Transcript of "Instructional Design and Technology In Asia Focus On Japan And Korea"
iNTERNATIONALREVIEW 101Instructional Technology in Asia: Focus programs. This T did not cause a fundamentalon Japan and Korea change in teaching-learning styles in Japanese schools, however.by Toshiyuki Mizukoshi, Youngsoo Kim and When provided with TV programs, teachersJong Yeon Lee used the programs only to call students atten- tion to the problems at issue. This was inevitably The world has been rapidly changing from followed by reading the textbook for the sake ofan industrial society toward a knowledge-based correct interpretation of those points, and by fur-information society because of the advance of ther development such as experimenting andnew technologies. The changes require people to making observation trips. The crucial point herehave different knowledge, skills, and attitudes is that all steps in the students learning processfrom those required of people in the past. There- were totally prepared and controlled by thefore, in each country the educational system teacher: their planning, instruction, and man-must also change, to enable people to take com- agement. Such learning, based on and devel-mand of their own future in this new society. oped from TV programs, was conducted in Japan and Korea, as well as other countries in every comer of Japan.the world, have attempted to apply various The situation began to change toward the endtechnologies to adapt education to the evolution of the 1970s, when computers were introducedof society. The purpose of this paper is to pro- into classrooms. Their arrival triggered thevide an overview of the use and practices of emergence of a new style of learning, that is,information technology in education in Japan individual learning, where students proceed atand Korea. The first part of the paper discusses their own pace as they interact with computers.instructional technology in Japan, recounting It was the first time in the history of the m o d e mthe history of using information technology and school education system in Japan, since its estab-a description of government-initiated move- lishment in 1872, that such a way of learning hadments for school reform backed by computer been implemented. The new approach to learn-networks. The introduction of the subject, Infor- ing has been called "individualization of learn-mation Technology, in senior high schools, the ing," "automation of learning," or "two-way-content of the course, and related pressing issues interactive learning."are also presented. The second part of the paper In no more than 20 years, computers havedescribes a nationwide project and its four major spread into schools all over the country. Overtasks to accomplish democratic and open educa- that time period, the aims and methods of theirtion in Korean schools. The current status of use has changed drastically. There may nevercyber universities supported by the government have been another educational medium to rivalis discussed, and two representative cases are computers for rapid expansion, and frequencyintroduced. of change in purpose and methodology during such a short time. In the following section, I EDUCATIONALTECHNOLOGY divide and characterize the history of the Japan- IN JAPAN ese educational use of computers into fourAn Overview of the History of terms, or periods: (a) computer-assisted instruc-Information Technology in Japanese tion (CAI), 1970 to mid-1980s; (b) tools for learn-Education ing and expression, mid-1980s to early 1990s; (c) multimedia in education, 1990s; and (d) Intemet for learning, information-searching, and expres-For years Japanese schools have supplied class- sion, late 1990s.room teaching in a "lecturing all at the sametime" style, which featured two Ts, teachers andtextbooks, as its most prominent components. The period of CAI: the rise of individualizedAnother T, television, joined the first two in the education (1970s to mid-I980s)1950s, when the Japan Broadcasting Corpora-tion (NHK) began broadcasting educational TV • The target subject was mainly mathematics in
102 ETR&D, Vol, 48, No. 1 the 1970s, later extended to English and sci- access to all schools by 2001. With the extremely ences. rapid pace of installation, 50-60% of schools• The base of these activities first resided in the probably have access to the Internet at present. Educational Technology Research Centers in The 100-School Networking Project, national universities. The center of instruc- launched in 1995 with the participation of 111 tional activity then shifted to each computer schools, completed its tenure of two years. A room in junior and senior high schools. New 100-School Networking Project also accom- plished two years of activities. Diversified activ- ities have been carried out at schools and otherThe period of computers as toolsfor learning educational organizations in and outside ofand expressing (mid-1980s to early 1990s) Japan. These activities include the gathering,• Computers were used to collect and process transmission, and exchange of information; col- raw data, for the production of graphics, laborative learning and research; collaborative databases, simulation and presentations. production; and network conferencing. The project has been credited with several gains: (a) contributions to the introduction ofThe period of multimedia in education computer technology to education; (b) changes(1990s) in teacher and student attitudes; (c) spread of Internet use and development of a closer rela-• The Ministry of Education published a guide- tionship among people; (d) changes in student book for to promote use of multimedia in learning styles; (e) human resource develop- schools (1992). ment for computer coordinators; (f) improved• Interactive learning with CD-ROM spread hardware and software systems. throughout Japan by the mid-1990s. Based on the experiences, eight proposed• "Media-mix" approaches attracted much reforms have been suggested: attention: using this method, teachers could 1. Computer education must be included in the choose and combine multiple educational curriculum. materials, such as CD-ROMs, educational TV 2. Teaching methods must change. programs, self-made video programs, text- books, and 3-D materials, to produce a tar- 3. Teaching materials must be developed. geted effect corresponding to the aims of the 4. Technical training must be provided. teaching-learning in question. 