame. He moves to the next row on the steel frame beam. He is killed after losing his balance and falling to the ground. Illustration Safety When moving or assembling on steel frames 2 m or higher, Measures a fixed temporary walkway shall be installed for safe passage of the laborer. Alternatively, mounted equipment shall be installed anda safety harness worn before moving or starting the job. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 54. Falling During Steel Frame Deck Plate Case 5 Installation At Golf Course Overview On a third floor steel frame beam, a worker signals the crane during a floor deck plate installation. The bundle slips off the steel frame beam and bounces towards the worker. The worker attempts to get out of the way, loses his balance and falls from a height of 8.7 m. He dies when he hits the ground. One other laborer is injured after his ankle is caught between the deck plate bundle and the steel frame beam. Illustration Safety A difficult scaffold installation is encountered before Measures installing the deck plates. Because of this there is a high risk of falling while moving on the steel frame or during material transfer. Therefore, safety nets and mounted equipment must be installed. The installation shall be carried out thoroughly to prevent slacking or unraveling of the equipment. A safety harness (such as the lightweight swing-type) shall be worn before starting the job. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 55. 6. Bricklaying And Plastering (Polishing) (1) Disaster frequency and intensity by work unit (2) Illustration Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 56. (3) Risk assessment Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 57. Falling From Scaffolding During Workplatform Case 1 Installation For Plastering Overview At a new courthouse construction site, a worker installs workplatforms on an outdoor scaffolding. The workplatform where the worker is standing falls off. He loses his balance, falls from a height of 11.6 m and dies. Illustration Safety Install sturdy workplatform Measures - When installing workplatforms, underfloor support beams such as single pipes shall be securely fixed to the scaffolding with clamps first. Employ strict fall prevention measures -When working on a scaffolding, safety nets shall be thoroughly installed between scaffolds, and between the scaffold and the exterior of the wall. When scaffolding installation is difficult, safety harness cables shall be installed and the harness worn. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 58. Falling While Moving On Scaffolding Case 2 During Polishing Overview The laborer works on polishing the exterior wall near the roof eaves. He moves on the scaffolding, falls from a height of 2.2 m and dies. Illustration Safety Thoroughly install workplatform (temporary walkway) Measures - When working or moving in a place where there is a risk of falling (as on a scaffold), a sturdy, near-gapless (gaps 3 cm or less) workplatform (temporary walkway) shall be installed. Wear personal protective equipment - When moving or working on an outdoor scaffold where there is a risk of falling, hard hats (with the chin strap fastened) and safety harnesses shall be worn. Supervisors shall strictly manage the proper use of personal protective equipment. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 59. Case 3 Falling During Apartment Balcony Polishing Overview At a new apartment construction site, the laborer polishes the ceiling of the balcony with a grinder. He stands on a workplatform on the anterior balcony on the 3rd floor. The laborer loses his balance and falls over the guardrail temporarily installed on the balcony platform. He falls at a height of 9.5 m and dies. Illustration Safety Employ strict fall prevention measures Measures - When working in a place such as a balcony platform where there is a risk of falling, a guardrail shall be installed with the upper rail height of 90 cm~120 cm, and the medium rail in the middle between the upper rail and the workplatform. - If guardrail installation is not feasible, strict danger precautions shall be observed by installing safety nets or wearing safety harnesses. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 60. Falling Into Opening During Plastering In Case 4 Apartment Stairway Overview While plastering in an apartment stairway landing, a laborer loses his balance and dies after falling through an outside opening at a height of 28 m. Illustration Safety Employ strict fall prevention measures Measures - When there is laborer traffic and work near a vertical opening (meant for windows) at a stairway landing, guardrails shall be installed to prevent falling. If the guardrails must be removed due to the work situation, safety harness cables shall be installed and harnesses worn before starting work. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 61. Falling While Plastering Tile Cement On Case 5 Scaffolding Overview During a tile cement plastering operation for artificial stones on the exterior wall of a building, a laborer falls from the scaffold platform at a height of 9 m and dies. Illustration Safety Employ strict fall prevention measures Measures - When working in a place that is 2 m or higher where there is a risk of falling, strict fall prevention measures shall be taken by installing guardrails or fences to prevent falling. When this is not feasible, laborers shall wear safety harnesses. Personal protective equipment (hard hats) mandatory - When working or moving in a place with a risk of accident such as falling, personal protective equipment such as hard hats shall be worn. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 62. Falling Due To Untying of Fiber Rope While Case 6 Polishing Apartment Side Wall Overview A plasterer prepares his tools on a hanging scaffold at an apartment building construction site. The hanging fiber rope comes undone. The laborer dies after falling from a height of 55 m. Illustration Safety Thoroughly inspect rope tie offs in advance when Measures working on hanging scaffold - Inspect how the hanging scaffold fiber rope is secured before starting the job. Safely secure the rope with an overhand knot at two possible anchors. When securing the rope, use reinforcing rods or fix the end of the rope with a clip. Thorough safety harness installation - When working on a hanging scaffold, safety devices such as a vertical lifeline shall be installed. Follow installation instructions carefully to ensure the lifeline functions properly. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 63. Case 7 Falling While Finishing Window Sill Plastering Overview At an apartment house repair construction site, the laborer installs workplatforms on a double row staging and does finishing work on the plastering. He loses his balance, falls from a height of 7.6 m and dies. Illustration Safety Employ strict fall prevention measures Measures - Fall prevention structures such as guardrails shall be installed on the workplatform before commencing work. Provide and wear personal protective equipment - When working in a place with a risk of falling, see to it that personal protective equipment such as hard hats and safety harnesses are provided and worn during operation. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 64. 7. Painting (1) Disaster frequency and intensity by work unit (2) Illustration Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 65. (3) Risk assessment Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 66. Case 1 Falling From Platform While Painting Overview While painting the ceiling with a paint roller in a factory walkway, the laborer loses his balance at the end of the walkway and falls. Illustration Safety Install guardrails Measures - Guardrails should be installed in a place like the end of a factory walkway where there is a risk of falling while working or moving. Wear personal protective equipment - A safety harness and a hard hat shall be provided to laborers who work in a place with a risk of falling. This equipment shall be worn while working. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 67. Falling From Hanging Scaffold While Painting Case 2 Exterior Wall Overview While painting the exterior wall on a hanging scaffold, the fiber rope attached to the roof railing comes undone and the laborer falls. Illustration Safety Secure and inspect fiber rope on hanging scaffolding Measures - When painting the exterior wall on hanging scaffolding, the fiber rope shall be secured on a sturdy structure so it does not come undone (such as using an overhand knot and securing the end with a clip). - When painting on hanging scaffold, inspect the way the rope is secured before starting the job. Install vertical lifeline and wear safety harness (fall prevention harness) - When painting on hanging scaffolding, a vertical lifeline should be installed in addition to the fiber rope. A safety harness (fall prevention harness) shall be mounted on the lifeline while working. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 68. Case 3 Falling From Movable Scaffolding While Painting Overview While painting the stage structures at a convention center main assembly hall construction site, a laborer loses his balance and falls from the 3-story movable scaffolding. Illustration Safety Comply with movable scaffolding (B/T) installation Measures standards - When working with a B/T, the scaffolding shall be installed in a sturdy way, and guardrails installed on the platform to prevent falling accidents. Improve operation methods - When installing scaffolding at a height of 7 m, there is a risk of falling due to a shock in the lower section, as well overturning from contacting obstructions due to frequent movement. There is also a risk of falling when ascending / descending. - Scaffolding shall be stabilized by installing brackets in the lower section to prevent rollover, or a lifter such as a hi-land and a lift truck shall be used.. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 69. Case 4 Falling From Aerial Ladder Truck While Painting Overview The laborer paints the eaves on the roof on an aerial ladder truck where riding is prohibited. He loses his balance immediately after the turn of the boom and falls. Illustration Safety Use mobile lift that can be boarded Measures - Proper machinery such as a cargo crane, which can be boarded and is safe against the shaking of the boom, for aerial operation, or - Scaffolding that is installed outside the building and the stage firmly fixed before starting to paint. Personal protective equipment mandatory - Safety harnesses and hard hats shall be provided and worn by laborers who work in a place where there is a risk of falling. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 70. Case 5 Skylight Breaking During Slate Roof Painting Overview At a factory repair construction site, a worker spray paints the old slate roof. He steps on a skylight slate. The plastic roof caves in and he falls. Illustration Safety Strict fall prevention measures Measures - When working on top of weak material such as slate or skylight roof, scaffolding with 30 cm or more in width shall be installed to prevent laborers from falling. Confirm safety before starting work - The frame structure of the slate or skylight roof shall be confirmed before the operation. If a laborer must climb to the upper section, safety shall be confirmed and the laborer notified. Wear personal protective equipment (safety harness) - When there is an operation at 2 m or higher, the business owner shall install mounted equipment, and a safety harness shall be worn before starting work. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 71. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Construction Laborers Industry English English 04 Prevention of 1. Definition of occupational diseases 138 Occupational 2. Prevention of Occurrence of 138 Diseases Occupational Diseases
  • 72. Chapter 4 Prevention of Occupational Diseases 1. Definition of occupational diseases An occupational disease is defined as the disease of a worker that takes place during and by his/her occupation. Occupational diseases are classified into two categories: Typical occupational disease is caused by being exposed toharmful factors in the occupation; and Occupation-relevant diseases comprise non-occupational factors, which arefurther worsened by occupational factors. Typical occupational diseases include noise-induced hearing loss, ocular disease, heatstroke, cutaneous disorder and occupational cancer caused by exposure to physical factors such as noise, harmful lights, radiation, and high-temperature heat. Those caused by exposure to chemical factors include organic solvent intoxication, heavy-metal intoxication, pneumoconiosis, cutaneous disorder, occupational cancer, oxygen depletion, and harmful gas intoxication. Occupation-relevant diseases include musculoskeletal system disorder caused by exercise of excessive force or repetitive processes, and cerebrovascular/cardiovascular system disorder by stress for tasks. 2. Prevention of Occurrence of Occupational Diseases 2-1 Nose-induced hearing loss Definition of noise Noise is defined as ‘undesired or unwanted sound’ or ‘sound mentally and physically harmful to the human body.’ Main noise sources at work places include frictional or striking sounds from production facilities, noise Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 73. generated from motors, and explosive sound from compressed air. Noises can be classified into continuous noise, interrupted noise and impulse noise in accordance with the types of generation. Effects of noise to health Continuous exposure to noise may cause reduction of work efficiency and accidents due to loss of concentration on work because of adverse effects to physiological systems such as noise-induced hearing loss from irrevocable (permanent) hearing loss, ear noise, increase of stress, or change in the immune system. The Industrial Safety and Health Act (KOSH Act) stipulates that work places with noise greater than 80 dB(A) shall be measured for noise levels (every six months), and workers exposed to noises shall be provided with special health inspection (hearing ability inspection) for prevention and control of hearing loss (health inspection cycle: first inspection within 12 months, and every 24 months thereafter). The reference of noise exposure in Korea in 90 dB(A). Prevention of noise-induced hearing loss Use of low-noise facilities or equipment Installing damping materials (e.g., vibration-absorbing springs and rubber mats) on locations subject to impact to reduce impact power Sealing or isolating noise facilities, and installing noise barriers Installing sound-absorbent materials on the walls inside a room, or providing a silencer on the section of generation of compressed air Wearing appropriate personal protection gear to protect hearing ability (e.g., earplugs and ear covers) Installing a control booth for isolating work space Restriction and control of the time exposed to noises Regular hearing ability inspection Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 74. Radiation Definition of radiation Radiation is classified into two categories; ionized radiation and non-ionized radiation. Ionized radiation is radiation with energy enough to ionize objects exposed to generated energy. X-ray and -ray are of electromagnetic radiation, while a-wave, ß-wave and neutron are of particulate radiation. Though its energy is relatively low, non-ionized radiation may give adverse effect to health upon consistent and repetitive exposure. Non-ionized radiation includes ultraviolet (UV) rays, visible light (VL) rays, infrared (IR) rays,radiofrequency(RF),lowfrequency(LF)andextremelylowfrequency(ELF). Exposure to ionized radiation is limited, since the exposure takes place with medical devices, and non-destruction inspection systems. However, workers have a high probability of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) ray with wavelengths between 180 and 400 nanometer (nm), or visible light and near-infrared rays between 385 and 3,000 nm. Ultraviolet rays and near-infrared rays are regarded as harmless to health (e.g., actinic keratitis, and erythema) by most workers even upon repetitive exposure. Ultraviolet rays may be generated from welding arc, fluorescent and incandescent light and solar rays, and near- infrared ray from solar rays and infrared lamps used for jobs. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 75. (2) Effects of radiation on health Adverse effects to health resultingfrom exposure to ionized radiation reported so far include leukemia, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, bone marrow cancer, and skin cancer. Adverse effects on health from non-ionized radiation are as listed in the table below: (3) Prevention of adverse effects on health from radiation Workers shall not be exposed to ionized radiation. Workers shall wear appropriate personal protection gear (e.g., safety glasses, protective clothes) to minimize expose to non-ionized radiation such as ultraviolet rays, visible light and infrared rays. 2-3. High temperature heat Heat stress resulted from high-temperature heat is determined by the total heat load applied to the human body caused by composite effects of environmental and physical factors. Environmental factors include temperature, air current, humidity and radiant heat. Physical factors produce metabolic heat to the human body dependent upon work intensity to apply heat load to the human body. Wet Bulb, Globe Temperature (WBGT) is the typical index for assessing stress caused from high-temperature heat. WBGT is an index that indicates general effects to the human body from temperature, humidity, air current rate and radiant heat. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 76. The exposure references for preventing adverse effects to health from high- temperature heat are as listed in the following table: Major adverse effects to the human body from heat stress are described below: Heat cramp: Cramp accompanied with pain in the limbs and the abdomen due to excessive drainage of sweat together with loss of large amount of salinity during exposure to high-temperature heat for an extensive period Heat exhaustion: Fatigue, emesis, dizziness and cramp from hypoglycemia caused by dehydration Heat stroke: Sudden thermoregulation disorder due to exposure to a high temperature environment and humidity resulting in the elevation of body heat or coma (2) Prevention of adverse effects from health from high-temperature heat Get sufficient rest in an air-conditioned rest area isolated from heat source, or reduce work hours or execute shift system. Drink sufficient cold water and take table salt. Wear light and airy clothes for easy dispersion of heat. Install heat barrier or wear heat-resistant clothes at work environment with significant radiant heat. Emit heat from high-temperature objects and install a local vent system on the top of the heat source to exhaust hot air and reduce temperature in the work place. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 77. 2-4. Occupational diseases cause by chemical substances (1) Adverse effects to health from chemical substances Chemical substances are used in various processes such as the manufacture, composition and abstraction of chemical products, cleaning processes and printing. Most of them are highly volatile and cause a large quantity of exposure. The respiratory organ is the main path of absorption of chemical substances, and some of them are absorbed via the skin and the mouth. Chemical substances absorbed into human body may cause diseases in the respiratory system, hematopoietic system, nervous system or liver dependent upon the characteristics of the substances. Adverse effects on health from exposure to chemical substances widely employed in work places are listed in the following table: Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 78. Occurrence and symptoms of respiratory system diseases Dust enters the human body via the respiratory organs and are deposed in the lungs to cause diseases resulting from fibrosis of the lungs and reaction of the bronchus. Two major occupational respiratory organ diseases are pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. Pneumoconiosis is commonly found on miners who are exposed to coal dusts. Sylicosis occurs in workers at a foundry working for casting or sand removal processes, and welder lung occurs in welders. Exposure to asbestos causes asbestosis. Pneumoconiosis may cause various respiratory organ complications such as phthisis, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema. Asthma-causing materials are varied and cover more than 300 types of materials. The major asthma-causing materials at work places include isocyanate materials (e.g., TDI and MDI) contained in forming agents or hardeners, reactive dies, welding fume, rubber, and grain feed. Asthma results in occlusion of the bronchus causing symptoms such as pressure in chest, cough, respiratory distress and wheezing during work hours. Materials such as asbestos, nickel compound, 6-chromium, beryllium and crystalline silicate glass cause lung cancer. Polykaryon aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and formaldehyde are also reported to cause lung cancer. Prevention of respiratory organ diseases Contain the facilities and install and operate vent systems such as local venting apparatus to minimize exposure to chemical substances such as dusts. Employ wet processes to minimize generation of dusts. Wear protective gear for respiratory organs to minimize exposure to dusts. Provide workers with regular health inspections. Immediately see a physician upon detecting symptoms of respiratory organ disease, and provide the physician with details of the nature of the work, and chemical substances to worked with. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 79. Occurrence and symptoms of hematopoietic system diseases Hematopoietic system diseases are defined as those pertinent to erythrocytes, leukocytes and lymphocytes in the bloods. Typical occupational diseases include hematopoietic system cancer resulted from benzene, and anemia from lead. Exposure to benzene is also probable from solvent handling and painting processes. Lead intoxication is a probable occurrence due to exposure to lead during soldering, battery manufacture and glass manufacture. Prevention of hematopoietic system diseases Contain the facilities and install and operate vent systems such as local venting apparatus to minimize exposure to benzene or lead. Wear protective gear for respiratory organs to minimize exposure to dusts. Provide workers with regular health inspection. Immediate see a physician upon detecting symptoms of hematopoietic system disease, and provide the physician with details of the nature of the work, and chemical substances worked with. Occurrence and symptoms of nervous system diseases The major causes of nervous system diseases include composite organic solvent, acetonitrile, acrylamide, manganese, lead, mercury, organic tin, and bromic methyl. Exposure to those materials is probable: Composite organic solvents widely used in painting processes, acetonitrile at pharmaceutical product manufacture processes, manganese at welding processes, and organic tin used as additives during the manufacture of plastics products. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 80. Prevention of nervous system diseases Contain the facilities and install and operate vent systems such as a local venting apparatus to minimize exposure to chemical substances that cause nervous system diseases. Wear protective gear for respiratory organs to minimize exposure to those materials. Provide workers with regular health inspections. Immediate see a physician after detecting symptoms of nervous system disease, and provide the physician with details of the nature of the work, and chemical substances worked with. Occurrence and symptoms of toxic liver diseases There are various chemical substances causing toxic liver disease including: Tetrachloride, tetrachloroethane, Polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB), trichlorotoluene, dinitrobenzene, N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). In particular, exposure to DMF occurs by inhaling or absorbing the materials via the skin, and causes acute liver intoxication. There was one accident of death of a foreign worker by acute toxic hepatitis in 2006, who worked at a DMF handling process. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 81. Prevention of toxic liver diseases Contain the facilities and install and operate vent systems such as a local venting apparatus to minimize exposure to chemical substances that cause toxic liver diseases. Wear protective gear for respiratory organs to minimize exposure to those materials. Provide workers with regular health inspections. Immediate see a physician after detecting symptoms of respiratory organ disease, and provide the physician with details of the nature of the work, and chemical substances worked with. Prevent exposure by executing work turnover. Occurrence and symptoms of cutaneous disorders Cutaneous disorders most likely occur from exposure to organic solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), acids, alkalis and cleaning agents, and the symptoms of the diseases may be worsened when exposed to light. Major symptoms of the diseases include contact dermatitis, eczema, acne, and dermatomycosis. Prevention of cutaneous disorders Contain the facilities and install and operate vent systems such as a local venting apparatus to minimize exposure to chemical substances that cause cutaneous disorders. Wear protective clothes to minimize exposure to those materials. Provide workers with regular health inspections. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers
  • 82. Immediate see a physician after detecting symptoms of respiratory organ disease, and provide the physician with details of the nature of the work, and chemical substances worked with. Further, workers shall pay special attention to the following provisions for preventing occupational diseases that result from exposure to chemical substances: Wear personal protective gear such as non-permeable rubber gloves or protective clothes when handling chemical substances, and do not touch the substances with the bare hands, or let them contact the skin. Local venting apparatus shall be installed and operated to minimize quantity of airborne chemical substances. Work shall be started only after receiving instruction on the harm and risks and precautions of handling chemical substances. Protective gear appropriate for respiration shall be worn when handling chemical substances. Never ingest beverage or food, or smoke within work place when handling chemical substances. Health inspection shall be provided to workers before they are assigned to jobs, and regular health inspections thereafter. Upon detecting symptoms likely to cause occupational diseases, immediately see a physician, or consult with local foreigner worker support center. Safety Guide for Foreign Construction Laborers

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