Instructional Design And Technology
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Instructional Design And Technology

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This is my reflecttion papers of introduction of instructional design and technology with a book \'Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology\'

This is my reflecttion papers of introduction of instructional design and technology with a book \'Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology\'

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  • 1. Reflection Paper of Unit 1I have enjoyed reading Unit 1 about the basic concept and history of our field,Instructional Design and Technology. This reading was really helpful for me tounderstand the history and basic knowledge of IDT. In addition, I became more confidentthat I could complete my Master Degree in Educational Technology successfully. In thereading, there were several interesting points that drew my attention to and a number ofideas I agreed with. Among them, I would first like to mention two interesting issues.The first thing that I found interesting through the reading of Unit 1 is the history of IDT.During almost all of the 20th century, instructional technology has been evolving anddeveloping via educational theories and technologies. Professionals in IDT had focusedon educational media itself for the first half of the century. Therefore, most educatorsviewed instructional media as a supplementary means of presenting instructions. At thatperiod, educational media were materials like films, slides, and photographs etc, relatedto the visual and the audiovisual aspects of learning for various educational purposes.Throughout the second half of the century, on the other hand, professionals in IDT hadexpanded its scope to the systematic instructional procedures that had hardly beenconsidered as a part of the field in educational technology in the first half of the century.Now, both instructional media and systematic educational processes are equallyconsidered as the key elements of IDT.Secondly, I found another interesting point in Chapter 3 about IDT in the relationshipbetween educational technology and World War II. Ironically, unlike other wars thatnormally destroy or eradicate things, World War II had boosted the development ofinstructional technology without having any negative effects on educational technology.This development was because many instructional professionals used their knowledge toevaluate and test the skills of trainees in military training programs. As a result, a lot ofeducational media had been produced and used during World War II. For example, 400training films had been developed and shown about 4 million times during the war. Inlight of the uses and impacts of instructional media on World War II, many educationaltechnologists could continue to work on solving instructional problems after the war.I also agree with the notion in Chapter 1 that the crucial elements of instructional designand technology are both educational media and instructional design procedures that aremutually complementary. Because unlike the early 20th century in which instructionaltechnology is only considered as media, there are many educational variables peopleshould think of in the 21st century, such as instructional sources, systematic educationalprocesses, and other human-related factors like behaviorism, constructivism, humanperformance technology etc. Thus, we have to contemplate both features fromtechnological resources and procedures, regarding learning and instruction.Finally, with this reading, I am more eager to study and research about the convergencebetween instructional media, design processes, and new technology. These includeAugmented Reality and Web 3.0 that are expected to be popular with web-based contentsin mobile learning within a decade or so.
  • 2. Reflection Paper of Unit 2Poring over Unit 2, I am more familiar with various concepts and terminologies ofInstructional Design and Technology, which have been used or are still in use with somemodifications and combinations with other concepts.It is quite interesting in Chapter 4 and 5 that the concept of Instructional Design (ID) wasoriginated from psychological foundations. ID started from the aspect of behaviorism whichmeans that learning can be understood, explained, and anticipated by the observations of thelearner along with one’s environmental consequences. In recent years, it is now more focusedon constructivism that is the learning approach to provide guidance for designing learningsurroundings that facilitate the acquisition of desired skills, knowledge, and attitudes.Moreover, I found that there is a significant difference between behaviorism andconstructivism. Learning in behavioral theories is mainly a matter of knowledge going fromoutside in, whereas, from constructivists’ views, knowledge in learning is going from insideto outside, which means that learners can control their learning environments.In Chapter 6, I am more clearly comprehended that how constructivism is different fromobjectivism and what kinds of design frameworks and practices can be used by constructivistsfrom epistemological perspectives. The key features of constructivism are that the learners havethe power to control knowledge to learn and environment to be taught in, as well asunderstanding is relative to each individual. In this regard, knowledge and skills are constructedby the learners, as well as educators can guide the trainees in constructing knowledge andfacilitate their learning in constructivism. By perusing articles and analyzing tables shown in thechapter, I am able to grasp an idea that why constructivism has been growing rapidly these days.It is because I suppose there have been being not only so many learning media like computers,Internet, and smart phones, but also sophisticated learning environments with e-learning andmobile learning, so that learners can manage their educational conditions on their own, such aslearning surroundings, their goals for learning, activities, and materials etc.As is pointed out in Chapter 8, holistic design approaches as alternating models of instructionaldesign methods are presented and those are the problem solving methods that deal withcomplexity without losing sight of the relationships among elements. I like this kind ofproblem-based learning due to more dynamic activities based on real-life experiences.Furthermore, I absolutely agree with the concept that complex cognitive tasks are being of utmostimportance with the current movement from atomistic models, conventional instructional designapproaches, to holistic models. The reason why I am agreeable to the idea above is that because ofthe advents of precipitately changing new technologies, routine works must be done by machines,and complex tasks should be carried out by human beings with holistic approaches. I suppose thisshift is the reaction to social and technological progresses during the past two decades or so.Regarding the learners’ motivation in Chapter 9, I agree with the author’s view of building digitalliteracy especially in self-motivation. In this ubiquitous society of Internet and electronicperformance support systems, learners should construct their own media literacy that is the abilityto rebuild or reproduce their own media or content after taking information and knowledge fromvarious media, such as learning via Internet, TV, traditional lectures, and so forth.In conclusion, in the coming future instructional designers are expected to design educational learningmodels that are much more progressive and productive for trainees to adopt for their learning usingholistic instructional design models. And learners should take the most appropriate instructionalmethods for them to expand their knowledge further with the concept of digital literacy.