5. Support systems must be developed. 6. Infrastructure must be improved.The period of the In ternet for learning, 7. Scientific research must be conducted.irrformation-searching, and expressing (late 8. The Internet will be used in 40,000 schools.1990s)• The 100-School Networking Project was Reform of the National Curriculum and launched in 1995, followed in 1997 by the Instructional Technology Education New 100-School Networking Project.• Use of e-mail, World Wide Web (WWW), • The Information and Computers course in TELNET, and videoconferencing systems to junior high schools, which is now an elective, classroom teaching-learning has been greatly will become compulsory in 2002. increased. • In senior high schools, a new compulsory As of March 1999, the Internet was used in course, Information Technology, will be27.4% of elementary schools, 42.8% of junior introduced in 2003 for students in academichigh schools, and 63.7% of senior high schools. courses.Nationwide Internet access, including schools During the last two decades, revolutionaryfor special education, was 35.6%. The Ministry changes in the means and ends of the use ofof Education in Japan plans to provide Internet computers in education have cropped up one
INTERNATIONAL EW REVI 103after another. What is more, these changes are Network Model Area Plan (1998-2000)gaining speed. As a result, many of those teach- The Ministry of Education and the Ministry ofers who pioneered this field at the earliest stages International Trade and Industry (MITI) havewith CAI have had a difficult time keeping up jointly implemented a three-year plan sincewith the rapid pace of development. This con- 1998, which aims to connect 1,050 schools in 30trasts strongly with the situation in schools, areas in this country by 1.5 megabyte cables.which had no previous experience with comput-ers. These latter schools were equipped, all of asudden, with the latest model machines featur- Practices at Internet Schools"ing Windows 95 or 98 operating systems, andconnected with Internet from the outset. In such The Ministry of Education now designatesschools, both teachers and students make fairly schools that initiate experimental programs forfree use of computers with little confusion as to advanced teaching and learning with specialthe technologys purpose. recourse to the information technology. The However, it is not only that we see a dichot- examples below show some of the highly moti-omy in attitude toward computers between vet- vated initiatives of "Internet Schools."eran teachers and younger ones; rather, we canobserve a divergence of uses, which differ from Environmental education. Students in severalone subject to another. For example, in art, schools observed the growth of a plant of themusic, and language classes, especially in junior same kind and measured the critical timings ofhigh schools, computers are introduced pre- germination, flowering, and fruition, using thedominantly as a tool for expression. In social same criteria. They then exchanged their ownstudies and sciences, on the other hand, media- data with others through the Internet ormix approaches are widely applied both in videoconferences.junior and senior high schools, featuring CD- Students investigated, for example, air pollu-ROM software that has been highly improved tants such as NO 2 and S O 2 (nitrogen and sul-qualitatively and quantitatively, along with phur dioxides), water contamination (in rivers,other media such as educational TV programs lakes and Inland Sea), acid rain, and the noiseand printed materials. In foreign language pollution around highways. Those data wereclasses, situation theoretic approaches character- sent to the host computers of their own project,ized by interactions between visuals and learn- such as in a hosting senior high school, teachersers are coming to the fore, while in mathematics college, or the Globe Plan secretariat. The dataclasses, the behaviorist way of thinking featured were processed and compared there, and thein CAI still underlies those programs with 3-D-- results were returned to each school. Instancesvisual images by computer graphics. Thus, with of collaborative learning between elementaryboth the application and theory, a significant schools and junior high schools are alsovariation is recognized among subjects. reported. Education for international mutual understand-New Movements for School Reform ing. Students of Takaoka Commercial HighBacked by Computer Networks school fin Toyama Prefecture) made their own plans for a school excursion to Korea through the exchange of e-mail and conversation on CU-Declaration by the Ministry of Education SeeMe with Korean high school students.The number of schools that actively adopt the Students in Japanese classes in the UnitedInternet for classes has been growing sharply. States and Australia and students in a commer-The Ministry of Education, in order to support cial high school in Nagoya published a "Webthis movement, announced that it will connect Magazine" as a product of their variousall Japanese schools (including elementary exchanges on e-mail, CU-SeeMe, and Web-Chat.schools, junior and senior high schools, and NHK Educational TV production in Aprilother schools) with the Internet by 2001. 1999 started a 15-rain program called "The
