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Id&t terminology

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  • 1. ID&T Terminology Create a page ID&T Terminology Instructional Design & Technology Terminology Created by Enzo Silva (http://bit.ly/AwdZYH) Website by Kangdon Lee (http://iglassbox.thoth.kr/) A Active Learning Principle - Meaningful learning occurs when the learner engages in apporpriate cognitive processing during learning, including attending to relevant aspects of the incoming information, mentally organizing the material into a coherent cognitive representation, and mentally integrating it with existing knowledge activated from long-term memory.(Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) - Safna K. ADDIE - An acronym used to describe the core elements of instructional design. A: Analysis D: Design D: Development I : Implementation E: Evaluation (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) ADDIE is a systems approach of components that work together to achieve the same goal. (Margaret) Various flavors and versions of the ADDIE model exist. (Andrea Manor) IDT professionals often refer to "the Addie Model," but according to Michael Molenda (University of Indiana), it is impossible to track down a solid source for this integral model. His conclusion is that it simply a common acronym used in IDT vernacular and an excellent guideline for the instructional design process. ADDIE is a dynamic and flexible "model," meant to be edited as needed by the practitioner. (Michael Molenda, Link to Article) Access - Access to information is a key piece of Knowledge Management. In order for KM systems to be successful individuals within a KM setting must have a "single, easy to use, universal gateway to all information and collaboration resources" (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)--Margaret Achievement Test - a test designed to measure the degree of knowledge learning that has taken place after a person has been exposed to a specific learning experience (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007). Action Learning - An example of informal learning in the corporate environment. It is when small groups use what they are learning in training to solve problems that are really coming up in the workplace. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p. 170) Active learning principle - learning occurs when learners engage in appropriate cognitive processing during learning. (Clark, Mayer, 2008) Olivia Wozniak Adapting Resources - This term refers to resources which are changeable and can be reused in different contexts. For example, an online applet written by someone can be used by numerous instructors for different purposes. -Qi Adaptable Instruction: Instructional systems that allow the user choice in the sequence or content of instruction during the delivery of the content (Lee & Park, 2008). Tim M. Adaptive Control - A process where learners are directed or branched to different materials in a particular lesson based on the learners responses to previous questions or exercises (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Adaptive Instruction: An instructional approach that adjusts how content is presented to the learner. It alters the sequence, content, and format that a learner receives based on the learner’s individual characteristics (Shute & Towle, 2003). Timhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 2. ID&T Terminology M. Adaptive Technologies: Hardware and software that help achieve the adaptive goal of adjusting the instructional system to meet the particular needs of an individual learner (Shute & Zapata-Rivera, 2008). Tim M. Adopter Categories - A social classification system that is based on innovativeness. The concept states that for any given innovation, a certain percentage of the population will readily adopt the innovation, while others will be less likely to adopt. The categories are innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. (Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J., 2007, pp.106)- Thuy Nguyen. edited Barb C. C-D Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) - A collaboration between government and academia to establish a new distributed learning environment that permits interoperability of learning tools and course content on a global scale to also provide the highest quality education and training, tailored to individual needs, delivered efficiency, anywhere and at any time. (Reiser, Bratton-Jeffrey, Hoffman, Jeffrey, 2007, p. 190) Adoption and Diffusion - The rate at which new technologies and theories are utilized and then implimented on a mass scale. - Kyle W.In a social system, the way people accept an innovation is called adoption. Adoption is categorized into five areas: innovator, early adopter, early majority, late majority and laggard. Diffusion refers to how the innovation is accepted into the social system (Rogers, 2003). Adult Learners are non-traditional students who are usually older than traditional students and have returned to school for a variety of reasons. Their profile is very different from traditional, age-appropriate students. They are: Problem-centered; seek educational solutions to where they are compared to where they want to be in life Results-oriented; have specific results in mind for education - will drop out if education does not lead to those results because their participation is usually voluntary Self-directed; typically not dependent on others for direction Often skeptical about new information; prefer to try it out before accepting it Seek education that relates or applies directly to their perceived needs, that is timely and appropriate for their current lives Accept responsibility for their own learning if learning is perceived as timely and appropriate (Rochester Institute of Technology) (walter murphy) AECT - The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is a professional association of thousands of educators and others whose activities are directed toward improving instruction through technology. Ana Fuchs Affective Domain - The emotional component or domain of the human mind. There are contrasting theories regarding the effects of motivation on the affective domain vs. the cognitive domain. - Kyle W Affective Domain - that area of learning devoted to developing attitudes, values, or appreciations. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); / According to Krathwohl, it contains below 5 steps. ( From http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/Resources2/krathstax.htm ) - Joy 1. Receiving is being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. 2. Responding is committed in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. 3. Valuing is willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, orhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 3. ID&T Terminology phenomena. 4. Organization is to relate the value to those already held and bring it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. 5. Characterization by value or value set is to act consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized. Agents: Pedagogical agents are animated components of a learning environment that mimic face-to-face social interactions with other entitites in the learning environment. (Graesser, Chipman & King, 2008) - Tim M. Aggregator: the software that collect all the information contained in the RSS feed. It holds a list of websites and resources that offer RSS feeds. It may be a desktop application, a browser or mail application extension, or web-based. (Retrieved from http://www.teachinghacks.com/wp- content/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas%20for%20Educators111.pdf )- Thuy N. AICC - An acronym for the Aviation Industry CBT [Computer-Based Training] Committee. AICC is an international association of technology-based training professionals that develops training guidelines for the aviation industry. Similar to SCORM, AICC is a set of standards that are used for exchanging online training courses between various authors, course providers, and learning management systems. Barb C. Alternative Assessments- Assessments in opposition to standardized achievement tests and fixed-response tests. Alternative assessments are also called performance assessments because the learning is expected to perform. These assessments usually measure what a pen and pencil test can not measure such as problem solving and psychomotor skills. Graphic of Alternative Assessments http://evoe-assessment.wikispaces.com/AA-TA2 Ampliative Skills - Jonassen suggests that ampliative skills include constructing and applying knowledge, analogizing, and inferencing. (Jonassen, 1997)Definition is enlarging a conception by adding to that which is already known. (from Dictionary.com) Anchored Instruction - lies within the social constructivist paradigm since small groups work together to understand and solve realistic problems. Anchored instruction is most closely related to the goal-based scenario model. While anchored instruction may also resemble problem-based learning but is less open-ended. Most anchored modules are designed for young learners, and thus embed all of the necessary data to solve the problem within the modules themselves. Substantial independent research and data collection are not required in anchored modules, but are required in Problem-based learning .Anchored instruction is closely related to the situated learning framework and also to the Cognitive Flexibility Theory in its emphasis on the use of technology-based learning.(www.edtech.vt.edu/edtech/id/models/anchored.html ) Andragogy (Adult learning) - learner centered education for all ages, including adults. (agelesslearner.com/intros/andragogy.html ) - Kyle W. / It is the concept Malcolm Knowles introduced from Europe in a 1968 article. It means "the art and science of helping adults learn" and is contrasted with "Pedagogy" which means "the art and science of helping children learn. (Merriam, 2007) - Joy & consists of learning strategies focused on adults. It is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners with the structure of learning experience. (Wikipedia) LMI App gap - a gap in which affluent children are more likely to use mobile educational games while those in low-income families are the most likely to have televisions in their bedrooms. (Lewin, T. Screen time higher than ever for children.) Olivia Wozniak Applied Research - Applied research consists of scientific investigations that are intended to solve practical problems. (Rogers, 2003) - Safna K. ARCS Model - A motivation model. ARCS stands for, Attention-Relevance- Confidence-Satisfaction. Kyle - W /The ARCS model takes on a problem-solving approach to motivation. It provides guidance for the selection and implementation of different tactics depending on the current motivation level of your audience. - (Reiser & Dempsey. 2007 pp 87). - Brandy Ross Asking questions related to the different steps of the model is important to do before instruction because otherwise you are simple assuming that the learner is motivated, interested, and sees thehttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 4. ID&T Terminology relevance to his or her job. (Dick, Carey, Carey 2001, p. 98) Arousal Theory - A theory that says adding entertaining material to instructional material will promote learning by stimulating emotional engagement (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Artificial Intelligence - Intelligence in computers will one day revolutionize instructional systems by being able to perform high functions without human intervention. - Kyle W. Artificial intelligence is a major part of Web 3.0 technology for the World Wide Web, for computers will be able to sort data more effectively and tailor content to meet your needs (after they have analyzed you). This is already occurring to some extent. For instance, if you shop on Amazon.com, you will find recommendation lists compiled for you based off of items you have purchased and items you have explored while browsing through the website (Nations, n.d.). -Timothy Hicks Assessment - An evaluation designed to measure knowledge of specific content or objectives. Assessments can be any thing that can be measured and related to a given objective. Traditionally assessments have been given in the forms of tests, quizzes, and term papers, but a new movement of alternative assessments in online learning is growing. Assessment-Centered Criteria - test or item criteria used to judge item writing qualities such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, clarity, parsimony, and the use of recommended item formatting rules. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Assessment Instruments - materials developed and used to assess learners status and progress in both achievement and attitudes. For achievement, objective tests, product development activities, and live performances are included. For attitudes, both observation and self-report techniques are included. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) - international organization whose purpose is to improve "knowledge, theory, and quality of learning and teaching with information technology" (www.aace.org ) Association for Applied Interactive Multimedia (AAIM) - supports professionals who use and develop interactive multimedia for education and training (www.aaim.org ) - D. Saxon Associative Learning - is the process by which an element is learned through association with a separate, pre-occurring element. (Imani Mance) Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) - A professional organizaiton made up of educators trying to improve instruction throught technology. (www.aect.org ) ASSURE Model - An instructional design model used to help create instructional modules. The componenets of the ASSURE model are analyizing learners, stating objectives, selecting instructional methods, media, and materials, utilizing media and materials, requiring learner participation, and finally evaluating and revision. (http://www.unca.edu/education/edtech/techcourse/assure.htm ) ASTD - American Society for Training & Development - Professional organization for workplace learning and performance professionals. Founded in 1943. (http://www.astd.org/ ) - U. Bhatti Asynchronous - not occurring at the same time; having each operation started only after the preceding operation is completed; of or pertaining to operation without the use of fixed time intervals (opposed to synchronous ). (dictionary.reference.com) LMI Asynchronous Learning Network - Learners interact with each other through discussion boards, but they do not have to meet online at the same time. (http://www.aect.org/pdf/etr&d/4902/4904-02.pdf )- Thuy Nguyen Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model - The Atkinson–Shiffrin model (also known as the multi-store model) is a psychological model proposed in 1968 by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin as a proposal for the structure of memory. It proposed that human memory involves a sequence of three stages:http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 5. ID&T Terminology 1. Sensory memory (SM) 2. Short-term memory (STM) 3. Long-term memory (LTM) (Source: Wikipedia) -Safna K Atomistic Approach - Different from holistic design approach, atomistic is studying all the parts of complex contents or tasks and how they work together to make a whole. For example, when an instructor reduces a difficult task into simple elements, the instructor is using the traditional atomistic approach. -Qi Attitude - An internal state that influences an individuals choices of decisions to get under certain circumstances. Attitudes represent a tendency to respond in a particular way. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 363) Attitude Assessment – an assessment that allows educators to identify how students view themselves and their attitudes and feelings about a particular course (Alexander & Cobb, 1992). Audiovisual Education or Multimedia-Based Education (MBE) - is instruction where particular attention is paid to the audio and visual presentation of the material with the goal of improving comprehension and retention. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audiovisual_instruction - Firat SARSAR Augmented Reality - view of a real world environment with an overlay of information (audio, text, video etc). See Video Authentic Assessment – Proficiency of a skill is measured by performing a task requiring the use of the skill learned. An effective authentic assessment is one that includes "ill structured challenges and roles that help students rehearse for the complex ambiguities of .... adult and professional life" (Wiggins, 1990) - Valerie S. Gallagher Authentic Learning Task - learning that uses real-world problems and projects and that allow students to explore and discuss these problems in ways that are relevant to them. -Ana Fuch Authoring Tool - Software application used to produce media-based learning content -http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408 Koffivi Automatic Skills - The skills that can be executed easily without conscious thought (for example, compare the mental effort required the first time to drive a car versus after years of driving). Automatic skills free up attention and memory for other parts of problem solving. (Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed). p. 58) -Safna K Autonomous Learning - Independent, self-direct learning initiated by an individual. The focus is on independent thought and self-assessment to a degree. The term usually applies to home schooling, but can apply to most independent study. An interesting article on autonomy and higher ed can be found here: http://prs.heacademy.ac.uk/view.html/PrsDiscourseArticles/113 -Timothy H. Avatar- a virtual alter ego who lives in a virtual worlds (where instruction is increasingly taking place). -Ana Fuchs - A digital persona that any user can create and customize in 3D for virtual worlds. (http://secondlife.com/whatis/avatar/)- Thuy Nguyen B Backward compatibility – Backward compatibility refers to a hardware or software system that can successfully use interfaces and data from earlier versions of the system or with other systems. In user interface design, this also means minimizing the learning curve so that existing users can easily adapt to changes in the interface. - Safna K. Bandwidth - Bandwidth refers to how much data can be moved over a network per unit of time, measured in bits per second. Bandwidth is the speed at which your web browser can get web pages from a server. (Billingsley & Cunningham, "Curriculum Webs Weaving the Web into Teaching and Learning" Second Edition) - Safna K Bandwidth should be considered when creating visuals in instructional design. (Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 313) - Missyhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 6. ID&T Terminology Barriers to Technology Integration: the overcoming of challenges in order to attain a goal--There are two levels of barriers to technology integration. One is the lack of training and skills while the second is the reflection of teachers attitudes towards technology integration. Basic Reserach - The original investigations for the advancement of scientific knowledge. (Rogers, 2003) Beta Test - A trail of software or machinery that is done by independent users or the client. (websters dictionary) A test for a computer product prior to commercial release. Beta testing is the last stage of testing, and normally can involve sending the product to beta test sites outside the company for real-world exposure or offering the product for a free trial download over the Internet. Beta testing is often preceded by a round of testing called alpha testing . (Webopedia) (walter murphy) Behavior - an action that is an overt, observable, measurable performance. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Behavioral Learning Theory- the study of psychology and learning that is focused on behavior. (Skinner, 1987); learning can be understood, explained, and predicted entirely on the basis of observable events, namely the behavior of the learner along with its environmental antecedents and consequences. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) Immonen Behaviorism- learning theory in which subject content is divided into a series of small steps; the learner participates actively, receives feedback on effort, and is guided to sucess. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }) Behaviorism - Incorporates several individual theories. Three basic assumptions are held in relation to the process of learning under behaviorism: (1). The behavior is observable rather than "internal thought processes"; (2) Behavior is shaped by the environment the learner is immersed in; (3) Contiquity and reinforcement are essential elements of the learning process. (Merriam, et al, 2007, p. 278). Behaviorism - measurement of human behavior associated with philosophy and values (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Behavioral Objective - Instructors and teachers give learners specific objectives that will be accomplished throughout the lessons and course. Kyle W. Type of objective that indicates the specific behaviors students must demonstrate to indicate that learning has occurred. - Brandy Ross Behavior Engineering Model (BEM) - BEM developed by Thomas F. Gilbert was considered as a significant milestone and it has been used as a fundamental analytic HPI tool. This model distinguishes between a person’s repertory of behavior (individual knowledge, individual capacity, individual motives) and the environmental factors (environment information, environment resources, environment incentives), which provides people with a way of systematically and systemically identify barriers to individual and organizational performance. (Chevalier, R. 2002, p.1) - Qi Any performance problem within the workplace can be placed into one or more of the six categories of Gilberts BEM. - A. Adams Benchmark - an objective test or measurement that evaluators use to compare two or more competing products.