  • 3. Reflection Paper of Unit 3Unit 3 consists of eight chapters. The first four chapters primarily show methods to evaluate andimplement instructional designs and the rest of Unit 3 mainly explain the origins of HumanPerformance Improvement/Technology (HPI/HPT) and the definitions of HPT, ElectronicPerformance Support Systems (EPSS), and Knowledge Management System (KMS).As soon as I started reading through Unit 3, I realized that this is what I would most liketo know and learn during my Master program at UNC. It is because Unit 3 mostly dealswith instructional designs in business settings. Evaluation, implementation, and humanperformance matters in corporate surroundings are covered in this reading.I definitely agree with Kirk Patrick’s four-level model of training evaluation in Chapter 10.The four levels go over how to make decisions on trainees’ performances during trainingprograms. I usually took these steps by using tests, surveys, and questionnaires to evaluateemployees’ safety consciousness in their workplaces, when I was in an evaluating position atEducational Media Department in 2006. At that time, I did my best to follow these four levels toevaluate workers’ knowledge and awareness of safety in their work environments, but I could nottechnically follow the exact theory step by step due to lack of the knowledge of this principle.Reading Chapter 11, it is quite interesting to know that adopters’ categories areproportionally divided into five groups from easy adopters to laggards. This chapter alsodiscusses five perceived attributes that refer to how adopters become aware of the innovation.Moreover, I am agreeable to the view that the innovation should not be adopted anddiffused but be implemented and institutionalized in real corporate environments for betterperformances in the future. In order to do that, I suppose empathy and communication onthe innovation among all participants throughout the process must be prioritized.In Chapter 14, I am very impressed that the direction of instructions and trainings is getting towardhuman performance issues, not just stuck in the matters of instructions or materials themselves inregards to poor performances. I suppose that since HPT has a much wider spectrum than justeducation and media, issues on poor instructions and low human performances in both academicand corporate situations will be easily managed by accessing to the matters from HPT perspectives.With the information about EPSS in Chapter 15, I have been using an EPSS in mycompany since 2004. My company, KOSHA, had developed its own EPSS in 2004,called Na-Nu-Ri. Subsequently, many EPSS applications for existing employees, thatmake office works be done efficiently, have been made. There are still some resistancesor issues on a couple of innovations developed by my company. I assume, however, theproblems on those concerns will be solved in the near future. On top of that, I agree thatEPSS will become more extensively used as an electronically integrated informationtechnology and will be a core part of the way people work and live in the future.Finally, it is very true in Chapter 17 that the power and the popularity of informallearning are gradually growing as our society and technology are being highly developed.Because individuals can have more sophisticated learning innovations and environmentsthan ever before and can access to all kinds of information with learning inventions andinfrastructures in no time at all whenever and wherever people need it.Hopefully, there will be a critical point of the learning scheme at which both formal and informallearning in school as well as corporate settings complementarily combine together in the future.So students and workers will be able to maximize their learning and training efficiencies.