104 ETR&D,Vol. 48, No. 1Encyclopedia of World Foods," which targets visual image from a central TV station to allupper-grade students in elementary schools. places in the country; that is, a system of broad-After watching the first episode, children were casting. Although it is a typical unidirectionalencouraged to cook an Indian type of curried medium, once the computers in the classroomfood, which was then compared with Japanese are connected to the Internet, we can send feed-"curry with rice." Two weeks later, the second back comments to the TV station as well as col-episode was broadcast, providing various data laborate with schools or laboratories in otheron curry. Children were given information regions or countries.about several elements such as religion, climate, On the one hand, TV programs with typicallyvarieties of rice (i.e., Indica or Japonica), and cus- a unidirectional, or top-down, property can pro-toms. They also learned to relate those elements vide both teachers and students with high qual-with food. The topics in the lineup of this pro- ity models while making full use of thegram included Italian, French, Mexican, Philip- characteristics of visuals (see Figure 1). On thepine, Chinese, and German cuisine, which is other hand, students can set up a home page forthen followed by Japanese sushi and British tea their own class, supported by the teacher, andand cakes. Thus, after watching the TV program, send out the local news of their own district orchildren cook the dish and compare it with one events in their school, with still pictures andtypical in other countries. After those activities, texts. This may have the so-called bottom-upor even in the course of them, children are effect. By combining these two types of elements,expected to exchange their own experiences or the possibility arises that a new style of commu-questions by e-mail or videoconference. They nication education can be generated. NHK Edu-can also acquire much more detailed informa- cational Television, cooperating with a numbertion from the Web page of NHK ETV. of university professors and schoolteachers, initi- ated this top-down-bottom-up combination development in teaching an environmental edu-Combination of Unidirectionality and cation program in 1998, and a program of com-Interactivity parative culture concerning food in 1999.Television is a system of transmitting the same Contents of the Current Information Technology Course in Senior HighFigure 1 [ ] T o p - d o w n - B o t t o m - u p Schools combination Top-down(Television) In senior high schools, Information Technology will be introduced to the curriculum for aca- S demic courses in 2003. Although the subject itself is compulsory, each school m a y select its choice from the three courses described below. Course option #1: Emphasizing the ability to make practical use of information. • Typical features of the information society and information revolution: on-line shop- ping, electronic money, point-of-sales mar- keting (POS), and on-demand systems. S • Basic knowledge on the information equip- ment: analog and digital, network, integrated circuits, hardware and software. • Utilization of information: searching for nec- Bottom-up (Internet) essary information, collecting data, Web
INTERNATIONALREVIEW 105 searching, uses of databases, and uses of Students who have dominant computer liter- package media such as CD-ROMs and vid- acy or who wish to proceed to such courses as eotapes. science, technology and medical fields in the• Sending personal information to others and future will be expected to choose this second sharing it: hypertext markup language course. (HTML), visual and text format, copyright, morality in the information society. Course option #3: Building toward participation in the irt~rmation society.• Skills for collaboration: interactive learning, virtual classroom, virtual community, and • Various kinds of information equipment in virtual museum. our daily life: transition in media from analog to digital--dial telephone, digital phone, por- table telephone; cassette tape, CD, MD; ana-Course option #2: Emphasizing scient~c under- log camera, digital camera.standing of information theory and network systems.• Problem solving and utilization of comput- • Digitization of data-information: listing the ers. merits of digitalization--computers power in image processing; integrating text, sound,• Characteristics of network systems in com- and pictures; compression and decompres- parison with stand-alone computers. sion of text-visual data.• Digitalization of data and information: mak- • Network and communication: on-line shop- ing a comparison between analog and digital ping, electronic money, e-maiL net surfing. data; digital representations of data and information. • Mechanism of the Internet: server and clients structure, identity on the network, network• Mechanisms of computers and the flow of address, netiquette, sending and receiving information: five major functions, (a) input, data through LAN system-WWW. (b) output, (c) arithmetic, (d) control, and (e) storage; operating systems, and software. • Collaborative learning through the tnternet: setting up text-based or animated home• Data structure and algorithmic language pages, on-line chat with other users, mutual (AL), HTML. evaluation.• Uses of computers in society and modeling of • Bright and dark aspects of the information problem-solving processes: weather charts, society: information disclosure, aging society, weather forecasting, POS, simulation, sensor- virtual university, Internet community; copy- based system. right law, copy and paste, security, network• Uses of database: database structure, infor- crimes. mation retrieval. The above-described courses should not be• Project: problem analysis, flow chart, decid- considered to be limited only to the curriculum ing the main theme, survey planning, for academic courses in senior high schools. rehearsal, and presentation (e.g., uses of Rather, they comprise the mainstream of IT edu- media in our daily life, such as portable tele- cation in Japanese schools, from elementary to phones, CDs, cameras, CD-ROMs, TV, and senior high schools; that is, from first graders video). through twelfth graders. As mentioned above,• The information society and our future: man- for example, in junior high schools, Information machine systems, ergonomics, weak points and Computers, now an elective subject called in the information society, interface for Elementary Information, will become compul- elderly or handicapped people; copyright, sory in 2002. The most crucial elements of this privacy, network-crime, freedom of expres- new course are, as shown below, systematically sion and responsibility; prospect of daily life related with those in senior high schools. in the 21st century, technical development • Understanding the connections between our and the responsibility of humans. daily life and computers, influences of infor-
106 ETR&D,Vol.48, No. 1 mation on society and our lives, and what the in IT classes. At present, this program is being information ethical code of conduct should be. implemented in a very restricted area, but we• Understanding the basic structures and func- intend to expand this system to every corner of tions of computers, knowing the functions of the country, receiving complete financial and software, and being able to operate them. technical assistance from the Ministry of Educa- tion. This system will then work hand in hand• Understanding the various uses of comput- with the reeducation of incumbent teachers to ers and knowing how to collect, judge, pro- improve the quality of IT education as a whole. cess and send out information with them.• Understanding the characteristics of data communication networks and knowing how INSTRUCTIONALTECHNOLOGY to collect, judge, process and send out infor- IN KOREA mation through the network. An Overview of Using Information• Understanding the functions of programs Technology in Korean Education and being able to produce a simple program that computes or controls simple operations. In order to prepare for the 21st century, many One of the most pressing issues is not equip- countries in the world have conducted projectsping the facilities or renewing machines, but to promote the use of information technologiesrather, reeducating teachers. Because of dimin- in education. Representative projects includeishing numbers of school age children, given Vision2000, Korea; IT for All, England; SchoolJapans relatively low birthrate, fewer new Year 2000, United States; Minding Our Futures,teachers are being hired. As a result, the average Canada; and 100 Schools Networking Projectage of teachers has risen to 39. We cannot expect, (SNP), Japan. Vision2000 was launched in 1995for the time being, that we will be provided with to construct democratic and open education sys-enough room to hire those newly graduated as tems which provide learning resources to anyteachers of IT education. Therefore, the Ministry one, at any time, anywhere. Four major tasksof Education is planning in the next three years were attempted to accomplish this vision: (a)to encourage 9,000 incumbent teachers to pre- implementation of information infrastructure,pare for a certificate to teach information basics (b) promotion of students" and teachers infor-to students in academic courses in senior high mation literacy, (c) establishment of rules andschools. The intensive training course will start regulations related to building and operatingin summer 2000. Instruction will be provided cyber education systems, and (d) developmentfrom the Educational Centers in the distance and and distribution of educational materials andalso from the Ministry of Education by way of content; these are essential elements for a suc-communication satellite. I may not be the only cessful information system (Kim, 1999a).person who is skeptical about the effectiveness The Ministry of Education and its subsidiaryof this method of teacher education, that is, an offices as well as the Korean Education andintensive course in a short period with an unsat- Research Information Service, which was reor-isfactory level of interactivity guaranteed by the ganized in April 1999, have been major conduc-use of computer science. It is difficult to imagine tors of Vision2000. The project has been alsothat such training will be enough to guide teach- supported by other national information anders into taking the initiative in leading the new communication technologies societies, for exam-IT education in the 21st century. ple, the Korea Educational Technology Society; Rather, what we should develop first is a sys- international institutions such as the Unitedtem of IT coordinators who support IT educa- Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Orga-tion in schools: they are to be hired at the nization (UNESCO), the Organization for Eco-Education Boards of each district on a three-year nomic Cooperation and Development (OECD),contract, to make rounds of visits to every ele- and the Asian Pacific Economic Communitymentary, junior high and senior high school in (APEC); and organizations for partnership amongthe district to instruct and support the students industries, universities and research institutes.