  • 4. Reflection Paper of Unit 4Unit 4 has two different contexts to me. The first part, from Chapter 18 to 23, lets me see whattendencies and issues in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT) are going aroundin diverse settings ranging from businesses to schools. The latter section of Unit 4, Chapter 24through 27, allows me to put myself in shoes of an instructional designer, so that I can imaginethat I am looking for a job position as an instructional designer or technologist.Examining trends and issues of various settings, such as business, military, and schools,is a pleasurable experience for me, although I only look over a few fashions and matterson IDT of diverse surroundings.In Chapter 19, I can get some glimpses of ID systems and procedures taken in martialsettings. In addition to that, authors of this chapter shows that how an instructionaldesigner can collaborate with other professionals in military trainings. It is an interestingpoint that due to the military’s security issue, ID of military trainings seems to be quitedifferent from ID of other settings. Particularly, delivery environments and designconstraints are most likely to be challenging to an instructional designer in military.Chapter 21 demonstrates how P-12 education in US is changing its ecological universalchange for the sake of the better education of children in America. I can get a great deal ofinformation about the education system in US, comparing with education in KOREA. I amagreeable to the idea that in regards to redesigning the whole system of education, systemicchange should be taken for the massive transformation of education instead of piecemealchange. Moreover, it is good to know about two systemic change processes of the educationsystem: Guidance System for Transforming Education (GSTE) for educators, and Step-Up-To-Excellence (SUTE) for superintendents. There are also many empirical strategies andstudy results that should be kept in mind as an instructional designer in the future.With precious advices based on pragmatic experiences from five present ID professionalsin higher education at Chapter 22, I have become more confident to be an instructionaldesigner, technologist, or higher in US and got more knowledge about what and how Ihave to prepare for to be successful in the field of instructional design and technology.Five ID experts honestly and sincerely share their opinions about IDT field orinstructional designers for their juniors-to-be like me.Dr. Reiser presents 18 empirical lessons for getting an instructional designer position inChapter 24 derived from his own personal history. It seems to be similar with the advicesfrom ID professionals in Chapter 22, but this time professor Reiser indicates, I suppose, thesuccessful examples in more specific and articulate ways than those in the previous chapter.Among those lessons, I most agree with ‘Lesson 8’; don’t be discouraged if you don’t get thefirst job you apply for, thinking of an old saying “Rome wasn’t built in a day.” Also I assumethat these feasible lessons are worthy of keeping in mind to be successful in IDT career.Chapter 26 indicates that there is a great number of ID professional organizations andpublications in US and around the world. It is quite pleasant to search each organization oneby one, because each organization has a different mission, vision, and emphasis on education,training, and performance in diverse settings. And I am sure that their publications will showme various theories and experiential tips to examine and have throughout my IDT career bykeeping myself up to date with technologies and areas of interest.
  • 5. Reflection Paper of Unit 5Unit 5 is quite different from other chapters in the previous units. Unlike other units, it gives meboth diverse viewpoints of IDT, distributed learning and reusability of materials, and currentissues and futuristic perspectives of IDT.In Chapter 28, Dr. Dempsey examines that what distributed learning is and how instructionaldesigners play important roles in distributed learning of both business and school settings.This chapter gives me a manifest concept of distributed learning. To my shame I had knownthat distributed learning, online learning, and E-learning are all the same meaning before Iread this section. I now know, however, about the differences among them, distributed,online, and E-learning and became as much confident as I can explain other people about thedefinition of distributed learning. That is, distributed learning is a comprehensive learningparadigm or system that includes online, offline lectures, books, DVDs, video conferences,discussions, and a number of other elements by which learning is completed.Moreover, the reusability of learning objects and design content referred in Chapter 29 isnot familiar with me. That is why it is so good to know about the requirement ofreusability such as metadata, rights, interoperability, and other essentials. Among them, Isuppose metadata, which can be the key information to search certain knowledge or data,is very radical and useful to reuse existing sources by finding them with their meta-information. Metadata is also greatly common and important for Web 2.0 technology thatmakes data or content connected each other closely regardless of distance and timelimitations. Once data or information with their metadata is posted online, people caneasily search and access those data via Internet.Chapter 30 is about the definition of rich media and how to improve education viaproductive media such as videos, audios, and other learning products. Also it is quiteuseful to know about some basic knowledge of cognitive learning processes that includethe memory types of human beings brain and 6 steps for people to learn and getinformation and use them, called the cognitive processes of learning. At the latter part ofthis chapter, I found very agreeable statement of Harp and Mayer (1997) that the mostefficacious method to have learners impressed by an instruction is to assist them tocomprehend it by more actively getting involved in educational surroundings. I assumethat helping learners understand knowledge or information is one of the most importantroles that educators and trainers should have.Finally, I have realized that the future of educational technology or instructional design andtechnology is not always bright like other fields’ future. Everything has its pros and cons.Likewise, IDT has its merits with some demerits in its future. Authors refer an overlappingissue in Chapter 32 between educational technology and information and computer sciencesby adding another worrying comment that instructional designers or technologists maybecome managers who teach designers-by-assignment in business settings, not be realinstructional designers. In terms of these statements, I partly agree with this argument.However, now that a great number of professionals and students are proactively aware ofboth these challenges to our field, IDT, and the solutions for these issues or the right directionto pursue to, the future of educational technology field is not likely to be as negative asexperts in our profession mention in this book. As a graduate student of educationaltechnology sector, professionals and experts in IDT may be able to manage to do it and Iwant to be a support for solving these challenges, even small.