INTERNATIONAL REVIEW 107 By 1997, PCs had been distributed to 33.9% of Center, 1998). In addition, regulations againstelementary and secondary schools; it is antici- illegal copying of software, distribution of por-pated that they will have been provided to 100% nography and computer viruses, violation ofin 2002. Only 33.1% of school teachers had their privacy, and hacking should be enacted to pro-own PCs in their offices in 1997, but every vide guidelines for using information and com-teacher will have one in 2000. Installing a LAN munication technologies in the workplace andand linking it to the national information super- in education (Lee, 1998).highway began in elementary and secondary To facilitate the development and distribu-schools in 1996 and will be achieved for all tion of educational information and content, theschools in 2000. At the level of higher education, Ministry of Education set a goal to develop 6,200university libraries have partially completed educational programs by 2002. At the end ofbuilding their own network systems. Integrated 1998, 3,489 programs had been developed. Theyinformation systems for elementary and second- have been distributed by EduNet, an integratedary schools are almost finished (Kim, 1999a). educational information system operated by the Based on the sixth official curriculum set by Korea Education and Research Information Ser-the Ministry of Education, courses related to the vice. To encourage the use of educational soft-computer and its applications were supposed to ware delivered by EduNet, 10 pilot schools werebe presented as required or optional. However, selected to use it to supplement or replace regu-the Ministry has plans to revise the curriculum lar classes. The implementation of national digi-to intensify computer-related courses to provide tal libraries, including governmental libraries,all students with opportunities to become com- public libraries, and university libraries, hasputer and information literate in preparation for reached the halfway point of completion at thethe information society. By the end of 1997, present time; 90% of universities in Korea have320,000 teachers who were in charge of informa- built network systems dedicated to library use,tion technology education had completed in-ser- and 50% of them can access global educationvice training programs on the computer and its information via the WWW. Also, interlibraryuse; the rest of them are scheduled to finish the loan is under way in several universities (Koreaprograms by the end of 2002. Currently, there Multimedia Education Center, 1998).are four cyber teachers education centers pro- As the tasks mentioned so far have been car-viding in-service training on the computer. The ried out, cyber education has emerged as aMinistry of Education intends to intensify the promising educational solution for the 21st cen-use of these centers to retrain them without the tury, and is actively employed by many univer-limits of time and space. sities and corporations at the present time. The Ministry of Education and legislativeorganizations have made an effort to establishrules and regulations related to building and The Current Status of Cyber Educationoperating cyber education systems. The bill was and Its Futurewritten at the end of 1998 and was submitted tothe National Assembly. The following issues Cyber education uses a network of the Internetwere included in the bill for review: the formal to deliver instructional content to distant learn-name (Cyber University, virtual university, ers. It is one kind of distance education.open university, or distance education institute); Although the history of cyber education ininstitutions that can establish them (schools, Korea is relatively short, the countrys commit-public, and private institutes); strategies to ment to it is strong. Since the Korea Educationalsecure the quality of education; the inclusion of Reform Committee proposed the implementa-graduate programs; the types and names of tion and operation of cyber universities as a newdegrees offered; the inclusion and proportion of higher education model in August 1996, mostin-classroom activities, the requirement to grant universities in Korea have begun to run cybercredits and degrees; and the limitation of stu- classes in various ways (Korea Educationdent numbers (Korea Multimedia Education Reform Committee, 1996). About 30% of them
108 ETR&D.Vol, 48. No. 1have participated in Pilot Cyber University Pro- 3. Cyber English clinic for the publicgram initiated by the Ministry of Education for 4. International graduate programthe purpose of verifying their adaptability to 5. Cyber kindergarten and special educationhigher education. At the beginning of 1999, programabout 700 courses were offered by pilot cyberuniversities; there were about 50,000 registered Even though the final goal of ECC is to be astudents. Corporations whose main business lifelong education institute providing the fivearea is information technology are also actively programs mentioned above, its present servicesparticipating in running cyber universities for are geared to the first program, the Internetboth their own employees and the public. The Classroom for undergraduate and graduate stu-two different types of organizations have differ- dents.ent ways to implement and operate cyber educa- The Internet Classroom is a name for Web-tion systems, with their own unique problems to based courses delivered by Internet, or intranetbe solved. on campus. Ewha Womans University, for In order to introduce cyber education in example, currently offers about 70 Web-basedKorea, two representative cases were chosen. courses for undergraduate and graduate stu-One of them is Ewha Cyber Campus (ECC), a dents. The courses are of two kinds: (a) purelygovernment-qualified pilot cyber university run Web-based, with no classroom meetings; (b)by Ewha Womans University. The other is the Web-based with regular classroom lectures. InCyber Multi Campus (CMC), established and both cases, the instructor uses a Web-board, dis-run by a corporation with extensive experience cussion room, chat rooms, and so forth.in retraining, especially in technology-based In the Internet Classroom, there are 94 under-training. graduate level and 20 graduate level courses open; ECC shares 9 courses with KVUC mem- bers. A total of 17,900 undergraduate and 237ECC as a representative cyber university graduate students registered for these coursesoperated by a regular university during the first semester of 1999. Target learners are those who attend Ewha Womans UniversityEwha Womans University began to apply Web- or KVUC, which is not yet open for the public.based instruction in 1996, based on the Ewha The Internet Classroom at ECC has been run asIntegrated Information System, implemented in semester-length courses. Students can earn offi-1995. It was extended to the ECC in 1998, joining cial credits by successfully completing thethe Korea Virtual University Consortium courses.(KVUC), one of 15 pilot cyber universities sup-ported by the government. KVUC is composed At ECC, students are expected to log in toof 9 universities whose major purposes are to Web-based self-learning materials regularly andexchange credits among the member universi- to interact with instructor(s) and other students.ties and to share instructional and learning Learning materials and on-line activities pro-resources. It has provided educational services vided have been designed based on sound theo-only for regular undergraduate students who retical principles. The content provided is h i g ~ ybelong to its member universites. structured as suggested by Gagn6s Nine Events of Instruction in order to improve students ECCs vision is to be a top-level international comprehension and retention (Kim, 1999b). Oncyber university contributing to building a life- the other hand, learning activities have beenlong learning society for the 21st century. In contrived based on constructivism, especially onorder to accomplish these goals, ECC plans to problem-based learning principles and Kellerspresent the following five programs (Kim, ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfac-1998b): tion) model: each unit composing a course1. Internet classroom for undergraduate and includes activities such as group discussion, col- graduate students lecting information and writing reports, and2. Distance in-service training program for conducting field exercises (Kim, 1999b). These teachers in the field activities have been included to help students
INTERNATIONAL REVIEW 109improve problem-solving abilities as well as to bers through its homepage provided bylearn and practice new knowledge and skills. Kyungbuk National University, a KVUC mem-Students can send questions to instructors and ber.interact with other students at any time via e- ECC students report that the cyber classesmail, bulletin boards and chatting services. They help them to be more interactive and spendare supposed to be active, self-directed and more time on required tasks than regular classesmotivated during learning, while instructors act have done. Generally speaking, they have beenas facilitators for learning. The content and user are satisfied with this new way of learning. Theinterface displayed are designed to be easily biggest problems they have suffered are slowunderstood and used (Kiln, 1999b). Figure 2 access speed and interruption problems whileshows an ECC sample screen for learning. on-line. In order to evaluate student performance, thequality of reports, participation and contribu-tion to on-line discussion, field exercises, Web CIVIC as a representative retraining institutesurfing, and midterm and final group projects operated by a corporationhave been rated, while simultaneously minimiz- CMC was originated at the Unitel Cyber Cam-ing paper-and-pencil examinations. pus (UCC), which was established by Samsung- All of the courses offered were delivered by Samsung Data System (SDS) in March 1997.an asynchronized Web-based system using Samsung-SDS had been providing distance edu-local-area and public switched telephone net- cation for its employees since 1994, and hadworks. ECC built its own cyber education sys- decided to share its experience with the publictem on the Ewha Integrated Information System by building UCC for its users. Because it wasand its system is linked to those of KVUC mem- founded by a corporation and not by a univer-Figure 2 [ ] A s a m p l e screen of W e b - b a s e d learning materials p r o v i d e d b y Ewha C y b e r C a m p u s (ECC) C~,, J ~:~I~ :~7~:,,:, ..... ct~h-a--,-m : >~-,- ~ , ~ ~I- 525~-/ 327/-2676 E - mail : ~ ~ - youngklm@mm,ewha,ac.kr m A, @# [}IIAI•I ~=~1(InstructionalMessage Design)"~ ~l&~"Pt-~ ~P-I~=,q&~?l~LI)ll01d 31-CIXI~ ~ 1 ~ =~H)4 ,D-&~F,~~t~, ~ ~.,.E, ~ _ E ~ ~.,. e_ ~4 ~F_I~ ~ ~1Ol ;~l(web p a g e ) ~ .~.~ c,;~ ~-]~ ~C_.i-,
110 ETR&D. Vol. 48, No. 1sity, UCC could not grant official credits for At present, CMC serves various practical pro-courses completed. UCC was renamed CMC in grams, called the Certification Academy, Infor-1998. CMC students were refunded 70-80% of mation Technology Academy, Teacherstheir tuition if they had regular jobs based on Academy, Cyber Language School, Businesslabor laws in Korea (Samsung Multi-Campus, Academy, Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and1999). Design Academy, and Electronic Commerce Academy. Most courses provided by the pro- The vision of CMC is to be a prominent inter- grams mentioned above continue for twonational and accredited cyber university offer- months, but some are shorter. Although the ECCing various practical degrees and certifications. has it own faculty members, CMC has few of itsThe target learners of this campus are adults own faculty and has to outsource them. The out-over the age of 18, who subscribe to Unitel, one sourced instructors are usually subject matterof Koreas major PC on-line services. To summa- experts with excellent performance in the corre-rize the demographic data of CMC, for 1998 sponding fields, but little experience in instruc-more than 70% of the students worked in vari- tional design and cyber education.ous areas such as companies, the government,schools, churches and so on. Of a total of 1,212 The instruction and learning environmentregistered students at the end of 1998, 74% were was implemented based on both asynchronousmate and 26% were female; 62% were 20-30 and synchronous Web-based interactive sys-years of age, 30% were 30-40, and 6% were 40- tems. Figure 3 shows a sample screen of syn-50 (Samsung Multi-Campus, 1999). chronized cyber lectures, in which students canFigure 3 [ ] A sample screen of synchronized cyber lecture provided by Cyber Multi Campus (CMC)!N ~ _._ : N .... i.... i : i
INTERNATIONAL REVIEW 111listen to the instructors lecture using PC speak- Conclusioners. Interaction between learners and instructorscan take place using various technologies such In Japan, the introduction of computers intoas e-mail, real-time voice, and text chatting. The schools at the end of the 1970s triggered revolu-students performances were evaluated by their tionary changes in teaching and learning. Theirclass attendance (the frequency and duration of use has evolved from CAI to computers as asystem log in and the number of pages learning and expression tool, multimedia, andbrowsed), the quality of reports, and perfor- finally, Internet applications. The Ministry ofmance on on-line tests. Education hopes to connect all Japanese schools The biggest problem for CMC was the quality with the Internet by 2001, and has designatedof course content delivered. The student satisfac- schools that initiate experimental programs fortion index tended to fall as course development advanced teaching and learning based on infor-was more dependent on outsourcing. The satis- mation technology. In addition, NHK Educa-faction index of the course content completely tional Television has tried to developoutsourced averaged just 53%. It was-much educational programs combining a uni-higher when the course content was developed directionality medium, TV, and a interactivityunder the control of CMC instructional design- medium, computers. Information technologyers (Samsung Multi-Campus, 1999). CMC will be introduced to the curriculum of all Japan-revealed another problem: students were rarely ese senior high schools by 2003.satisfied with the instructors role (Samsung In Korea, Vision2000 was launched to estab-Multi-Campus, 1999). Instructors were expected lish open education systems that provide educa-to respond to student e-mails as quickly as pos- tional services to anyone at anytime, anywheresible and advise them based on their perfor-mance regularly, but they typically had not and thus, to improve the quality of our lives, andspent enough time to perform this fundamental to produce qualified human resources for thenew role. Instructors might think that they had 21st century. To accomplish Vision2000, theaccomplished their mission after completly Ministry of Education has worked to implement the information infrastructure, improve thedeveloping course content. The last difficultpoints for students were slow access speed and information literacy of students and teachers,interruption problems just as at ECC (Samsung establish rules and regulations related to cyberMulti-Campus, 1999). education, and develop and distribute educa- tional content, intended to be implemented by Currently, many Korean universities and cor- 2002. In fact, cyber education is now activelyporations actively participate in cyber educa- available by virtue of Vision 2000 and the Pilottion. However, several problems have arisen. Cyber University Program driven by the Minis-These are slow network speed, inflexible educa- try of Education. More than 70 universities andtional platforms, inadequacy in quality and 14 large corporations have participated in oper-quantity of educational content, lack of rules ating cyber education systems for their own stu-and regulations related to operating cyber edu- dents, the public, or both. Although severalcation, insufficient levels of information literacy, problems have emerged, cyber education isand finally, inadequate levels of involvement of expected to be a new way of learning for the 21stinstructors and students. Some of these draw- century.backs are likely because students and teachers Asia, Japan, and Korea have been activelydo not have much experience in cyber educa- working on implementing and facilitating infor-tion, and because Vision2000, which is building mation-technology-based education systems.the basic framework for cyber education, has not This effort is expected to meet todays increasingbeen completed. Therefore, Vision2000 should educational needs and to prepare people to takebe completed successfully as soon as possible, command of their own futures. As long as prog-and a special effort should be made to solve ress on these fronts continues, the future of edu-problems that have appeared. cation in Asia is promising. 
112 ETR&D,Vol, 48, NO, I issues and challenges involved in the operationToshiyuki Mizukoshi is a professor of ]nformatics atKansai University, Japan, and President of the of the museum. Preliminary data indicate thatJapanese Society for Educational Technology; after more than a years hard work on its devel-Youngsoo Kim is a professor of Educational opment, the museum has received high and fre-Technology and Dean of the College of Education at quent attention at home and abroad, withEwha Womans University, Korea, and President of visitors accessing it from more than 40 countries.the Korean Society for Educational Technology; JongYeon Lee is an advisory consultant at Samsung Data Moreover, in the past year the museum hasSystem in Korea. received a number of awards. It has earned a good reputation in Chinese-speaking societies. With the data accumulated over the past year asReferences a sound basis, the concern in the second year of the study will shift more to research orientationKim, Y.S. (1999a). Education 2000 in Korea:Information and collecting more in-depth qualitative data. technologyfor schoollearning.A high-level Korea-UK conference during the state visit of Her Majesty to Korea.Kim, Y.S. (1999b). Report on Ewha Cyber Campus. B a c k g r o u n d of t h e Project Unpublished document submitted to Korea Virtual University Consortium. The Internet is both a powerful and popularKorea Educational Reform Committee (1996). The medium. The advent of an information society is methodsfor education reform to establishnew education systems (HI). Annual report submitted to the Minis- affecting the way people live and learn, and try of Education. Korea Multimedia Education Cen- bringing about a new culture in a world that is ter (1998). White Paper on implementing education fast becoming a virtual global village. The systems. The Ministry of Education. worlds leading nations continue to invest sig-Lee, J.Y. (1998). A model for implementing cyber edu- nificant amounts of money to increase their net- cation systems. KoreaJournal of Educational Technol- working technology power. The United States, ogy. 14(3), 301-30.Samsung Multi-Campus. (1999). The resultsofoperating for example, began planning and implementing CyberMulti-campus. Unpublished document submit- Internet II--a Next Generation Internet (NGI) ted to Samsung Data System. (Liu, 1997) after President Clinton solicited con- gressional support for NGI in his 1998 State of the Union Address) Technologically advancedPioneering a Web-based Science nations are all actively promoting science andMuseum in Taiwan: Design and technology, as well as encouraging innovativeImplementation of Lifelong Distance applications of technology. It is becomingLearning of Science Education apparent that the information literacy of citizens will become an indicator of a nations competi-by Shelley Shwu-Ching Young, Yi-Long tiveness in the information age (Wang, 1997; Lin,Huang, and Jyh-Shing Roger Jang 1997). As in other technologically advanced coun-Z] The purpose of this study was to document tries, in Taiwan, the Internet has become theand describe the establishment of the pioneering most popular medium with the younger genera-Web-based Science Museum on the Internet in tion since the implementation of the NationalTaiwan over the past year. The major goal is to Information Infrastructure in 1994. A surveylearn h o w to take advantage of the attributes of conducted by the popular magazine, Tien Hsia,the Internet, current research findings and the indicates that up to 66% of Intemet users arewell-preserved Chinese cultural heritage to below 30 years of age (Lin, 1997). Three millionenrich Web content and, ultimately, to become a Internet users (one seventh of Taiwans popula-leading provider of Chinese-language contenton science in cyberspace in order to facilitate life-long learning. 1 http: //www.whitehouse.gov / WH/SOTU98/address. This paper presents the rationale, research html