(Freid Beiss, 1999, p.57) Koffivi Houngblame Big6 - The Big Six information skills model (Big6) is intended to foster the acquisition of research, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills through the cooperation of both school library media specialists and classroom teachers. Mike Eisenberg (Dean Emeritus and Professor - University of Washington Information School) and Bob Berkowitz (School Library Media Specialist with the Wayne Central School District, Ontario Center, NY) developed this process which guides students through information problem-solving as well as provides a basic framework for teaching and promoting information literacy. The Big6 consists of 6 stages: Task Definition - In this step, the student determines exactly what the informationhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 7. ID&T Terminology problem is and the specific information related to the problem. Information Seeking Strategies - Once the problem is clearly expressed, attention turns to the range of possible information sources. Location and Access - This is where the information seeking strategy really begins. Once students have decided on the appropriate strategy, the strategy is carried out. Use of Information - Once students are able to locate and access a source, they must be able to read, view, listen or interact with the information and decide what is valuable for their particular situation. They must extract the information that they need using notes, copies, citations, etc. Synthesis - The restructuring or repackaging of information into new or different formats to meet the requirements of the task is synthesis. This is where the real learning takes place as new information is brought in and links are made to pre- existing knowledge Evaluation - Evaluation determines how effectively and efficiently the information problem-solving process was conducted. For more information: (http://www.big6.com/ ) - Safna K Blended Learning - The combination of traditional classroom learning and e- learning. Also referred to as hybrid learning. However, there are four main reasons why blended learning is dangerous It does not seek the simple solution but an instructional approach. Used in formal instructional atmospheres. About 90% of learning is informal. Does not take into account cost noninstructional solutions are not examined to solve a problem. ( Marc J. Rosenberg, Beyond E-Learnining Approaches and Technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Performance , Pfeiffer, 2006 ) Blended Learning 2.0 - More than the traditional blend of classroom instruction and online instruction. It encompasses gaming, live labs, Webinars, virtual interaction, and moreL-M . -Kersa P. Block of Instruction - A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major subject area. http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408 Koffivi H. Blog - type of Web 2.0 service provides users with a webpage that they can provide continuous updates of whatever they like. Similar to an online diary. The two most popular blogging sites include YouTube (video blogging) and Blogger . - Brandy Ross Blogs differ from wikis in that in a blog only one person is able to add or edit content to the blog, other people are able make comments, but not add to or change the content. Blogs in plain English - Safna K Blooms Taxonomy of Learning - A hierarchical design of thinking and learning that orders the levels off thinking and learning from low to high as knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Modifications have been made to Blooms design of levels of thinking to change from noun forms to verb labeling and include creating as the highest level. (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67-68) http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm <-Click link to see two versions of Blooms Taxonomy of Learning. - A. Adams Blooms taxonomy chart - Safna K. Brache, Alan P. - With Geary Rummler, he developed a holistic model approach to organizational change. Their model focused on the gap between the individual and the organizational strategy (the flow between the organizational parts rather than activities in departments). Currently the two have established (1981) the Rummler- Brache group (www.rummler-brache.com ) and implement their Nine Box Model and methodology, targeting fortune 500 companies. Rummler & Brache viewed HPT from the organizational perspective in their book Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organizational Chart. Break out groups – Dividing a group of people into smaller groups to work on a task and or assignment. References Alexander, J., & Cobb, J. (1992). Assessing attitudes in middle and secondary schools andhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 8. ID&T Terminology community colleges. Journal of Reading, 36(2), 146-149. Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Clark,R., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by Viewing versus Learning by Doing: Evidence- Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13. Cronbach, L. J., & Snow, R. E. (1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods: A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington Publishers: distributed by Halsted Press EDUCAUSE, 7 things you should know about augmented reality (2005), http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7007.pdf . Graesser, A., Chipman, P., & King, B. (2008). Computer-mediated technologies. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 277-294). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Lee, J., & Park, O. (2008). Adaptive instructional systems. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 469-484). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Merriam. S. B. (2007) Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive Guide (3rd edition), San Francisco: Jossey Bass Nations, D. (n.d.). What is Web 3.0? About.com. Retrieved from http://webtrends.about.com/od/web20/a/what-is-web-30.htm Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Shute, V., & Zapata-Rivera, D. (2008). Adaptive technologies. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 277-294). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Shute, V., & Towle, B. (2003). Adaptive e-learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(2), 105- 114. doi: 10.1207/S15326985EP3802_5 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/us/screen-time-higher-than-ever-for-children- study-finds.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=app%20gap&st=cse C Calandra, Brendan (PhD) - After receiving degrees at Florida State University and he University of Florida, Dr. Calandra earned his PhD from the University of South Florida in 2002 while working in the Florida Center of Instructional Technology. Shortly there-after he became a professor at Georgia State University where he currently serves as the associate professor teaching courses such as IT 8000. Dr. Calandra Specializes in digital media as cognitive and transformative tools. Case Method - The presentation of real or fictional situations or problems to learners to analyze, to discuss, and to recommend actions to be taken. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Case Study -an instructional method that refers to assigned scenarios based on situations in which students observe, analyze, record, implement, conclude, summarize, or recommend. Case studies are created and used as a tool for analysis and discussion. (Giddens, A. (1984). In R. Yin (1993). Applications of case study research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.) Certified Performance Technologist – A performance technologist specialist that meets the certification requirements according to the 10 CPT standards. A CPT specializes in improving an organization’s efficiency in concert with codes of ethics. (Reiser, Davidson-Shivers, Rasmussen, 2007, p. 279) Certified Performance Technology Designation - The ASTD and ISPI offerhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 9. ID&T Terminology certification for performance technology. The certification of performance technologist includes demonstration of mastery of ten standards as well as the code of ethics. The ten competencies Focus on results Take a systematic look at things. Add value in work Use partnerships and collaboration Be systematic in the assessment of the need and opportunity Be systematic in the work and workplace identity Be systematic in all aspects of the solution and requirements Be systematic in the implementation of the solution Be systematic in the evaluation and results. (Davidson-Shivers, G. V., & Rasmussen, K. L. (in press) Web based learning: Design, implementation, & evaluation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.) Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP) - Certification provided by ASTD. Candidates must have a minimum of 3 years experience in the field of learning and performance, pass a 150 question exam, and submit a work product. Change Agent – A change agent is one who others in a social system look to as a role model for adoption of an innovation (Rogers, 2003). Chief Learning Officer (CLO) -is the foremost resource in the rapidly growing industry of workforce learning and development. CLOs can be experts in corporate or personal training, with degrees in education, instructional design or similar. (www.clomedia.com ) Koffivi Chunk of Instruction - All the instruction required to teach one objective or a combination of two or more objectives. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Chunking is a method of presenting information that splits concepts into small pieces or "chunks" of information to make reading and understanding faster and easier. The word chunking comes from a paper by George A. Miller , The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information . At a time when information theory was beginning to be applied in psychology, Miller observed that while some human cognitive tasks fit the model of a "channel capacity" characterized by a roughly constant capacity in bits, short-term memory did not. A variety of studies summarized that short-term memory had a capacity of about "seven plus-or-minus two" chunks. Miller acknowledged that "we are not very definite about what constitutes a chunk of information." (Wikipedia) (walter murphy) CIPP Evaluation Model - Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation Model that is four distinctive types of evaluation that can be conducted in a single comprehension evaluation or a stand alone evaluation (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). It is a comprehensive model for evaluating programs, products, and personal work. The CIPP model can be used in a check list format. www.wmich.edu/evalctr/checklists/cippchecklist.htm ( A web page devoted to the CIPP model) Classical conditioning - is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. It was first describe by Ivan Pavlov. Imani Mance Classroom on Wheels (COW). Mobile education vehicle typically featuring a bus or recreational vehicle (RV) equipped as a classroom. The intent is to make education more accessible by bringing instruction to students. Most uses focus on pre-K and adult services, addressing the needs of non-traditional students in these categories and, frequently, students in rural areas. A precursor to the COW is the bookmobile, which was a library on wheels. The term also refers to mobile conferencing equipment that can be "wheeled" into a location where distance learning classes are held. (walter murphy)http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 10. ID&T Terminology - Example at GSU: Bio-Bus Cloud computing - refers to the applications, resources, services and even data that are hosted virtually. Google has a number of applications, such as Google docs and Voice, that are examples of cloud computing. Uzma B. Within this broad definition, there are variations of cloud computing: SaaS (Software as a Service) refers to applications, e.g., word processing, spreadsheets that can be accessed through a web browser versus having a licensed copy of the application(s) on an individuals computer. Utility Computing refers to a service by which additional data storage and virtual servers are accessed on an as needed basis. Web Services refer to business services that are delivered via the Internet, e.g., ADP payroll processing, Google Maps, or credit card authorization and processing. (Infoworld.com) (walter murphy) Coaching. A technique of cognitive apprenticeship whereby the instructor observes students as they try to complete tasks and provides hints, help and feedback as needed. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Code of Professional Ethics - Code of ethics created by the AECT that all instructional designers and technologists are expected to uphold. Codification - the method of documenting and storing explicit knowledge. The best known codification is the public library. (Rosenberg ,Marc, Beyond E-Learning: Approahces and technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Performance, Pfeiffer, 2006.) Cognition - The mental or internal process of knowing, thinking, learning, recalling and judging. This includes problem solving, language and memory. - Melissa S. Cognitive apprenticeship: "is a method of teaching aimed primarily at teaching the processes that experts use to handle complex tasks. The focus of this learning-through- guided-experience is on cognitive and metacognitive skills, rather than on the physical skills and processes of traditional apprenticeships" (Conway, 1997). Cognitive Apprenticeship is also “… designed, among other things, to bring these tacit processes into the open, where students can observe, enact, and practice them with help from the teacher…” (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989). Also check: http://www.kenton.k12.ky.us/dl/general/readings/collins_cogapp.pdf Cognitive Apprenticeship is also "an instructional model that seeks to emulate the opportunities for extended practice on authentic tasks that apprentices have while working under a master craftsman." Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Cognitive domain - This domain concerns to how individuals think; their intellectual capabilties, level of development and perferred thinking styles. Related terms/concepts include; cognitive or thinking styles, intellectual development, critical thinking. www.nald.ca/adultlearningcourse/glossary.htm Ex. Blooms Taxonomy - Melissa S. / The cognitive domain includes 6 major categories, knowldge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. ( from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html ) - Joy Cognitive Flexibility Theory - According to Godshalk et al (2004: 510), Cognitive Flexibility Theory “maintains that instruction in complex, ill-structured domains must allow the learner to "crisscross" the domain knowledge by comparing and contrasting information gained from different perspectives and themes pertinent to the domain. The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. In other words, learners must be flexible in their understanding of a topic to apply important concepts.” http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Cognitive_flexibility_theory - Firat SARSAR Also defined as "A theory of learning for advanced knowledge. Advanced knowledge is seen as less rule-based and rigid than introductory knowledge. The theory recommends approaching content from multiple perspectives through multiple analogies and the use ofhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 11. ID&T Terminology hypertext instruction." Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Cognitive Flexibility Theory - is a conceptual model for designing learning environments based on cognitive learning theory. Spiro and Jehng (1990 Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. In Nix, D., Spiro, R. (Eds.), Cognition, education and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.) defined cognitive flexibility as “the ability to adaptively re-assemble diverse elements of knowledge to fit the particular needs of a given understanding or problem-solving situation” (p. 169). This theory focuses on learning in complex and ill-structured domains – which represent most situations in real life. Major principles of Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Instructions should avoid oversimplification Learning activities must use multiple representations of the content Emphasis on case-based instruction Advanced knowledge must be acquired in a real-world context Emphasis on knowledge construction (not transmission of information) Knowledge sources need to be highly interconnected rather than compartmentalized. Although this theory can be used in lower levels of learning, it is generally focused on advanced knowledge acquisition (particularly in the use of hypertext). http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Class_Websites/761_Spring_04/Assets/course_docs/ID_Theory_Reps_Sp04/spiro- Nicikel.pdf - Firat SARSAR Cognitive Information Processing Theory- a multistage, multistore theory of memory that is generally regarded as the basis for information processing theory. Three memory systems in the learner (sensory, short term, and long-term memory) are assumed to receive information from the environment and transform it for storage and use in memory and performance. In addition to stages through which informaiton passes, processes such as attention, encoding, and retrieval are hypothesized to act on informations as it is received, transformed, and stored for later recall and use. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) LMI Cognitive Load - Learners process information in different ways. The cognitive load theory assumes that learners have limited working memory and unlimited long-term memory. The goal of learning is to free up working memory from unnecessary mental effort and integrate new information and knowledge into schemas in long-term memory. (Clark, Nguyen & Sweller, 2006). Cognitive Load Theory- it is a theory of cognitive processes and instructional design. It considers the structure of information and the cognitive architecture that allows learners to process that information. Cognitive Strategy - Metaprocesses of the mind that enable and manage personal learning. ((Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 363) Cognitive Trait Model - a model that uses cognitive traits to profile learners. Cognitive traits are persistent and tend to be valid over a period of time. There are 4 cognitive traits: working memory capacity inductive reasoning ablility processing speed associated learning skills Cognitive Psychology. "The scientific analysis of human mental processes and memory structures in order to understand human behavior" Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Cognitive Learning Style- unique way an individual receives and processes information as classified on a number of scales ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 12. ID&T Terminology (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); / an individuals characteristic and consistent approach to organizing and processing information. Cognitive and learning styles are typically represented as polar opposites of a single dimension so that a person is described as field dependent or indipendent, reflective or impulsive, serialist or holist, a converger or a diverger, aleveller or a sharpener, a vebalizer or visualizer and so on. (Tennant, M, 2006, psychology and adult learning. chapter 6. learning Styles.) -Joy Cognitive Strategies- highest level of cognitive learning, typified by problem solving. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Cognitivism - "Cognitive theorists recognize that much learning involves associations established through contiquity and repetition. They also acknowledge the importance of reinforcement, although they stress its role in providing feedback about the correctness of responses over its role as a motivator. However, even while accepting such behavioristic concepts, cognitive theorists view learning as involving the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information. (Good & Brophy, 1990, pp.187) www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm#The Basics of Behaviorism Nada Coherence Principle -Students learning might be negatively affected when interesting but irrelevant words, pictures, sounds and music are added to a multimedia presentation. In addition, studnet leanring is improved when extraneous words are removed from a multimedia presentation. (Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press). -Qi Collaboration - Collaboration is one of the three key elements of Knowledge Management (also includes codification and access). In respect to Knowledge Management, collaboration "is the peer-to-peer sharing of tacit expertise, insight, and experience across the global community". Collaboration involves collectively working with an individual or a group in an effort to accomplish an agreed upon goal / agenda. Collaborative learning -Collaborative Learning Learning that occurs in a group and can include group discussions, collective hands-on activities, multimedia presentations, demonstrations, or hands-on activities. (Beisse, F.,1999, Course Technology) Koffivi Houngblame Collaborative Workspaces- Virtual spaces that allow students (in various locations) to work together in a shared environment. Colocated Teams--a team whose members work in the same building or general area and can physically C-D meet. [Ritchey, R. C., Morrison, G. R., & Foxon, M. (2007). In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.] Tippi Hyde Community - a sense that members have belonging, members matter to one another and to the group (Brock and Oliver) Community in relation to online interaction in collective online communities such as social networking and blogging (M. DIxon) Community of Inquiry Framework: An educational community of inquiry is a group of individuals who collaboratively engage in purposeful critical discourse and reflection to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding. The Community of Inquiry theoretical framework represents a process of creating a deep and meaningful (collaborative-constructivist) learning experience through the development of three interdependent elements—social, cognitive, and teaching presence. [Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000).]- K. Hindsman Communities of Practice : Communities of practice are group of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact reguarly. (from http://www.ewenger.com/theory/communities_of_practice_intro.htm ) Communities of practice facilitate collaboration by enabling people with similar interests, need, and responsibilities to work together across time and distance. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p 159) - Joy - Communities of practice are distinguishable fromhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 13. ID&T Terminology committee and groups because of their informal and fluid nature. The communities ebb and flow in reponse to the participants needs - Uzma Comparative Testing- usability testing that compares two or more instructional technology products or designs and distinguishes the strengths and weaknesses of each. Competencies- Having sufficient skill, knowledge, experience, or qualified to perform a particular task (Reiser and Dempsey 2007). Complex Goal—a goal that involves more than one domain of learning. Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Complexity Theory -Complexity theory is the study of adaptive , self-organizing systems —that is, learning systems—which resist explanation in terms of the reductive methods used in most traditional science. Complexity theory focuses on the dynamic relationships and patterns among phenomena rather than the static properties of isolated objects. Its explanatory framework and core concepts—which include emergence , evolution and embodiment —have been adopted by mathematicians, biologists, physical scientists and social scientists, as well as many thinkers in the humanities. Many educators have used complexity theory and science to understand, explain and explore their experiences of teaching, learning , classrooms and other educationalactivities.http://www.complexityandeducation.ualberta.ca/glossary/g_complexsci.htm - Firat SARSAR Common Cartridge - Common Cartridge (CC) is a learning object that enhances SCORM to incorporate the sharing of tests and assessments, distributed content accessible via the web, and collaborative forums (Anido-Rifon & Gonzalez-Barbone, 2009, p. 2). Imani Mance Computer-Assisted Instruction- in the early days of instructional technology, in the 1950s, IBM developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) including a program that was to be used in public schools. -Ana Fuchs Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) -The use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Functions of CMI can include a management administration system designed to track student performance over a period of time, provide information concerning performance trends, record individual and group performance data, schedule training, and provide support for other training management functions. http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408 Koffivi H. Concept- name or expression given to a class of facts, objects, or events, all of which have common features. Concept Mapping: a technique for representing knowledge in graphs. Knowledge graphs are networks of concepts. Networks consist of nodes (points/vertices) and links (arcs/edges). Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relations between concepts.http://users.edte.utwente.nl/lanzing/cm_home.htm Conceptual Blending (Fauconnier and Turner) Connecting two concepts to create new meaning. The process of bringing concepts in relation to each other together. Conditions of Learning - stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning. The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. Confirmative Evaluation - expands traditional evaluation to measure long term and expanded performance improvement and focuses on long-term effects or results over the life cycle of a change program. (Giberson, Tracey, & Harris, Confirmative Evaluation of Training Outcomes: Using Self-Report Measures to Track Change at the Individual and Organizational Level Performance Improvement Quarterly. Hoboken: 2006. Vol. 19, Iss. 4; pg. 43, 19 pgs). - Firat Sarsar Connectivism- Learning theory defined by George Siemens (2004). An approach tohttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 14. ID&T Terminology learning that considers technology as a key factor (Solomon & Schrum, 2007). Connected Learning - coined by Belenky et al (1986), where learners build knowledge by connecting to other people or things .Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books. Constituent skills: A term that is used in holistic (whole-task) instructional design models to identify the skills that are aspects of the complex skill. In a whole-task model, the term "constituent skills" replaces the term "subskills."- Barb Cebulski Constructive Learning Environments - should produce the following to be effective: Engage learners in authentic learning constructs and activities. Provide collaboration during the learning process and encourage group discussions. Support the individual goals of learners. Help learners reflect on their learning experience. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007 p. 42) Constructivism - a philosophy that underlies theories from which pedagogies and models are derived; primarily an epistemological and onto logical conception of what is reality, knowledge, the mind, thought, and meaning are. (Reiser & Dempsey) LMI Constructivists put the action of learning onto the learner and the instructor acts more as a coach or guide instead of as a lecturer. Constructivism - the process of knowlege and understanding. The learners receives information from the environment, transforms it, acquires knowledge, and stores it into memory (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Consultative- to be like a counselor and listen and advise your customers toward providing the most suitable performance solution reccomendation possible, which may not be instruction per se. -Ana Fuchs ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }) Context Evaluation - The assesment of the environment in which the technology will be used. Contiguity Principle - A principle that states people learn more from multimedia lessons when distracting stories, graphics, sounds, and extraneous words are eliminated (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Communication theory - the principle of how information is transmitted and delivered. - Melissa S. Computer as tool - the use of the computer as a learning tool. The student uses the computer as a tool to accomplish a goal, but the computer is not providing the instruction or the actual reinforcement. - Brandy Ross Computer as Tutee - the use of the computer as a tutee. In this role the computer simply responds to stimuli presented by a student or a teacher. The learner gives the computer instruction and then the computer responds. This allows the student or teacher to gain greater understanding of the topic they are teaching as well as learn how to communicate effectively with the computer. - Brandy Ross Computer as tutor - the use of the computer as a tutor. The computer is programmed to be an expert on a particular subject. The student is then tutored by the computer executing the program(s). The computer presents some subject material, the student responds, the computer evaluates the response, and, from the results of the evaluation, determines what to present next. - Brandy Ross Computer-based instruction (CBI)-- software program that displays information and instructions on a video screen, requiring learner participation and choices ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. p. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Computer-based training- Also known as CBT, a learning course that is primarily delivererd via a computer. It is usually used to teach computer related topics, but can be used to teach any topic. (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci873507,00.html ) Condition - component of a learning objective that describes the specific situation inhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 15. ID&T Terminology which the performance occurs. - W. Clark Cone of Experience- A visual that illustrates Dales classification system for varied types of mediated learning experiences. The 10 types of learning from top to bottom are as follows: Read, Hear, View Images, Watch Video, Attend Exhibits/Sites, Watch A Demonstration, Participate in Hands On Workshop, Design Collaborative Lessons, Simmulate or Modela a Real Experience, and Design/Perform a Presentation (http://www.indiana.edu/~molpage/Cone%20of%20Experience_text.pdf ) Image of Cone of Experiences Confirmative Evaluation - A lapse of time is necessary to conduct this type of evaluation. Allowing for transfer and impact to occur. The delay coincides with Foxons view of transfer as a five stage process that occurs over time after training (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) ~ Tammy Congruence Analysis - "Analyzing the congruence between (1) an organizations stated needs and goals and those addressed in candidate instruction, an organizations target learners entry behaviors and characteristics and those for wic candidate materials are intended; and an organizations resources and those required for obtaining and implementing candidate instruction. Conducted during the expert judgement phase of summative evaluation." (Dick, Carey, and Carey, 6th Ed.), Glossary. - Nada Constructivism - Constructivism stems from the relativist perspective. It is an attitude or a way of thinking, a philosophy; therefore, it describes how instruction should happen, regardless of methodologies utilized. Constructivists, according to Jonassen, “believe that reality is constructed by individuals and social groups based on their experiences with and interpretations of the world” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 46). Knowledge is, therefore, not gained from the outside world, but discovered within oneself. Individuals build or create their knowledge as they attempt to interpret and make sense of their experiences (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 58). http://www.funderstanding.com/constructivism.cfm Constructionism - stems from constructivism philosophy. The theory of constructivism but with the further idea that students gain knowledge more easily when the learner is engaged in the construction of an external and tangible artifact that can be shared with others (Papert. "Situating Constructionism". 1999) Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)- Modern constructivist learning environments refer to technology-based envionrments in which learners are engaged in meaningful interactions. This environment emphasizes on learners who interpret and construct meaning based on their own experiences and interactions. The constructivism stresses the student as being the active learner, playing a central role in mediating and controlling learning. (Johnson, P. A. (1999). "Peer-Reviewed Papers - Problem-Based, Cooperative Learning in the Engineering Classroom." Journal of professional issues in engineering education and practice 125(1): 8-11. )- Qi Constructional Design - "focuses on the creation of learning environments that enable and support individual construction by engaging in design and invention tasks (Reiser and Dempsey p.58). There are for learning-design principles that go into constructional design... "1) individuals are active learners and control their own learning process; 2) individuals create concrete, tangible evidence (artifacts) that reflect their understanding; 3) artifacts are shared collectively as well as reflected on individually to extend ones understanding; and 4) the learning problems and contexts are authentic" (Reiser and Dempsey p. 58) Content Analysis - When applied to an instructional goal, this process results in the identification of the relevant knowledge, skills and procedures required for a learner to achieve said goal. - W. Clark Content Management System (CMS) - A system providing a collection of procedures (manual or computer based) used to manage work flow in a collaborative environment. - Safna K Content Model - used to identify the components of a learning resource according to their granularity and pedagogical attributes. - W. Clark Content Stability - the degree to which information to be leaned is likely to remain current. Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instructionhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 16. ID&T Terminology (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Context Evaluation - The first step in the CIPP model. Assesses the environment in which an innovation would be used, determine the need and objectives for the innovation, and identify factors in the environment that will impact the success of its use. (Dempsey, J. and Reiser R. (2007). Context sensitivity - being aware when doing research that the persons and organizations under study have cultural preferences that dictate acceptable ways of asking questions and collecting information. Also called cultural sensitivity. Corrective Feedback - Instructional responses to answers to a practice exercise that tells the learners whether they answered correctly or incorrectly (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Cost-benefit Analysis (CBA) - An evaluation to determine if the benefit of a choice, action, or goal out-way the investment or cost of obtaining the goal. Craft Approach - The approach used by many faculty member in higher education. It is defined as an individual teacher fully designing the course and related material based on what worked in the classroom and putting it on the web (Moore & Kearley, 1996 in Moller, Foshay, & Huett, 2008). ~Tammy Creative Collaboration (Vera John-Steiner, 2000) - the art of working collaboratively to identify the complex issue and work collectively to create the perfect solution, through constant group analysis and dialogue Creative Commons - a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the works of others, consistent with the rules of copyright. - W. Clark Creativity - Special human talents and imagination used to generate new ideas (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Criterion-Referenced Test - "Items designed to measure performance on an explicit set of objectives; also known as objective-referenced test items (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2005)". Criterion-referenced scores compare a learner’s performance with a concise content domain. The assessment clearly measures what a learner can and cannot do, such as converting yards into meters (Oosterhof, A., Conrad, R., & Ely, D., 2008). Criterion-Referenced Test - A test that measures how well an individual can perform a particular behavior or task (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Critical Viewing- is the ability to use critical-thinking skills to view, question, analyze, and understand issues presented in visual media, including photography, film, television, video, and the Internet. (http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/NR/rdonlyres/A6A4F244-C153-47DD-A184- 16CE7F740554/1624/E_BACK.pdf )- Thuy N. Cross-Platform Compatibility (Interoperability)- This term refers to the ability for a resources to be used on different operating systems, with different browsers and software configurations. For example, it is better for a resource which can run on any version of Windows, MACOS, or Unix based system rather than it can only operate on a specific operating system. [(Dempsey, J., & Reiser, R. (2007)] -Qi CSILE - Computer Supported Intentional Leaning Environment. Scardamalia & Bereiter (1994, 1996). Computer tool that enables students to engage in the discourse of a subject matter discipline in a scholarly way. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 40). ~Tammy Cultural Capital - The prior knowledge that a student or learner brings to the classroom setting. Cultural capital is a basis of prior knowledge often first hand allowing for greater understanding of a specific topic. Cultural Capital is related to Socio-Economic Status and the Socio-Economic Educational Divide. (M. Dixon) Culturally Diverse Learners- students from various ethic cultures. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 348) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }) Curriculum Web - A website or webpage including multimedia links designed specifically for the process teaching and learning. It includes a curriculum plan, a homepage, student activities, and a teaching guide.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 17. ID&T Terminology [(Cunningham, C., & Billingsley, M. (2005) Curriculm webs: Weaving the web into teaching and learning. 2nd ed. P. 29)]- Thuy Nguyen Cybernetic - This definition helps bring better meaning to the definition of systems theory. Cybernetic "means that the elements communicate among themselves, an essential condition for a system to be interdependent, synergistic, and dynamic. (Reiser & Dempsey 2007, p.11)--Margaret / Cybernetics is a science of purposeful behavior. It helps us explain behavior as the continuous action of someone (or thing) in the process, as we see it, of maintaining certain conditions near a goal statem or purpose. (Dooley, J., Thoughts on the Question: What is Cybernetics? from http://www.well.com/~dooley/systems.html#basics ) - Joy Cyber schools (also known as virtual schools)-distance education programs targeting grades K-12, which utilize the full potential of technology mediated instruction and may be operated by a state, district, non-profit organization, corporation, charter school, consortia, higher education, or some other entity (Rice, K. L., 2006). D D4M2 Model -a model of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) developed by Digital Research in the 1980s. This acronym stands for Define, Design, Deliver, Manage-Measure ((Reiser & Dempsey 2007, p. 151). Declarative Knowledge – Knowledge that can be declared or expressed in words. Can be factual or perceptual and include sensory knowledge. Decorative Graphics - Visuals used for aesthetic purposes or to add humor, not for illustrating an instructional objective (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Delivery System - The term that describes the media that the instruction will come from, for example, e-learning has a delivery system of the World Wide Web. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 364) Dempsey, John - co-editorof "Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology" a seminal work in this field. Designed Based Learning - a form of project-based learning in which students learn what they need to learn in a just-in-time fashion while trying to design something. (lrdc.pitt.edu http://www.lrdc.pitt.edu/schunn/research/design.html) Design Adjustment - the stage during design research after macrocycle level analysis when "identified adjustments are used in a subsequent instructional design process and in the selection of the associated research methods. The process follows the steps described in the initial design stage to which is added a clear descriptive documentation of the rationales behind the modifications in design" (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p.49). Design Boost - is a four day bootcamp for prototyping digital learning products hosted by venture philanthropist Starl. Starls primary objective is tobring learning into the 21st century, to create digital products that excite and engage kids in meaningful learning. In partnership with IDEO , Startl offers a multi-day immersion for designers and creators, hackers and coders, builders and entrepreneurs. Boost is an intense activity, with lots of hands-on, real-world involvement in the design and product development process. Participants take the seed of an idea and see whether they can grow it into an effective and marketable learning product. Valerie S. Gallagher Design Brief - a document that is completed at the end of the Design phase. This document shows a detailed overview of the learning experience including a sequenced list of learning and performance tasks, a list of testing strategies, and a summary of the benefits derived from learning. - W. Clark Design Evaluation Chart - A method for organizing design information to facilitate its evaluation. The chart relates skills, objectives, and associated test items, allowing easy compirason among the components of the instructional design. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 364) Koffivi Design Research - Integrates the design of learning environments with the development of prototherioes (emergent, developmental theories) (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg. 48). ~Tammy Design Research - "The overall goals of the entire design research process is tohttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 18. ID&T Terminology contribute to the development of a theoretical model of learning and instruction rooted in a firm empirical base"(Brown, 1992, p. 143) The major characteristic of design research is that instructional design should be research rather than pragmatic. Design Researchers – Instructional design technology (IDT) professionals that are skilled at various forms of inquiry, action, quantitative, and qualitative, and are tasked with quality control, installing and monitoring tools and systems, are required o have technical levels of expertise, (Reiser, Merrill, Wilson, 2007, p. 347) Didactics - refers to the art or science of teaching (Reiser & Dempsey, 2010) Diffusion - The spread of innovations within a community and then from one community to another by communication among the members of a social system. - Ana Fuchs Digital Divide - refers to the distance between socio-economic groups for access to the Internet and available resources found therein. For instance, not all students have the same access to Internet educational resources thereby creating a divide between the have and have nots. It is a significant consideration especially if access to Internet resources is required for the students education. The divide may exist among students as well as among schools. (walter murphy) Digital History and Preservation - Using current technology to preserve, record and document primary sources (M Dixon) Digital Immigrant - Non-natives of the digital age. Digital literacy is the ability to locate, organize, understand, evaluate, and analyze information using digital technology. It is a "catalyst and enabler of the kind of collaborative, participatory learning that we all need to embrace." [Knobel, K., (June/July, 2009). Hungry for help. Edutopia.] - Thuy Nguyen Digital Native - Those who grew up immersed in the digital age. Diploma Mill - Derogatory term for a profit-generating, distance education institution which lacks educational credibility. This type of distance learning institution has no classrooms, untrained or nonexistent faculties, and unqualified administrators. Profit is the institutions primary motivator (adapted from Simonson, M. et. al., 2009) Direct Instruction- An instructional model that is characterized by the teacher providing direct instruction to students. Students receive information rather than interacting to draw conclusions. Materials are teacher driven. – Andrea Manor Directive Architecture - Training that primarily asks the learners to make a response or perform a task and then provides feedback. Also called the show-and-do method. Based on a response-strengthening view of learning (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Discovery Learning - a personal, internal, constructivist situation where the learner draws on his/her own experiences and prior knowledge to discover new knowledge Dissemination - process of communicating the procedures and findings from an assessment or evaluation to relevant audiences in a timely, impartial, and consistent fashion http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/glossary.php Koffivi H. Distance Learning - "Education or training delivered to individuals who are geographically dispersed or separated by physical distance from the instructor using computer and telecommunication facilities" (Belanger, F. & Jordan, D., 2000). Distance Learning - Using technology to teach students and learners across different locations. For instance, the World Wide Web is used in distance education to provide rich learning environments from across long distances. (http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/misc/glossary.htm) Distance Learning Facility - Places/facilities with complete technical support for the delivery of distance education classes. Students in distance education classes often use these for exams. Distributed Cognition – A theory that recognizes that people solve problems or perform tasks with the aid of resources. Information is processed between the individual, tools, and artifacts that are provided by the environment or culture. (Reiser, Jacobs, Dempsey, 2007, p. 331) Distributed Learning - multiple interfaces--"Distributed learning is an instructional model that allows instructor, students, and content to be located in different, nonhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 19. ID&T Terminology centralized locations so that instruction and learning occur independent of time and place. The distributed learning model can be used in combination with traditional classroom-based courses, with traditional distance learning courses, or it can be used to create wholly virtual classrooms." (Salzburg, 1995). The defining characteristic of distributed learning is the use of "flexible functional architecture that takes a variety of manifestations" (from Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J., 2007). Distributed Knowledge - group is smarter than the individual-->similar to concepts in Friedmans book. "Distributed knowledge is a term used in multi-agent system research that refers to all the knowledge that a community of agents possesses and might apply in solving a problem." (Distributed, 2008) Distributed Practice - Exercises that are placed throughout a lesson rather than all in one location. Long-term learning is better under conditions of distributed practice (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Diversity - The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~asuomca/diversityinit/definition.html - Firat SARSAR Domain of Learning - A major type of learning that is distinguished from other domains by the type of learned performance required, the type of learning conditions required and the relevant learning conditions. ((Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 364) Dreyfus and Dreyfuss Model of Human Skill Development - The stages individuals go through when learning new skills. Individuals start at the novice level then move to advanced beginner stage, competent stage, proficient, and expert. Dual Coding Principle (Dual Channels Principle) - Learners have separate learning channels for processing visual/pictorial information and auditory/verbal information. Therefore, instructional designers should be cognizant of the fact that cognitive overload may take place when they overwhelm one of the channels with the excess of information (Clark, Mayer, 2008) - Olivia Wozniak, Safna K Durability - Definition 1: Hacker and Niederhausers (2000) define durable learning in terms of instructional strategies. Specifically, they argue that principles of active learning, collaboration, effective feedback, and motivation can make learning durable. Hacker D. J. & Niederhauser, D. S. (2000). Promoting deep and durable learning in the online classroom. In R. E. Weiss, D. S. Knowlton, & B. W. Speck (Eds.), Principles of effective teaching in the online classroom (pp.53-64). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass - Firat SARSAR. Definition 2: The third of three dimensions (integrativity, specificity, and durability) of the concept of competence from a comprehensive, analytical study by van Merrienboer, van der Klink, and Hendriks (2002). This dimension indicates that competence is more or less stable in spite of changes in tools, working methods, and technologies. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). Dynamic - This definition defines the term which is used in the definition of systems theory. In combination with synergy and cybernetics, dynamic is essential for achieving a systems goals and objectives. Dynamic means "that the system monitors its environment and that elements within the system can be adjusted in light of changes in the environment". Dynamic - A system that adjusts to constantly changing environments and conditions (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). References: Belanger, F. & Jordan, D., 2000. Evaluation and Implementation of Distance Learning: Technologies, Tools and Techniques. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Clark,R., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by Viewing versus Learning by Doing: Evidence- Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 20. ID&T Terminology Clark, R. Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. 2006). Efficiency in Learning - Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing and mathematics (Technical Report No. 403). BBN Laboratories, Cambridge, MA. Centre for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois. January, 1987. Conway, J. (1997). Educational Technologys Effect on Models of Instruction. Retrieved November 17, 2008 from: http://udel.edu/~jconway/EDST666.htm#cogappr Distributed knowledge. (2008, May 26). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:35, November 11, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Distributed_knowledge&oldid=214978389 Dooley, J., Thoughts on the Question: What is Cybernetics? from http://www.well.com/~dooley/systems.html#basics Good & Brophy, 1990,pp.187. Instructional Design & Learning Theory, Brenda Mergel, Graduate Student Education Communications and Technology, University of Sskatchewan, May, 1998. [might need to check first initials] Oosterhof, A., Conrad, R., & Ely, D., 2008. Assessing Learners Online. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.), 2007. Trends and issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd Edition ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. [might need fixing since it is a quote from an article WITHIN the book] Rice, K. L. (2006). A comprehensive look at distance education in the K-12 context. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Proquest Educational Journals. 38 (4), pp. 435-448. Rogers, E., 2003. Diffusion of Innovations. New York, NY: Free Press. Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S., 2009. Teaching and Learning at a Distance: Foundations of Distance Learning. (4th ed.) Boston: Pearson. Solomon, G. & Schrum, L. (2007). Web 2.0: New tools, new schools. Eugene, Oregon: International Society for Technology in Education. Steven Saltzberg and Susan Polyson (1995). Distributed learning on the World Wide Web. Syllabus, Sept. 95. http://www.syllabus.com/archive/Syll95/07_sept95/DistrLrngWWWeb.txt Tennant, M, 2006, psychology and adult learning. London: Routledge. E eCoaching- A method used in informal learning that allows the learning to learn what they, when they want and from who they want through technology. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007) The Economic Cycle - A conceptual model for assessing the state of the business environment. This model enables training managers to understand the cycle, and its many characteristics, including stages (growth, peak, decline, trough), measures (magnitude, duration, variation), and attributes (good and bad lag) as well as its current status. This enables the manager to make the adjustments necessary to run an efficient training department. (Reiser and Dempsey 3rd Edition) - Safna K. ED-MEDIA - World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications promoted yearly by the AACE, the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education: an international, educational and professional non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of the knowledge, theory, and quality of learning and teaching at all levels with information technology. (http://www.aace.org/conf/edmedia/ ) - Safna K. eHealth - An information exchange that uses web-based communications or mobile applications to increase the accessibility of health data and the integration of health messaging into daily activities. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008). Martha Alexander eJournals - (Electronic Journals) Journals comprised of academic content published in an electronic format. The journals (scholarly journals or "peer-reviewed" journals) themselves are at times only published in electronic format, however, they are most often electronic reproductions (scanned copies) of print academic journal articles. The articles are made available through commercial or open access databases that catalog (classify with metadata), organize, and allow searching by various means. Libraries are often responsible for the organization, collection, and access provisions related to e-http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 21. ID&T Terminology journal content. eLearning - (or electronic learning or eLearning) is different forms of technology-enhanced learning such as online, computer based training, or Web-based learning. eLearning - Term covering a wide set of applications and processes, such as web- based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, CD-ROM, and more.http://www.uen.org/core/edtech/glossary.shtml#E - Firat SARSAR e-Learning Technologies - a term used to refer to a broad range of technologies used to support e-learning. Electronic classrooms - Classrooms with individual workstations for each student plus an instructors workstation which can be projected to the class can be scheduled. Element interactivity -is the degree to which the elements of something to be learned can, or cannot, be understood in isolation. E-Training- eTraining is also referred to as web-based training, or just-in-time training. It consists of modularized training courses, available over the web, anytime of the day or night, anywhere you have access to the Internet! (GSU Website)LMI Education - Instruction which emphasizes far-transfer learning objectives; traditionally knowledge-based instruction which is not tied to a specific job, as opposed to training. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Educational Technology - A period in the history of instructional design. In the early 1970s, the term audiovisual instructional technology was begining to be replaced by educational technology. It was used to describe the application of media for instructional purposes. (Reiser, R. A. (1987). Instructional technology: A history. In R. M. Gagne (Ed.), Instructional technology: Foundations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.) Edupunk - An approach to teaching and learning practices that result from a do it yourself attitude that avoids mainstream tools and instead aims to bring the rebellious attitude and ethos of the 70s punk bands to the class room. The term is associated with instructional designer Jim Groom and The New York Times. Valerie S. Gallagher Effectiveness - A measure of whether a procedure or action achieves its purpose. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Efficiency - A measure of the timeliness and affordability of an action. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) EITIMI Model - A three step model of instuctional design evaluation focusing on the evaluation of Educational Issues, Instructional Issues, and Management issues. Elaboration Theory - Reigeluth, et. al, theory for segmenting instruction. The theory specifies a model of selecting, sequencing, synthesizing and summarizing content in a simple to more complex structure. (Ragan, T. & Smith, P., 2004) Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) - an integrated electronic environment that is available to and easily accessible by each employee and is structures to provide immediate, individualized on-line access to the full range of information, software, guidance, advice and assistance, data, images, tools, and assessment and monitoring systems to permit job performance with minimal support and intervention by others (Gery,1991) - Joy Electronic Performance Support Systems - any computer software program or component that improves employees performance by either reducing the complexity or number of steps required to perform a task (process simplification), providing the performance information an employee needs to perform a task, or providing a decision support system that enables an employee to identify the action that ishttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 22. ID&T Terminology appropriate for a particular set of conditions. (Dempsey & Reiser, 2007) LMI Electronic Student Response Systems - In brief, the system consists of student input devices networked to a central computer under the instructors control. Elemental Outcomes: Using an authentic real-world approach to online learning. The learner has a more meaningful connection to the material creating a more dynamic conceptualization. (Reiser & Dempsey 2012). Elluminate – a synchronous tool used to conduct online training and meetings. Elys 8 - conditions that contribute to implementation: Dissatisfaction with the status quo Knowledge and skills exist Availability of resources Availability of time Rewards and/or incentives exist Participation Commitment Leadership [Surry, D. W., & Ely, D. P. (2007). In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.] Tippi Hyde Embedded Attitude Question - question asked of learners about the instruction at the time they first encountered it. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Emotional Intelligence - The ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emtions of ones self, or others, and of groups. (en.wiktionary.org/wiki/emotional_intellience). Empirical- information that is gained by observation or experiment. Encoding - a process that allows learners to make personally meaningful connections between their prior knowledge and new information. - W. Clark End User - The end user is the person who uses a product after it has been fully developed. It is essential for an instructional designer to communicate with the end users when planning and designing instruction. - Safna K. Enterprise Schema - Gagne & Merrill: The enterprise schema defines the context for learning and reason for learning the particular goals. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg. 41). ~Tammy Entitlements - allow only people at certain levels, or working in a certain department to see specific content, or restricting the ability to change a document, while allowing everyone to read it (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) Entry Behavior - skills that the instructor will not teach the learner during the instruction; the learner must have mastered the skill before entering the instructional activity. For instance, some classes have required classes that need to be met. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 364) Can also be known as entry skills - this is what the learner will have to already know or be able to do before instruction. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J. (2009). - A. Adams Environment Analysis - The context of any instructional system, both where the instruction will occur and how the instructional materials will be used. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Epistemology - a collection or branch of philosophical views that investigates and is concerned with the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. (Dempsey & Reiser, 2007) Ethnography - A form of qualitative research where a researcher will observe participants and strictly take notes without intervening. This could be helpful for gathering detailed research of an educational process being enacted by a class completely independently of the researcher. Ideally, the resulting research can be free from the observers influence and bias. Ethnographies are usually used to study groups or cultures. -Timothy H.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 23. ID&T Terminology Evaluation - The process of determining the merit, worth, and value of things, and evaluations are the products of that process. (Scriven. M, 1991. Beyond Formative and Summative Evaluation merit refers to the "intrinsic value" of the person or thing being evaluated worth refers to the "market value" of the person or thing being evaluated value refers to the evaluation of making value judgements (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007 p. 96)--Margaret The logic of evaluation includes four steps - select the criteria with the most worth or value, set the level of performance, collect data and compare actual performance to the set level, make evaluation or judgement. Evaluation Model - Framework developed to provide guidance in the process of determining the merit, worth and value of things. Events of Instruction - Refers to Gagnes 9 events of instruction for effective learning. These include: Gain attention, Inform Learner of Objectives, Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning, Present Stimulus Material, Provide Learner Guidance, Elicit Performance, Provide Feedback, Assess Performance, and Enhance Retention and Transfer. - Melissa S. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) - is partially an outgrowth of problem based learning. Formulate a clinical question, find evidence in the medical literature that addresses the questions, critically appraise the evidence, adn apply the evidence to specific patients (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 201). ~Tammy Expectancy-Value Theory - Based on the function that motivation is a function of expectanices and values. People will be motivate if: they have a positive expectancy and the goal has positive value. (Reiser & Dempsey) -Melissa S. Expectancy-Value Theory -This theory believes that motivation or behavior potential is a function of expectancies and values. It claims that learners will be motivated to achieve a goal if they have a positive expectancy for success and the goal has positive value for them. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007 p. 86)- Qi Experiential Learning Cycle - A 4-stage learning cycle which David Kolb theorizes maximizes learning. It consists of (1) concrete experience, (2) observations and reflections, (3) the formation of abstract concepts and generalizations, and (4) testing the implications of concepts in new situations, leading back to (1) again. Experiential Learning is imilar to adventure learning and simulations in that learner learns by doing and create their own meaningful and authentic learning through hands-on experience. This type of learning focuses on the process and reflection of learning rather than memorizing or learning by lecture or readings. Experiential learning does not require a teacher or facilitator in that the learner embodies qualities of intrinsic motivation as well as self-reflection and evaluation. Expert Judgement Evaluation - judgements of the quality of instructional materials made by content expert, learner specialists, or design specialists. The first phase of summative evaluation. The steps to complete the expert judgement evaluation include evaluating the needs and the instruction, evaluating the instructional strategy and structure, the completeness and accuracy of instruction, and the current users satisfaction with the instruction. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Expertise Reversal Effect: The phenomenon that instructional support and scaffolding that is effective in supporting novice learners in a domain looses its effectiveness for expert learners in that domain. Sometimes the support interferes with the success of expert learners in that domain (Kalyuga, Ayres, Chandler, and Sweller, 2003). - Tim M. Expertise Reversal Effect- instructional techniques that are highly effective with inexperienced learners can lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences when used with more experienced learners. Explanatory Feedback - Instructional responses to student answers to practice exercises that tell the learners whether they are correct or incorrect and also provide the rationale or a hint guiding the learners to a correct answer (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Explorative testing – usability testing performed early in product development to assess the effectiveness and usability of a preliminary design or prototype, as well ashttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 24. ID&T Terminology users’ thought processes and conceptual understanding. Explicit Knowledge - Knowledge that can be documented in text books, magazines, audio and video programs. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007). / Many theorists make a distinction between explicit knowledge - knowledge that we can easily recal and explain - and implicit knowledge( see G-H-I ) (Ormrod, J. 2008, Human Learning, 5th edition, Pearson.) - Joy Extraneous Cognitive Load: additional cognitive load placed on working memory by the design of the instruction but does not support the learning task at hand (Sweller, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998). Tim M. Extraneous or ineffective cognitive load- when the load is unnecessary and so interferes with schema acquisition and automation. example of instructional procedures that are ineffective cognitive load are those that requires learners to engage in either a search for a problem solution or a search for referents in an explanation Extrinsic Motivation - motivation that comes from rewards outside of the individaul (Reiser and Dempsey 2007)... ex: tokens, prizes, money Extrinsic Motivation - Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outsider of an individual. The motivating factors are external, such as money or grades. Extrinsic motivation does not mean that individual will not obtain any pleasure from working on or completing a task. It just means that external rewards will bring more interests to participants when the task to be done holds little or no interests. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007 p. 84). -Qi Created by Enzo Silva (http://bit.ly/AwdZYH) Website by Kangdon Lee (http://iglassbox.thoth.kr/) Creative Commons BY (Attribution) - NC (NonCommercial) - SA (ShareAlike) F Face-to-Face Communication - Communication that occurrs in an environment in which the sender and reciever of information are in the same physical location at the same time. Often face-to-face refers to the typical classroom as the learning environment. Facebook - an online social network site that currently has over 800 million users www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics Fading - A technique of cognitive apprenticeship whereby the instructor gradually withdraws support and transfers full control of a performance to the learner. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1- 21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Far Transfer Tasks - Tasks requiring learners to apply what they have learned in a novel situation. This may require making adjustments to a general principle for application to a new problem (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Feedback - "Information provided to learners aboutr the correctness of their responses to practice questions in the instruction (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2005)." Feedback - Information that is provided to instructors by learners through evaluations. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 364) Feedback devices - include a variety of formative assessment techniques based upon a learner-centered, context-specific approach to instruction, focusing primarily on qualitative responses from students. Also referred to as Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs), examples include minute papers, one-sentence summaries, journals, student self-assessments, and narrative reactions to assignments, activities, and exams. Feedback Loop - The initial feedback causes a change in behavior that leads to a change in the process and behavior over time based upon the outcome of the initial feedback response. M. Dixonhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 25. ID&T Terminology Field Trial - the 3rd stage in formative evaluation, referring to the evaluation of the program or product in the setting in which it is intended to be used. Also, the 2nd phase of summative evaulation. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde First Principles of Instructional Design - Developed by M. David Merrill, a set of 5 principles that outline the promotion of learning to assist in the creation of effective instruction. (Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.). (2007). Trends and issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd Edition ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.) Five principles defined: Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner Learning is promoted when new knowledge is applied by the learner. Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learners world." (Reiser & Dempsey 2007, p. 63)--Margaret Images of Model of Phases of Effective Instruction p. 63--Margaret Flicker - an online photo management and sharing application, that:Help people make their content available to the people who matter to them and Enable new ways of organizing photos and video. Flow theory: theory proposed by Mihaly Csikszentmihayli that is similar to play theory Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.), 2012. Trends and issues in Instructional Design and Technology ( Edition ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. http://www.ted.com/talks/mihaly_csikszentmihalyi_on_flow.html Folksonomy - an emerging technology that allows communities of users to classify the information over [the internet] through tagging the bookmarks, photos, or other web-based content. "The etymology of the word Folksonomy shows that its a portmanteau of the word folks and taxonomy coined by Thomas Vander Wal, which implies that it could be understood as an organization by folks, especially contents over the world wide web. (Kaikai, 2005)" - K. Hindsman Formative Assessment - "Evaluation designed to collect data and information that is used to improve a program or product; conducted while the program is still being developed (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2005)". Formative assessments are assessments that measure performance during the learning. The learning is monitored throughout the instruction by assessing performance throughout the learning. Formative assessment is most useful when we use the date we gather to influence instruction. The data can show that instruction needs to increase in speed, slow down, or be changed to maximize learning. Also known as Formative evaluation. On-going evaluation of instruction with the purpose of improvement. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Weston, Mc Alpine, and Bordonaro on Formative Evaluation (1995)The purpose of formative evaluation is to validate or ensure that the goals of the instruction are being achieved and to improveproblematic aspects. Formative Experiments - Iterative processes in the design research cycle that combine factors such as arrangements for teacher training, curriculum development, and production of classroom materials--to develop instructional environments that can be used by both teachers and students to carry out various instructional tasks while undertaking research activities. Formative experiments consider the process and the context in which learning takes place, not only the materials used. (from Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J., 2007) 4C/ID Model- A holistic learning model defined by Van Merrienboer, et. al. The model is to be used for complex learning and requires tasks to be sequenced in ways that reduce cognitive load. (Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V., 2007).http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 26. ID&T Terminology 4C/ID Model-The tasks are sequentially ordered according to task difficulty and are to be performed by learners in simulated or real task environments. The learning sequence offers ample initial scaffolding for each task, and the level of support diminishes as the learner progresses. Four-Level Model of Training Evaluation - Kirkpatricks model designed for training evaluation. The model can be applied to formative and summative evaluations. The "steps" include: Level 1: Reaction - assess the learners reactions or attitudes toward the experience. Level 2: Learning - determine what participants learned Level 3: Behavior - evaluate if participants have had a transfer of training (change of behavior) Level 4: Results - analyze if the training was effective in meeting the intial purposes. Front-End Analysis - A process used for evaluating instructional needs and identifying alternative approaches to meeting those needs. It includes a variety of activities including, but not limited to, performance analysis, needs assessment, job anaalysis, training delivery options, and feasability analysis.(In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc) Koffivi Functional Architecture- The components that are part of an instructional system, Involves collaborations and interactions among the entities that are part of the system, which are influenced both by new technologies and preferences in social communications. .(In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc). Barb Cebulski Functional Context Training - A model of instruction that works from simple, familiar tasks and proceeds to more complex tasks with ample opportunities for practice. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) References Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Clark,R., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by Viewing versus Learning by Doing: Evidence- Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13. Gery, G. (1991) Electronic Performance Support System : How and Why to Remake the Workplace Through the strategic Application of Technology, Boston, MA. Weingarten Publication. Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). The expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 23-31. Ormrod, J. (2008) Human Learning, 5th edition, Pearson. Ragan, T.J., & Smith, P.L. 2004. Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology: Conditions theory and models for designing instruction. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaulm Associates. Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.), 2007. Trends and issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd Edition ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Kaikai Shen, Lide Wu, 2005. Folksonomy as a Complex Network. Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychology Review, 10(3), 251-296. G Game-based Learning (Digital Game-based Learning) - learning that takes place through the use of a digital game that has defined instructional outcomes. - Brandy Ross Gamer - a person who plays games, especially computer or video games.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 27. ID&T Terminology Gamification- the process of infusing gaming technology with websites, products, and other non-game environments to increase learner participation. (example: MeTycoon.com teaches youth about careers and real-life.) - K. Hindsman Gagnes Theory of Instruction - Based on cognitive information processing theory and his own observations. Gagnes theory has three main points: "A taxonomy of learning outcomes that defined the types of capabilities humans can learn. Internal and external learning conditions associated with the acquisition of each category of learning outcome. Nine events of instruction that each facilitate a specific cognitive process during learning" (Reiser & Dempsey, p. 41) Gagnes Nine Events of Learning: Gaining attention Stating the learning objective Utilizing prior learning Using a stimulus in learning Getting a performance from the learner Give feedback to the learner Giving the learner and opportunity to demonstrate what they learned Help the retention rate and transfer of learning Gagne, Robert - published “The Conditions of Learning,” (1965) in which he describes five types of learning outcomes each which require a different set of conditions to promote learning. He also described nine events of instruction. (See above) (Driscoll, M. P. (2005) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ) Gap Analysis -The difference between how well an individual or group is performing compared to a standard or objective vs. how well they should be performing now or in the near future towards that same standard or objective. It needs to be noted that the world is in a constant state of change and the gap analysis needs to account for what it would take for a student/employee to stay current in the near future. General Systems Theory – A system and its elements are interdependent, synergistic, dynamic, and cybernetic. In a system the elements cannot be separated from the system, the elements accomplish more together than apart, the system and its elements are adaptable, and the elements communicate effectively with each other. (Reiser, Gustafson, Branch, 2007, p. 11) Generative Cognitive Processing - occurs when a learner engages in deep processing in working memory in service of the learning goal, such as organizing the material and integrating it with prior knowledge (Clark, Mayer, 2008). Olivia Wozniak Generator Model – A model used in instructional design (shared by Jacquie McDonald, Instructional Designer, Australia, in Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (3rd ed.). -Safna K. Instructional designer work closely with the unit leaders (subject matter experts) in the initial stages to design a blueprint outlining the key learning and implementation strategies. The course leader develops a sample module in close collaboration with the ID. The ID provides the feedback. Detailed ID feedback is not required in writing subsequent modules. Image of Generator Model GeoBlogging - Geoblogging is when learners post information from a specific location to be viewed and discussed potentially at a later date. One example was when a few students were able to attend the inauguration and were able to blog about activities going on at the time.-Imani Mance Georgia Virtual School - an on-line program offered to public, private, and home schooled students throughout Georgia (USA) by the Department of Education. Its purpose is to provide studnets with credits toward their high school degree.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 28. ID&T Terminology Germane Cognitive Load: additional cognitive load imposed by the instructional approach that benefits learning (Sweller, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998) - Tim M. Germane or effective cognitive load - is influenced by the instructional designer. The manner in which information is presented to learners and the learning activities required of learners are factors relevant to levels of germane cognitive load. Gestalt Principles of Design - Principles of design based upon how organisms tend to organize information on a plane. The laws of proximity, similarity, closure, figure/ground, continuity, and pragnanz (observe and understand a complex figure in its most simple, concise form) can be used to structure elements on a page. The following website gives descriptions of each law and graphical representations of them: http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm -Timothy H. Gesture-Based Computing: physical interaction with a computer as used with the Nintendo Wii or the iPad or iTouch. Gilbert, Thomas - "generally considered to be the father of Human Performance Technology" - studied behaviorism (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, 139) - D. Saxon Gilbert, along with Geary Rummler, created the Behavior Engineering Model (BEM) (Stolovich & Beresford, 2007). - A. Adams Globalization - is an accelerated compression of the contemporary world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a singular entity. Compression makes the world a single place by virtue of the power of a set of globally diffused ideas that render the uniqueness of societal and ethnic identities and traditions irrelevant except within local contexts and in scholarly discourse.ROBERTSON, ROLAND. 1987. "Globalization Theory and Civilizational Analysis." Comparative Civilizations Review 17. Firat SARSAR Google Chrome - a free web browser with minimal design and powerful technology Google Sites - site.google.com free websites and wikis Goal Analysis - A statment that describes what will be learned and what the outcome will be, it explains what the learners will be able to do after the instructor. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 364) Goal Statement- broad statement describing what whould take place in an instructional course or training program.((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 348) Kim Grid Computing- A protocol that will automatically distribute tasks, applications, and processes in addition to information to all computers within the network or grid. Grid computing will allow for greater collaboration.(In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc) Barb Cebulski Groom, Jim - Instructional Designer and Technologist associated with the term "edupunk" (jimgroom.net). Valerie S. Gallagher Grounded Design - the systematic implementation of procedures that are rooted in established theory and research in human learning [ [Hannafin, M.J. & Hill, J. R. (2007). In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.] Tippi Hyde Grid Computing - (or the use of computational grids) is the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains applied to a common task, usually to a scientific, technical or business problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or the need to process large amounts of data. (Wikipedia) Imani Mance Guided Instruction- An instructional model that is characterized by the teacherhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 29. ID&T Terminology serving as a facilitator rather than providing direct instruction. In addition, discovery learning, exploratory learning, group learning and problem oriented activities are all included in guided instruction. – Andrea Manor H Hard Skills - teachable abilities that can be defined and measured. By contrast, soft skills are less tangible and harder to quantify. Examples of hard skills include job skills like typing, writing, math, reading and the ability to use software packages; soft skills are personality-driven skills like etiquette, getting along with others, listening and engaging in small talk (Investopedia) (walter murphy)| Health Educator - works to encourage healthy lifestyles and wellness through educating individuals and communities about behaviors that can prevent diseases, injuries, and other health problems. (http://www.aahperd.org/aahe/) Heuristic (hyu- ris-tik) - is a method to help solve a problem, commonly an informal method. It is particularly used to rapidly come to a solution that is reasonably close to the best possible answer, or optimal solution. Heuristics are "rules of thumb ", educated guesses, intuitive judgments or simply common sense . [Wikipedia]--Tippi Hyde Heuristic (2) - Guidelines - [Silber, K. H. (2007). A principle-based model of instructional design: A new way of thinking about and teaching ID. Educational Technology, 47, 8.]--Tippi Hyde Heuristic (3) - A rule of thumb or guideline (as opposed to an invariant procedure). Heuristics may not always achieve the desired outcome, but are extremely valuable to problem-solving processes.Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Hierarchal Analysis – Gagne’s work in discerning that there is a hierarchal relationship in the intellectual skills domain of learning. Prior to learning a new skill, one must learn the subordinate skills to the new skill. (Reiser, 2007, p. 26) Holistic Approach - Holistic approaches aim at dealing with complexity (e.g., complex contents or tasks) without losing sight of the relationships among its parts. Holistic approaches offer a solution for three highly persistent problems in the field of education—compartmentalization, fragmentation, and the transfer paradox. (Van Merrienboer, J.J.G (2007). In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.) Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.) - Qi Hotlist - a list of appropriate internet sites created on a webpage to maximize the time use online and minimize distractions for students. http://www.filamentality.com/wired/fil/formats.html -Thuy Nguyen Homophily - Like minded individuals interact and share information and are thus predisposed to join in the adoption of technology or an idea based on shared background and beliefs. M Dixon HTML - stands for HyperText Markup Language. A markup language that is used for web pages. Human Capital- Skills that employees acquire through on the job training and experience that increases their value in the workplace. www.investorwords.com . By investing in human capital, the potential is there for permanent increases in work output of the employees, which in turn potentially creates more earnings for the company (http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2008/09/05/the_dream_for_a_human_capital_agenda/ ). Human Cognitive Architecture - The theory of human cognitive structures that holds that humans store vast amounts of knowledge, constructs, and schema in an unconscious long term memory and that conscious thought along with access to long term memory is through a limited working memory that can only manipulate a limited number of items at a time (Sweller, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998). - Tim M.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 30. ID&T Terminology Human-Computer Interaction - The study of the relationship between humans and computers. Includes the use of interdiciplinary theory and practice to design, implement, and evaluate computer interfaces to make them more usable. (http://www.cdm.depaul.edu/academics/Pages/MSinHuman- ComputerInteraction.aspx ) Human Performance Improvement(HPI), also known as Human Performance Technology (HPT), "uses a wide range of interventions that are drawn from many other disciplines, including total quality management, process improvement, behavioral psychology, instructional systems design, organizational development, and human resources management" (ISPI What is Human Performance Technology? retrieved November 12, 2007 from http://www.ispi.org/content.aspx? id=54 ) HPI is a systematic method for improving human or organizational performance. Human - People operating in work settings. Performance - A quantified result or the accomplishment, or the outcomes of behavior. Improvement - Making things better in the work environment. - Robert A. Reiser, John V. Dempsey "Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology" (Safna K.) Stolovich and Beresford (2007) define HPI from three perspectives: vision, concept, and desired end. - A. Adams Four main concepts in HPI by Gilbert (1978, 1996) The environment will ultimately win out over individuals Accomplishments are a key measure to success and must be taken into account along with hard work, knowledge, and motivation. Accomplishments must be taken into account when rewarding people. Behavior must be taken into account when rewarding people for accomplishments Image of four main concepts of HPI Human Performance Technology - The goal of HPT is to create a performance improvement, by utilizing technology. HPT was defined in 70s. It is in direct relationship with the general systems theory that is applied to organizations. Specific principles on HPT are: The environment will always win in a contest with people The true value of hard work, great knowledge, and strong motivations can only come if one has a valued accomplishment. Accomplishments need to be taken into account Reward without accomplishments can lead to a wasteful system (Stolovitch, H. D., & Keeps, E. J. (1999). Handbook of human performance technology: Improving individual and organizational performance worldwide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.) Human Performance Technology - a process of solving workplace problems by focusing on people performance. The technology is a combination of behavioral psychology, instructional systems design, organizational development, and human resource management. Human Resources Development (HRD) - the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. -Bonnie Braine Hybrid Courses - (also known as blended or mixed mode courses) are courses in which a significant portion of the learning activities have been moved online (generally 30 - 75%), and time traditionally spent in the classroom is reduced but not eliminated. The goal of hybrid courses is to pair the best features of face-to-face teaching with the best options of online learning to promote active and independent learning and reduce class seat time. Using instructional technologies, the hybrid model forces the redesign of some lecture or lab content into new online learning activities, such as case studies, tutorials, self-testing exercises, simulations, and online group collaborations. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blended_Learning_in_K- 12/The_many_names_of_Blended_Learning#Hybrid_Learning_-_Descriptions - Firat SARSARhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 31. ID&T Terminology Hybrid Learning - (also blended learning) is a blending of different learning environments. This can mean also blending methods, techniques or resources and applying them in an interactively meaningful learning environment. Learners should have easy access to different learning resources in order to apply the knowledge and skills they learn under the supervision and support of the teacher inside and outside the classroom. This approach will combine face-to-face instruction with computer- mediated instruction. It also applies science or IT activities with the assistance of innovative educational technologies using computer, cellular or I-phones, Sky TV channels and other electronic media. Learners and teachers work together to improve the quality of learning and teaching, the ultimate aim of blended learning being to provide realistic practical opportunities for learners and teachers to make learning independent, useful, sustainable and ever growing. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_learning - Firat SARSAR Hybrid Task Analysis Method - Involves both a quantitative analysis and consensus building. Using job task documents, a list of tasks is compiled by an analyst. Through an iterative process involving consensus building, the validity of the task list is assessed by subject matter experts, supervisors and job incumbents. Through discussions, each tasks complexity, importance and frequency are numerically rated by members of the consensus group. Once the tasks are identified, the group identifies and validates the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform each task. http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic Koffivi H Hypermedia - A term indicating a higher level of user or network interactivity than a simple hyperlink. It supports linking graphics, sounds, and video files. Hypertext - Non-linear text. Image a computer screen with a word in bold. You click on the word and it "zooms in" to greater detail. Hypertext allows you to zoom in and zoom out of subjects and make connections between topics. Hypertext programs are useful for instruction and for information access. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)- A markup language that is used for web pages. Barb Cebulski I Immediacy – In part, it refers to the degree one connects with something else at a distance through the use of media. The issue is whether one is aware of the interface that is allowing for the interaction or if there is a degree of transparency, where you feel as if you are immersed in the other environment. It also refers to timing, such as experiencing an event live (Bolter and Grussin, 2000, pp. 21-22). -Timothy H. Immersive Learning - a distinctly learner-centered approach where the learner participates in, directs and implements engaging and immersive learning activities. - W. Clark Impact Evaluation – Assesses the impact of a program by comparing the actual outcomes to the projected outcomes that would have occurred in the event that the program did not exist (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvacek, 2011). Individualized Learning- allowing learners to learn by providing each one with objectives and activities appropriate to his or her own characteristics, preparation, needs, and interests.((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 348) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Ill-Structured Problems - Real world problems that do not yield one specific answer. -Janelle S. Allen Immediacy – Having direct contact with another person, place, or thing. It can also refer to the degree one connects with something else at a distance through the use of media and whether one is aware of the interface that is broadcasting the Implementation - the actual use of an innovation in a practical setting (Fullan,http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 32. ID&T Terminology 1996). -Janelle S. Allen Implementation Analysis - the process of defining each of the conditions for a specific innovation and determining the level at which each is present within an organization prior to adoption (Surry & Ely, 2007). -Janelle S. Allen Implicit Knowledge - Knowledge that we cannot consciously recall or explain but that nevertheless affects our behavior. A great deal of knowledge in long-term memory is implicit knowledge. Some of knowledge in long-term memory is explicit knowledge. (see E-F) (Ormrod, J. 2008, Human Learning, 5th edition, Pearson.) - Joy Incidental processing refers to cognitive processes that are not required for making sense of the presented material but are primed by the design of the learning task. For example, adding background music to a narrated animation may increase the amount of incidental processing to the extent that the learner devotes some cognitive to processing the music (Mayer, Moreno, 2003). Olivia Wozniak Incidental processing in multimedia learning- aimed at nonessential aspects of the presented material. Individualizing - a cognitive load reducing method that pertains to representational holding. If, in our instruction, we need to rely on learners skill to hold an image or a piece of information in their memory so that they can understand the following content, we have to make sure that they are high spacial learners. Otherwise, they will be only able to connect the two pieces of information if they are presented together. (Mayer, Moreno, 2003) Olivia Wozniak Inert Knowledge - Knowledge a learner has acquired but fails to activate in appropriate situations. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Informal Learning- Learning that occurs beyond a controlled learning environment. Gives the learner more control over what they want to learn and usually involves intrinsic motivation. (Dempsey, J. and Reiser, R. (2007) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp.167). (2nd Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall) - Informal Learning is beneficial because it is driven by real problems that come up in the workplace, is inexpensive, doesnt require time off work, emphasizes the importance of authentic learning. (Jay Cross 2006). - Informal learning occurs as part of a natural function of everyday life. -Bonnie Braine Information Archtecture - a description of how online content should be organized and categorized in logical and practical manner. It is also a job description of someone who clarifies and organizes information into a structure for easy user access. This pertains to Instructional Technology in how course information is organized for student access. Information Base - contains the content of an EPSS; includes the information needed by works in order to do their jobs, organized in a way that they can find it the moment they need it. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, 148) - D. Saxon Information Mapping™ is a research-based approach, originally developed by Robert E. Horn, for creating structured documents and communications that are clear, concise, and user-focused. This is done by analyzing, organizing, and presenting information based on audience needs and the purpose of the information. The method is both subject-matter and media independent. The technique is particularly useful when applied to Knowledge Management. (wikipedia) (walter murphy) Information processing - The cognitive information processing theory evolved in the 70s. In information processing, the environment plays a large role in learning. The theory also takes into account the internal behaviors and processes of learning. (Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.) Information Technology- "A term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange and utilize information in its various forms including business data, conversations, still images, motion pictures and multimedia presentations" (from http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/term/82268.html ). Information Processing Theory- regards the environment as playing an importanthttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 33. ID&T Terminology role in learning. Differs from behavioral theory in its assumption of internal processes with the learner that can explain learning. (Dempsey & Reiser 2007) LMI Innovation - an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption (Rogers, 2003). -Janelle S. Allen Innovation-Decision Process Model - An important theory of adoption and diffusion proposed by Everett Rogers which suggests that the adoption of an innovation is not a single act, but a process that occurs over time. In this model potential adopters go through five stages: Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation, and Confirmation (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007, 106) iNACOL- International Association for K-12 Online Learning--A non-profit 501(c)(3) membership association based in the Washington, DC area with over 3,700 members. Members represent a diverse cross-section of K-12 education from school districts, charter schools, state education agencies, non-profit organizations, research institutions, corporate entities and other content & technology providers. Retrieved December 6, 2010 from http://www.inacol.org/ Input Evaluation - The second step/component in the CIPP model. Used to examine what occurs, or should occur during program operation. (Dempsey J. and Reiser, R. (2007). Inquiry - "an approach to learning that involves a process of exploring the natural or material world, that leads to asking questions and making discoveries in the search for new understandings." webinquiry.org - D. Saxon Inquiry Based Instruction - Inquiry-based instruction is a student-centered and teacher-guided instructional approach that engages students in investigating real world questions that they choose within a broad thematic framework. Inquiry-Based instruction complements traditional instruction by providing a vehicle for extending and applying the learning of students in a way that connects with their interests within a broader thematic framework. Students acquire and analyze information, develop and support propositions, provide solutions, and design technology and arts products that demonstrate their thinking and make their learning visible. (http://www.neiu.edu ) - Safna K. Institutionalization - "takes place when an innovation is assimilated into the structure of an organization and changes that organization in a stable way" (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, 108) - D. Saxon Instruction - "A set of events or activities presented in a structured or planned way, through one or more media, with the goal of having learners achieve prespecified behaviors." (Dick, Carey, and Carey [6th Ed.], Glossary.) Nada Instructional activity - the specific steps, strategies and/or actions used in instruction. (http://www.utexas.edu/academic/ctl/assessment/iar/glossary.php) Instructional Analysis - "the procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant skills and their subordinate skills and their subordinate skills and information required for a student to achieve the goal." (Dick, Carey, and Carey [6th Ed.], Glossary.) Nada Instructional context - refers to the instructional setting and environment (e.g., student demographics, social milieu, fiscal conditions, and organizational relationships) within which the instruction occurs. Instructional Design - The activity of planning and designing for instruction. Also, a discipline associated with the activity. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw- Hill. (Andy Harrison) Instructional Design - a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) - 4 Principles of Instructional Design - The first four principles of instructional design include, activation, demonstration, application, and integration. Instruction involves all four aspects and each one is repeated within problems or tasks. (Merrill, M. D.(2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3),43-59.) Instructional Design as a Discipline - Instuctional design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instuctional strategies and thehttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 34. ID&T Terminology process for developing and implementing those strategies. Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design", Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University. www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.html Nada Instructional design as a Process - Instructional Design is the systematic development of instuctional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instuction and learner activities. Adapted from "Training and Instructiona Desing", Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University. www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.html Nada Instructional design as reality - Instuctional design can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instuction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the :science" have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a styematic fashion. Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design:, Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University. www.umich.edu/~626/define.html Nada Instructional Design as a Science - Instuctional design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity. Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design:, Applied Research Laboratory. Penn State University. www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.html Nada Instructional Design and Technology - Instructional Design and Technology is a systematic approach by which learner needs are analyzed in order to design, develop and implement learner centered training interventions which are enhanced by the use of various technological media, and evaluated based on established objectives, for the ultimate purpose of facilitating the transfer of knowledge and skills to the learner group. (Todd Manaigo) Instructional Designer- person responsible for carrying out and coordinating the systematic design procedure. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 348) kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages :thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Instructional Goal - new information or skill that a learner should master as a result of instruction. - W. Clark Instructional innovation - the transformation of curriculum through the integration of sound pedagogy with new technologies to improve learning. Instructional Materials - Print or other mediated instruction used by a student to achieve an instructional goal.(Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 364)Koffivi Instructional Media - The physical means via which the instruction is presented to the learners. Instructional Methods - an educational approach for turning knowledge into learning.” Instructional methods are the “how to” in the delivery of training. http://www.tpub.com/content/administration/14300/css/14300_64.htm - Firat SARSAR Instructional Objective - statement describing what the learner is specifically required to learn or accomplish relative to a topic or task. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. p.348) kim Instructional Strategy - An overall plan of how to achieve an instructinoal goal. Includes objects, learning activies, student groupings, media and the delivery system. - Melissa S. Instructional Technologist- a professional in the field of IDT. -Ana Fuchs Instructional Technology - Instuctional Technology is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instuctional problems. Instuctional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instuctional design and development. Instuctional Technology =http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 35. ID&T Terminology Instuctional Design + Instuctional Development. Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design", Applied Research Laboratory, Penn State University. http://www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.html Nada Instructional Technology- resources (machines and materials) used for instruction; process of systematic instructional planning. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 348) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Instructional Technics –using a combination of media to teach online. These can include training modules, online seminars, webinars, on-campus lectures and so on. These can be synchronous or asynchronous. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Instructional Systems - another expression for the instructional design concept. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 348) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Integrating - refers to the coordination of words and pictures with one another and with prior knowledge from long-term memory (Clark, Mayer, 2008) Olivia Wozniak Integrativity -The first of three dimensions (integrativity, specificity, and durability) of the concept of competence from a comprehensive, analytical study by van Merrienboer, van der Klink, and Hendriks (2002). This dimension indicates that competence always combines, in a lesser or greater degree, knowledge, skills, and attitudes as well as aptitudes of the task performer (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). Intellectual Property Rights - Creations that are legally protected. Includes patents, trade or service marks, and copyright. Anything protected by intellectual property rights cannot be used unless permission is granted by the rights holder. Barb Cebulski Intellectual Skills- organizing and structuring facts for learning to form concepts, principles, rules, attitudes, and interactions. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 349)kim Intelligent Tutoring System - An application of a micro-adaptive instructional system that uses learner input into an expert system to prescribe instructional treatments to the user (Lee & Park, 2008). Tim M. Interactive media/multimedia - learning material that the learner can interact with, allowing the learner to engage with the material. Multimedia allows for two-way interactions with the material. Interactions - Behaviors where individuals or groups are involved and directly influence each other (Reiser et al., 2007). Interactive Techonologies - media forms that require frequent active participation by the student as learning takes place. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 349) kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Interactive whiteboard (IWB) - is a large interactive display that connects to a computer and a projector. The user can navigate by using a pen or directly through the computer. It is great for hands on, interactive learning in the classroom, meeting, and trainings. (From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactive_whiteboard).-Thuy Nguyen (more information and examples - http://rmtc.fsdb.k12.fl.us/tutorials/whiteboards.html ) Iterative testing - usability testing that is repeated multiple times during different attempts and phases of the product development process http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBTZGZW1tZU . Interdependence - Elements that depend on each other and that are connected within a system (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Internal consistency - a method of establishing the reliability of a questionnairehttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 36. ID&T Terminology with a single administration by examining how strongly its questions are related to one another. International Baccalaureate Programme (IBP) - A constructivism approach to teaching children from the preschool through high school years with a focus on programs of inquiry to organize the teaching of many subjects into thought-provoking experiential learning paths. (Bonnie Braine) International Society for Performance Improvement - (ISPI) A professional organization founded in 1962 that focuses on improving performance at the workplace. (www.ispi.org ) International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) - A professional organization for educators and educational leaders focusing on the integration of 21st Century skills into the classroom. One of the major accomplishments of the organization has been the development of the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for students, teachers and administrators. (www.iste.org ) Internet 2 - is a not-for-profit advanced networking consortium comprising more than 200 U.S. universities in cooperation with 70 leading corporations, 45 government agencies, laboratories and other institutions of higher learning as well as over 50 international partner organizations. According to our book the Internet 2 Initiative is a 200 institution network with capabilities of 6.5 gigabytes per second (GBps); bandwith more than 10,000 times faster than typical broadband access. The network was designed to provide next-generation production services as well as a platform for the development of new networking ideas and protocols. With community control of the fundamental networking infrastructure, the Internet2 Network provides the necessary scalability for member institutions to efficiently provision resources to address bandwidth-intensive requirements of their campuses such as, collaborative applications, distributed research experiments, grid-based data analysis and social networking. http://www.internet2.edu/ Imani Mance Internet Kill Switch – Legislation introduced by Senator Joe Lieberman is currently working its way through Congress, and it will place stronger control of the Internet in the hands of the federal government. The bill will allow the president to essentially shut down access to the Internet in the face of an emergency. The prevailing fear is that the bill will lead to censorship or a complete halt to all online communication. (Toor, 2011) -Timothy H. Interoperability - the ability of two software components to exchange and correctly interpret each others data. - W. Clark Interpersonal Skills- spoken and nonverbal ( e.g., body language) interaction between two or more individuals. new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 349). Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Iteration - the act of repeating. Wikipedia, Wiki Web- site en.wikipedia.org/wiki/iterative Nada Iterative Process - a non-linear process that allows the opportunity to return to parts of the process and make changes and revisions to the instruction. - W. Clark Intrinsic Motivation - An emotional reward serves as the motivator in intrinsic motivation. The reward is not external. (Reiser & Dempsey, p. 85) Intrinsic Cognitive Load - The cognitive load that is inherent in the learning task itself. The intrinsic load is affected by the learners existing knowledge, but is not affected by the design of the instruction (Sweller, 1994) - Tim M. References Bolter, J. D., and Grusin, R. (2000). Remediation: Understanding new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 37. ID&T Terminology Clark,R., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by Viewing versus Learning by Doing: Evidence- Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13. "Information Technology," Entrepreneur. (2010). Entrepreneur Media, Inc. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/term/82268.html . Lee, J., & Park, O. (2008). Adaptive instructional systems. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 469-484). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. R. A. Reiser and Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed., p. 74). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvacek (2011). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. (5th Ed). Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall. Stolovich, H. D., & Beresford, B. (2007). The development and evolution of human performance improvement. In R. A. Reiser, & J. V. Dempsey, Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp. 135-146). Boston: Pearson Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4(4), 295-312. doi: 10.1016/0959-4752(94)90003-5 Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychology Review, 10(3), 251-296. doi: 10.1023/A:1022193728205 Toor, A. (2011, February 1). The Internet Kill Switch Bill: What It Is, and Why It Wont Die. Switched. Retrieved from http://www.switched.com/2011/02/01/internet- kill-switch-bill-what-it-is-wont-die/ J “Journal of Instructional Development ” - first published in the 1970s, a publication of AECT -Ana Fuchs Jigsaw Instructional Strategy - team based collaborative instructional strategy that gives each learner in the team a specific role and piece of the information needed to solve the groups problem. JSTOR (Journal Storage) - a non-profit organization founded in 1995 to help the scholarly community take advantage of advances in electronic technologies, also a multidisciplinary database for journals and pamphlets - Bonnie Braine Job Aid - A device, often in paper or computer form, that is used to relieve the learners reliance on memory during the performance or a complex task. (Dick and Carey, and Carey [6th Ed.], Clossary. Nada Job Analysis - the process of gathering analyzing, and synthesizing descriptions of what people do, or should do, on their jobs. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Just-in-Time Training (JITT) - the immediate delivery of the knowledge and skills necessary to complete a given task at the moment it is needed. - Bonnie Braine JQuery - Client side JavaScript programming library that provides a fast, simple, easy to understand way to enhance HTML web development with the power and flexibility of JavaScript (http://jquery.com/ ). JQuery Mobile - Client side JavaScript programming library developed for fast, simple, easy to understand web development for mobile devices (http://jquerymobile.com/ ) K Kanter, Martha - Nominated by Barack Obama to be Undersecretary of Education in 2009. Known for her work in the field of open educational resourcees. Specifically, Kanter was instrumental in the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER), a program comprised of over 70 community colleges designed to provide free study materials to students. Valerie S. Gallagherhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 38. ID&T Terminology Kirkpatricks Four-Level Model - Created prior to the distinction between formative and summative evaluation for the purpose of motivating corporate training managers to place greater emphasis on evaluation of training programs, Kirkpatricks model is comprised of four levels: Level One- Reaction (Assesses learner attitutudes toward training); Level Two- Learning (Measures what participants in the training actually learned/knowledge transfer); Level Three-Behavior (Determines whether the training changed participants on-the-job behavior; Level Four-Results (Measures whether the overall Goal(s) of the training was met. (Dick, Carey and Carey [6th Ed.]) Knowledge Forum - A computer tool that enables students to engage in the discourse of a subject matter discipline in a scholary way. -Safna K. Knowledge Gap - The increasing distance or gap between people with higher levels of education and people with lower levels of education. Knowledge management - "The process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers, and others who need that capital." Kroenke (2008), Glossary pp.200, 324, 335, 611. Nada "Knowledge managment is the creation, archiving, and charing of valued information, expertise, and insight within and across communities of people and organizations with similar interests and needs, the goal of which is to bulid competitive advantage" (Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p. 158) Knowledge Management can be thought of as a three legged stool because it is made up of three components: Access, Collaboration, and Codification. Knowledge Management systems can not exist without all three components. It is also important to differentiate between KM and training because training focuses on instruction while KM focuses on information. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)--Margaret Types of knowledge: Explicit knowledge: knowledge that can be documented. An example is a classroom textbook or magazine Tacit knowledge: knowledge gained from experience.(Rosenberg, M, Beyond E- Learning: Approaches and Technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge, Learning and Performance, Pfeiffer, 2006.) Kolbs Learning Style Inventory An instrument used to assess learning styles in adult education. This instrument classifies learning styles into the following categories: "accommodators, divergers, convergers, and assimilators" (Merriam, et al, 2007, p. 408). References: Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in Adulthood, A Comprehensive Guide, third edition. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. L Laggard - One of the five adopter categories defined by Everette M. Rogers in his book Diffusion of Innovations. Laggards are the last to adopt an innovation. Laggards tend to be suspicious of innovations and of change agents. They possess very little or no opinion leadership. (Safna K.) Lame Party Effect - A term coined by instructional designer and technologist David Wiley. Refers to a websites ability to attract users. He used this term in reference to a start up internet company, OpenStudy. OpenStudy was started by Georgia Tech and Emory University. It is a social networking platform that students may use to meet other students and study together. He used this term when he wondered if OpenStudy would be able to reach critical mass as it relates to users of the site. Valerie S. Gallagher Late Majority - One of the five adopter categories defined by Everette M. Rogers in his book Diffusion of Innovations. Individuals in this category will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. These individuals approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticism and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. (Wikipedia) - Safna K. Layers of necessity model. A model of instructional design and development which prioritizes the needs of a project into layers; "each layer being a self-contained model."http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 39. ID&T Terminology Additional layers are developed as time and resources allow. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Leader of a Project Management Team - While manager and leader are often used to represent the same person, the definition of a leader is a little bit different. Leadership requires a broader understanding of goals and objectives than management does. "Leaders influence people through charisma and earned respect" "Managers execute the plan, keep the closest goal in sight, and focus on production and deadlines" (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007 p. 114). So while having management skills are definitely necessary for a project management team having leadership capabilities are equally important. --Margaret Learnability - How easy is it for the user to learn how to complete the processes needed within the system. Learnability can be tested by exposing the user to a system and then bringing them back later to see if they still understand how to complete a task. (http://www.instructionaldesign.org/glossary.html) Learner Analysis - data collected about the learner group that is used to guide decisions throughout the instructional process. Some of the components of the learner analysis include: learner group identification, general characteristics, numbers, location, experience level, attitudes, and skills. - W. Clark Learner Centered Criteria - "Test or item criteria used to judge the congruence between the appropriateness of achievement level, language, contexts, and experiences of target learners and that presented in assessment materials." (Dick, Carey, and Carey [6th Ed.], Glossary) Nada Learner-Control - the learner has the ability and choice to choose formats, delivery medium, assignments, and topics that fit their own needs and preferences. - Melissa S. Learner Guide - a resource used to enhance the learning during the instructional process. Learner guides can also be used as reference tools following the instruction. - W. Clark Learner Performance Data - information about the degree to which learners achieved the objectives following a unit of instruction. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Learning - "A persisting change in human performance or performance potential" (Driscoll, 2005) {Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 37} ~Tammy Learning (Traditional View) - Information transfer from one persons head (an instructor or expert) into anothers (the learner) (Shank, P., 2008. The value of multimedia in learning. Adobe Design Center. p3.) Learning (Multimedia View) - Transfer of information that requires people to personally integrate and make sense of new information while they are applying it in their daily lives (Shank, P., 2008. The value of multimedia in learning. Adobe Design Center. p3) Learning 2.0 - " the idea of learning through digital connections and peer collaboration enhanced by technologies driven by Web 2.0" clive- shepherd.blogspot.com/2008/10/learning-20-update-from-elearning- guild.html Melissa S. Learning Circles - a group of six to ten classes of students who interact electronically to accomplish a shared goal. -Bonnie Braine Learning Context - the actual physical or virtual location where learning takes place. - W. Clark Learning Content Management System (LCMS) - A system used by the Department of Defense. Learner Centered Design - Design approach that provides the learner support during the institution process in order to reach learning goals and develope cognitive or procedural understanding or ability outside of there current state (http://ldt.stanford.edu/~lwoo/learner_centered/index.htm )http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 40. ID&T Terminology Learning Disability - a disorder or condition characterized by difficulty in understanding or using spoken or written language, and thought to be related to impairment or slowed development of perceptual motor skills. (Imani Mance) Learning Efficacy – intended learning is achievable through a variety of means to motivate and keep learners engaged. Use of learning objects gives ways for students to work with technology that is flexible, meaningful, reusable and dynamic (Reiser & Dempsey 2012, p.293). Learning Environment - A set of teaching and learning tools designed to enhance a students learning experience by including computers and the internet in the learning L-M process. whatis.techtarget.com/defini E-F E-F E- F tion/0,,sid9_gci866691,00.html Melissa S. Learning Management System (LMS) - A software application or Web-based technology that is used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process. Instructors may use it to create and deliver content, monitor student participation, and assess student performance. A key feature of a LMS, and difference from a Content Management System (CMS), is the ability to create a learning path for a partcipant. In commercial environments, the learning path contains all the courses required for an employee for both human resources compliance, e.g., ethics, harrassment, and career development. Examples of Learning Management Systems include Moodle, WebCT (Blackboard), Cornerstone, Saba, and Sakai. http://searchcio.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid182_gci798202,00.html # Learning Object - is a resource, usually digital and web-based, that can be used and re-used to support learning. (Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_object) A learning object can be as small as a paragraph or as large as a complete online course and come in the form of HTML/Text files, simulations, JAVA, Flash, QuickTime movies etc. (LMI) A learning object is an individual component of learning material that can be combined or broken apart to form instructional units. (Dempsey, J.V., & Van Eck, R. N., Distributed learning and the field of instructional design. (2007). In Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.) Barb C. Any entity, digital or nondigital, that can be used or refernced in technoloyg-supported learning (Spector, M. & Ohrazda, C., 2004) Learning Path - focuses primarily on elearning. A more popular view in business training is to define a Learning Pathway as the ideal sequence of learning activities that lead to proficiency. By looking at learning as this type of complete process, rather than a single event, it enables finding new ways to drive out time, waste and variability in training leading to improved results and reduced costs. An employees learning path might also include all required compliance or HR courses, for example, ethics, harassment, or discrimination courses. (wikipedia) (walter murphy) Learning Sciences - Learning sciences are the convergence of design of activity systems, cognition and socio-cultural context. The learning sciences apply theories to the design of technology-enriched learning environments that engage and support learners in accomplishing more complex and authentic learning activities with the goal of meaningful learning and conceptual change (Jonassen Cernusca & Ionas, 2007). - Janelle S. Allen John Ellis has argued it is best to see these as a continuum (see below) Street educators probably work more towards X; schoolteachers toward Y. This means both have a mixture of formal and informal practice. Put another way - both are facilitators, both are teachers. Much of the work of youth workers for example, will be around conversation (a). However, they will also be running small projects and groups, perhaps organizing residential (b). Here they may sit down with those involved and talk through the programme. They decide together what they will do - they negotiate a curriculum. Workers may also be interested in water-sports. Here they may well organize a course on safety - where they decide the content and the process (c) (Jeffs and Smith 1999). Image of Dimensions of Formal and Informal Learning Educators that are largely working around conversation can be seen as informal, those working through set curricula are formal. It could be argued that those largely workinghttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 41. ID&T Terminology with negotiated curricula are either engaged in non-formal because of the ‘bottom up’ approach to planning content and process (following Fordham [1995]) or in some form of self-education. Ellis, J. (1990) ‘Informal education – a Christian perspective’ in T. Jeffs and M. Smith (eds.) Using Informal Education, Buckingham: Open University Press. Full text is in the archives. Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. (1990) (eds.) Using Informal Education, Buckingham: Open University Press. Learning Styles- various methods of learning that are preferred by individuals or that may be more effective with different individuals. (p. 349) Examples include auditory learners, kinesthetic learners, visual learners. However, there is no "compelling evidence for designing lessons to match learners learning styles." (p. 315) ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed.) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Learning tasks -- is based on real-life tasks and fulfill the role of a backbone for the training program. Learning Theories - Constructivism, behaviorsim, social cognitivism - describing how people learn. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) Learning Objectives - Statements about what a student will gain from a course or activity. These are specific statements about exactly what a student should know, be able to do, or value as a result of accomplishing a learning goal. Learning objectives form the basis for curriculum and course development as well as testing. http://sacs.utdallas.edu/sacs_glossary - Firat SARSAR Learning Objects - Learning objects are small, self-contained, electronic units of educational information that are flexible, reusable, customizable, interoperable, retrievable, facilitate competency-based learning, and increase the value of content. They address single learning objectives. http://www.uwex.edu/ics/design/glossary.htm#l - Firat SARSAR Learning Outcomes - tend to focus on knowledge building, conceptual change, reflection, self-regulation and sociall co-constructed meaning making (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 47). ~Tammy Learning Package (courseware) - The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the instructional content of the course.http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic Koffivi H. Learning Portal - Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learning and training resources from multiple sources.http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic Koffivi H. Learning Registry - a U.S. Department of Education project that is used by educators and learners for locating and accessing learning tools. K. Hindsman Learning Styles - the diverse ways in which people take in, process, and understand information. -Bonnie Braine Learning Theory - A learning theory is an description of a process of gaining knowledge that usually includes a vocabulary and conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that are observed. (Imani Mance) Legacy Systems - existing system. A legacy system is an old computer system or application program that continues to be used because the user (typically an organization) does not want to replace or redesign it. -Brandy Ross Lesson Plan - Formal design created for a particular subject/topic or idea that is followed in order to achieve comprehension. Plan length varies from outline format to instructor manuals; can also include tutorials, graphs, simulations and videos. Plan is intended to assist the instructor in delivering the instruction. - L. Rashad Limited Capacity Principle - learners can process only a limited amount of information in working memory at any one time (Clark, Mayer, 2008) Olivia Wozniak Linear Instruction - Type of instruction (often teacher centered) that moves through a set sequence with a beginning and end. Linear regression - statistical technique that defines a line that best fits a set ofhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 42. ID&T Terminology data points and predicts the value of an outcome variable from the values of one or more continuous variables. "Logic of Evaluation" - based on Scrivens definition of evaluation he states that four steps are needed in evaluation. Select the criteria of merit or worth Set specific performance standards for the criteria Collect performance data so that one can compare the observed performance with the required performance Make a value, or evaluative, judgement (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 96) --Margaret Long Term Memory - The final phase of memory, in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime. http://www.fitbrains.com/science/more/glossary.php - Firat SARSAR Long Term Memory - is a seemingly limitless store of facts, constructs, and schemas (Sweller, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998). - Tim M. Long-Term Memory - enables the learner to remember and apply information long after it was originally learned. (Dempsey & Reiser, 2007) LMI M Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC) - provides the means by which computers use, exchange and interpret bibliographic data for many of todays digital library catalogs. - W. Clark Macro-Adaptive Instruction - Adaptation of instructional designs by adjusting instructional goals, depth of content, and delivery methods of a group of learners grouped homogeneously (Lee & Park, 2008). Tim M. Macrocycle Level Analysis -during design research, "at the end of each macrocycle, the data is analyzed from multiple perspectives including individual cognition, interpersonal, group, and classroom relationships, and resources and organizational impact. ... The purpose of this analysis is to develop a set of adjustments that in the following macrocycle will better adapt the learning and research trajectories to the actual characteristics of the learning environment" (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 49). Macroinstructional Strategy - the complete instruction;usually created by an instructor who must do the nearly everything to bring about learning: define the objectives, write the lesson plan and test, motivate the learners, present the content, engage the students as active participants in the learning process, and administer and score the assessment (Dick, Carey, and Carey, 6th Ed., 2005, pp.183-185). -Nada Mager, R. - 1962 - recognized the need to teach educators how to write objectives and wrote Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 25). ~Tammy Management with regard to Project Management - In order to have a successful project there must be a good manager overseeing the project. Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson (2001) offer an definition that is all encompassing of many factors. They state, "Management is the process of working with and through individuals and groups and other resources (equipment, capital, technology) to accomplish organizational goals". It is also important that the manager have strong interpersonal skills in order to be successful. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p.113) -- Margaret McLuhan, Marshall – Marshall McLuhan was an English professor known for his work with communication and media. His most famous quote, “the medium is the message,” emphasized his interest in studying how different media affect the content and how the audience interacts with it. Every form of media has its characteristics, and they directly affect the way we experience content, the way we think, and how we behave. McLuhan is also known for predicting that mankind would interact electronically across the planet long before the Internet was invented; he referred to it as the Global Village. (Gordon, 2002; Marshall) -Timothy H. Marzano 9- Instructional strategies created by Robert Marzano to improve student achievement across all grade level and all subjects. The steps are 1) identifying similarities and differences, 2) summarizing and note taking, 3) reinforcing effort and providing recognition, 4) homework and practice, 5) nonlinguistic representations, 6)http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 43. ID&T Terminology cooperative learning, 7) setting objectives and providing feedback, 8) generating and testing hypotheses, and 9) cues, questions, & advance organizers. (Retrieved from http://www.middleweb.com/MWLresources/marzchat1.html on September 7, 2010)-- Thuy Mastery Learning - level of learning that defines a satisfactory knowledge of the objective. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) / an approach to instruction in which students must learn one lesson well (they must master the content) before proceeding to the next lesson. It is based, in part, on the concept of shaping. (Ormrod, J. 2008, Human Learning, 5th edition, Pearson.) - Joy Mastery Level - A prespecified level of task performance, with no gradations below it, that defines satisfacory achievement of an objective. (Dick, Carey, and Carey, 6th Ed., 2005). -Nada Mathetics - The science of learning and mathetics is understood to be the opposite of didiactics he science of teaching. Mathetics considers and uses findings of current interest. (Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary? doi= on November 19, 2008) Media Literacy- the ability to read, understand, and evaluate information on the web for accuracy and validity. (Retrieved from http://www.media- awareness.ca/english/teachers/media_literacy/what_is_media_literacy.cfm on November 1, 2010). - Thuy N. Media vs. Method - the means by which instruction is presented versus the way instruction is presented Media Specialist - A public school staff position derived from the school librarian and sometimes called a library media specialist. Media specialists oversee the library collections and multimedia, ensuring the library is housed with current information resources. The position also serves to assist teachers with the integration of media into the classroom. Mental Models - "...contains information about task demands and task performances that are used for problem solving." Reference: Ragan, T. J., & Smith, P. L. (2005). Instructional Design. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - A. Adams Merit - The intrinsic value of what is beingevaluated (Scriven, 1991). Merrill, David - Instructional Designer and Technologist who believes that the field of IDT has taken on too wide of a focus. He believes, the focus should be narrow and should rely heavily on research and learning theory. He does not advocate the practice of subject matter experts as instructional designers and in fact believes that this practice may limit the future of the field. Valerie S. Gallagher Merrill, M. David- A professor of Instructional Technology from Utah State University who created the First Principles of Instruction. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007), http://id2.usu.edu/MDavidMerrill/index.htm Merrills First Principles - Merrill propsed that five prescriptive principles enhance the quality of instruction across all situations: 1. Task-centered principle, 2. Demonstration principle, 3. Application principle, 4. Activation principle, 5.Integration principle (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) Message Design - an application of communication theory that explains the optimal relationship of a messages parts, details, composition, patterns, plan, and intentions, as well as the entire communication system, to ensure that the message sent by the source is effectively received. -Bonnie Braine Meta-analysis – the process of synthesizing and describing results from a large number of similar studies. Metacognition - The regulating and designing of ones own knowledge through the use of identifying gaps in education and to find resources ( http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/misc/glossary.htm) Metacognition - ones knowledge and monitoring of ones own cognitive processes. Tim M. metacognition can be understood as "thinking about thinking". Practicing to be metacognitive denotes a certain degree of self-awareness and self-regulation. Uzma B. Metadata - information about a learning resource. - W. Clarkhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 44. ID&T Terminology Metadata describes details about content or data. In the case of an online course, it would be macro-level details about a course such as the author, a short summary or description, the date created, etc. Could be helpful when searching for information. Meta-evaluation - an evaluation of the evaluation, determines 1. degree to which intended use was achieved, b. did additional uses occur, c. did misuses and/or unintended consequences occur - only successful if findings are used effectively (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) Micro-Adaptive Instruction: Adaptation of instructional designs based on current information about an individual learner like motivational level, current knowledge. Typically the information is used to prescribe the next instructional treatment (Lee & Park, 2008). Tim M. Micro Computers - In the 1980s the advent of microcomputers led to increased interest in using computers for instructional purposes Miller (1956) - Articulated the "seven plus or minus two chunks," limit to working memory. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 314). Military Language Tutor (MILT) - An advanced authoring system. Minecraft - Free form computer game and virtual world created by Mojang that allows players to explore a vast natural worlds and create complex structures from simple materials. (http://www.lib.odu.edu/minecraft/). Minimalist training. An instructional approach which seeks to provide the minimum amount of instruction needed to help the learner master a skill. It emphasizes active learning and meaningful learning tasks. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill (Andy Harrison) m-Learning - learning that takes place via mobile technologies. MMORPG - Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game - Virtual world role playing game such as World of Warcraft. Mobile Leaning - also called m-learning--learning that is enhanced with mobile tools and mobile communication [www.shareideas.com] Tippi Hyde Mobile Learning (2)-- Learning that happens across locations, or that takes advantage of learning opportunities offered by portable technologies. In other words, mobile learning decreases the limitations of the learning location with the mobility of general portable devices. [Wikipedia] Tippi Hyde Modality Principle - A principle stated by Mayer(2001) "Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text. Clark, R C. & Mayer, R.E. (2007). Using rich media wisely. In Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (p. 317). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. -Barb Cebulski Model - a simplified representation of a system, often in picture or flowchart form, showing selected features of the system. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Module - a self-instructional package treating a single topic or unit of a course and povides the information needed to develop mastery of specified knowledge. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 349) MOOC - Massive Open Online Course. Supplying a free open platform for anyone to learn over the Internet. MOODLE - "Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment." Moodle ishttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 45. ID&T Terminology an open source course management system that provides an organized interface for e- learning. http://moodle.org/about/ Moores Law - a concept published in a 1965 magazine article by G. Moore hypothesizing that circuitry would double in complexity every year or two. The theory has held remarkably true throughout the 20th century. Moore, GE. (1965). Cramming More Circuits on Chips. Electronics, 19(4), 114 Motivation - A persons desire to pursue a goal or perform a task, which is manifested by choice of goals and effort in pursuing the goal (Keller, 2007). -Janelle S. Allen Motivational Tension - In educational gaming, motivational tension occurs when the optimal amount of challenge is present. This maintains motivation by creating uncertainty about goal attainment. Multimedia - The combination of various digital media types, such as text, images, sound, and video, into an integrated multisensory interative application or presentation to cnvey a message or information to an audience (Mao Neo and Ken T.K. Neo, faculty at Multimedia University, Malaysia) Multimedia - Presentation of contenet that relies on both text and graphics (Mayer, R., professor of psychology , University of California, Santa Barbara). Multimedia learning- learning from words and pictures; it is deep understanding of the material, which includes attending to important aspects of the presented material, mentally organizing it into a coherent cognitive structure , and integrating it with relevant existing knowledge (Mayer, Moreno, 2003) Olivia Wozniak Mutual Adaptation - considering local conditions and learner context and modifying original instructional materials accordingly. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, 107) - D. Saxon MUVE - Multi-User Virtual Environment - Used in virtual world simulations, such as Second Life. MUVE 3D environments that give the participant a change to explore, simulate, role play, interact and experiment in an avatar based environment. (Burgess) M. Dixon MSLQ- Motivated Strategies for Learning questionaire- often used to investigate critical thinking in learning motivation for conceptual change, self -efficacy, beliefs of knowledge and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. -Melissa S. References Clark,R., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by Viewing versus Learning by Doing: Evidence- Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13. Gordon, T. (2002). Marshall who? Retrieved from http://marshallmcluhan.com/biography/ Jonassen, D., Cernusca, D., and Ionas, G. (2007). Constructivism and instructional design: The emergence of the learning sciences and design research. In R. A. Reiser and Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Keller, J. M. (2007). Motivation and performance. In R. A. Reiser and Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed., pp. 82-92). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Lee, J., & Park, O. (2008). Adaptive instructional systems. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 469-484). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Marshall McLuhan. (n.d.). Historica-Dominion. Retrieved from http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10226 Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. Ormrod, J. (2008), Human Learning, 5th edition, Pearson. Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychology Review, 10(3), 251-296. doi: 10.1023/A:1022193728205 Spector, M. & Ohrazda, C. (2004). Handbook of Resarch on Educational Communications and Technology: Automating Instructional design approaches and limitations. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 46. ID&T Terminology N Narrative description - a written description of an instructional product , instructional document , or classroom observation . While they may follow a common format or style within a particular project, the focus is on creating an accurate, written detail of the phenomena under study. Narrative object – a type of learning object that follows along with a story that often includes a beginning, middle and end, or follows a sequence or pattern. Often videos, images, or audio are used to tell a story. These help to build background knowledge for the learner and often provide connections or ways for the learner to synthesize what they have learned (Reiser & Dempsey 2012, p. 294). National Education Association - is the largest professional organization and largest labor union in the United States, representing public school teachers and other support personnel, faculty and staffers at colleges and universities, retired educators, and college students preparing to become teachers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Education_Association - Firat SARSAR National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) - Developed by the ISTE organization, the NETS are technology standards focused on the integration of 21st Century skills into the classroom. The organization has developed NETS for Students, Teachers and Administrators. NETS for students focus on students ability to: Demonstrate creativity and innovation Communicate and collaborate Conduct research and use information Think critically, solve problems, and make decisions Use technology effectively and productively National LambdaRail--The latest cutting edge version of the Internet (Internet 2) developed by the Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative is based on a giant ring of fiber optic cables comprised of 40 channels, each with a throughput of 10 Gbps, with a combined network potential for simultaneous transmission of data of 400 Gbps. It includes grid computing, which will allow for not only information, but tasks, processes, and applications as well (from Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J., 2007). Check this website for the lastest developments on this emerging technology: http://www.nlr.net . Natural Information Processing System Principles - 1. The information store principle. require a very large information store that governs the bulk of the activities of the system like the human long-term memory. 2. The borrowing principle. a procedure to rapidly acquire information is required, almost all of the information held in the store of a natural information system is borrowed from other entities. 3. The randomness as genesis principle. new information is created via this principle. All information in human long-term memory that has not been made available via the borrowing principle is generated randomly during problem solving. 4. The narrow limits of change principle. Large amounts of useful, new information are not and cannot be generated rapidly by a random mechanism. 5. The environment organizing and linking principle. Once information has been organized in the information store, the limits associated with the narrow limits of change principle disappear. Near Equilibrium - the condition whereby supply is near demand, not yet equal but relatively close in either direction, positive or negative. (Reiser, Litchfield, 2007, p. 126) Needs Assessment - the process of identifying the gap between desired and existing outcomes. There are three components of needs assessment logic. The first is establishing a standard or goal that is referred to as the desired status; The second component is determining the actual status or existing level of performance on the standard or goal; The third component is identifying the gap between desired status and actual status, thereby describing a need (Dick, Carey and Carey, 2005). -Janelle S. Allenhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 47. ID&T Terminology Netiquette - This is an especially important topic with respect to distance learning. It is defined as the demonstration of courtesy for the learning needs of others with respect to technology. In the contect of an online course, the instructor can define the protocol for communication within the course. The syllabus is an excellent means for this communication. (Simonson M., Smaldino S. , Albright M., Zvacek, S. Teaching and Learning at a Distance 4th edition, pg. 174) Valerie Gallagher Network Effect - With regards to Web 2.0 tools, the belief that the value of the network increases with the addition of each user. Networked Interactivity- This is an e-learning concept. Networked Interactivity is interactivity made possible by a real-time network connection at home. Neuroscience - The scientific disciplines concerned with the development, structure, function, chemistry, pharmacology, clinical assessments and pathology of the nervous system. Neuroscience is at the frontier of investigation of the brain and mind. The study of the brain is becoming the cornerstone is understanding how we perceive and interact with the external world and, in particular, how human experience and human biology influence each other. http://www.als.net/aboutals/Glossary.aspx#N - Firat SARSAR Next Generation Internet – A government-based project initiative to improve the internet so to send and retrieve data more quickly. NGI was initiated along with its rival, Internet 2.0, but is taking longer to implement. Internet Protocol Version 6 or Ipv6 are other names that it is referred to. (Retrieved from http://www.ipv6.org on November 19, 2008) New Media – New media is any device through which communication may occur, but that mode of communication should by dynamic and interactive in nature. The following YouTube video (What is New Media ) gives a good introduction to the possibilities of new media technology. In addition, new media resources should be able to change to some extent, so that data can be transported from one application to others. This means that the form in which information is first met does not have to be the only way in which it can be interacted with (Manovich 9-12). -Timothy H. Norm-Referenced Assessment – In this type of assessment, the learner is being compared to the norm group. Non-Formal Learning - Non-formal learning occurs in a planned but highly adaptable way, in institutions, organisations, the workplace and situations outside the spheres of formal or informal education. It shares with formal education the characteristic of being mediated, but the motivation for learning may be wholly intrinsic to the learner. ("Quality Guide to the Non-Formal and Informal Learning Processes", Oct. 2004) -Bonnie Braine Non-Instructional Solutions- Learning and performance solutions other than instructional ones (for example job aids). -Ana Fuchs Non-Linear Instruction - Instructional strategy that does not progress in a set sequence but instead relies and reacts to the learner to determine the direction. O Objective - A brief statment about what learners will be able to accomplished once they complete the course. The objective is presented to the learner. This is an important step in Gagnes 9 Events of Learning. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 365) Objectivism - The epistemology that a separation exists between meanings and people. Objectivists believe that knowledge exists independently of the learner; instruction focuses on transferring that knowledge to the learner (Hannafin and Hill, 2007). -Janelle S. Allen / Learning is the product of reflecting on the outside world and taking into consideration ones own relationship to reality. Meaning is drived fromhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 48. ID&T Terminology independently (Jonassen, D., Cernusca, D, & Lonas, G. p. 46). Observation - refers to the systematic surveillance of classroom instruction with the goal of identifying instructional needs/challenges, describing the instructional activity , innovation or program , or evaluating a change in instructional practice. Also referred to as "classroom observation." Open Course Ware (OCW) - OpenCourseWare (OCW) makes the educational materials used in the teaching of virtually all of MIT subjects available on the Web, free of charge, to any user, anywhere in the world. http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm Office of Educational Technology (OET) - an office in the Department of Education that oversees educational technology policy and creates programs that promote use of learning with technology. K. Hindsman One-On-One Evaluation - a method of formative evaluation in which there is direct interaction between the designer and the individual tryout student. - W. Clark Online Classes- instruction taught either synchronously or asynchronously over the internet. -Ana Fuchs Online Learning - Instructor-led education conducted over the Internet, with the teacher and student separated geographically. Also known as e-learning, cyberschools, and virtual schools (Watson, Gemin, & Ryan, 2008). - Tim M. Online Learning Communities - have no physical locations and boundaries, extend beyond campuses, regions, and countries. Virtual spaces where students can meet and aggregate to create a sense of community among isolated learners. -Bonnie Braine On The Job Training - Training and instruction that takes place within the work environment (Piskurich, G. & Piskurich, J. Rapid Instructional Design: Learning ID Fast and Right. Wiley_Default, 2006) Open Courseware Consortium - (OCWconsortium.org). The OpenCourseWare Consortium is a worldwide community of hundreds of universities and associated organizations committed to advancing OpenCourseWare and its impact on global education. Valerie S. Gallagher Open Educational Resources (OER)- educational materials and resources offered without cost for anyone to use anytime and under a license to remix, improve, and redistribute. (Atkins, et al. 2007). - Thuy Nguyen Open-Ended Learning Environments (OELES) - OELEs refers to process wherein the intents, purposes, and meanings of the individuals are uniquely developed and pursued. In Open-ended Learning environments, context and experience are critical to understanding and learning. Also, learning is individual mediated: the learners judge what, when, how learning will occur. Open-ended learning environments facilitate learners learning through extended exploration, manipulation, and opportunities to "get to know" an idea, rather than simply being told about it. OELEs often focus on problem-solving skills in authentic contexts, providing studnets affording opportunities for exploration and theory building. (Hannafin, M. J., Hall, C., Land, S., & Hill, J. (1994). Learning in Open-ended Environments: Assumptions, Methods, and Implications. Educational Technology, 34 (8), 48-55.) -Qi Open Learning Initiative (OLI) - is dedicated to the development of freely available stand-alone college level courses informed by the best current research from the cognitive and learning sciences. The OLI course-design process is unique in its dedication to teaming faculty content experts with cognitive scientists, learning scientists, human-computer interaction specialists, formative assessment specialists, and programmers. The initiative’s commitment to ongoing course evaluation and iterative improvement also sets it apart. Ultimately, the collaborative nature of the OLI course-design process has had an additional, unanticipated effect: inspiring participating faculty members to rethink their approach to classroom teaching at the university.(http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI5013.pdf ) Valerie S. Gallagher Open Source Software (OSS): Software liscenced in a way that makes the sourcehttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 49. ID&T Terminology code of the software available to everyone and permits others to modify that source code (Koper, 2008). -Tim M. Open Standard : Conventions and specifications published and used in a develpment community to ensure quality and interoperability of products(Koper, 2008). -Tim M. OpenStudy.com - A company formed by Georgia Tech and Emory University to utilize social networking platforms to bring students together to study in real time. The "match.com" of studying. Valerie S. Gallagher Organization Development (OD): is a planned, organization-wide effort to increase an organizations effectiveness and viability. This method adopts less of an engineering emphasis and is characterized more by its communication and facilitation style (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007). - Thuy Nguyen Organizational Analysis: Identification of the goals for a unit, department or organization. "For each goal there should be a corresponding description of the behaviors that will be required of employees to reach the goal" (Dick, et. al. 2001). These goals should be expressed in operational terms, with explicitly defined measures. Organizational Effectiveness (OE) - he concept of how effective an organization is in achieving the outcomes the organization intends to produce. -Bonnie Braine "Over Sold-Under Used" - The phenomenon employed by Cuban to allude to the fact that the number of diffused computers in classroom dramatically increases, however they are not used much by classroom teachers. References Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J.(2001). The Systematic Design of Instruction. (5th ed.). New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc Dick, W., Carey, L. and Carey, J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Hannafin, M. J. & Hill, J. R. (2007). Epistemology and the design of learning environments. In R. A. Reiser and Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed. pp. 53-61). Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson. Koper, R. (2008). Open source and open standards. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-365). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Reiser, R. A. and Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.) (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education. Manovich, L. (n.d.). What is new media? Retrieved from http://ucsd.academia.edu/LevManovich/Papers/541114/What_is_new_media Watson, J., Gemin, B., & Ryan, J. (2008). Keeping pace with k-12 online learning: A review of state-level policy and practice. Evergreen Consulting Associates. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from http://www.kpk12.com/downloads/KeepingPace_2008.pdf. Created by Enzo Silva (http://bit.ly/AwdZYH) Website by Kangdon Lee (http://iglassbox.thoth.kr/) Creative Commons BY (Attribution) - NC (NonCommercial) - SA (ShareAlike) P Paradigm Shift -The term means a change in a fundamental model of events. In IDT is could be considered as the widely applied changes that training has begun to take over the previous twenty years. (Webster, M.) LMI Pareto chart - a specialized chart useful for non-numeric data that ranks categories from most frequent to least frequent. Bars are arranged in descending order of height from left tohttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 50. ID&T Terminology right. http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/glossary.php Koffivi H. Participative Design - A process that refers to all the participation of all the functional areas of the organization in the training design activity. The intent is to enhance the design with the input of all the key stakeholders. Such a process should ensure that the final outcome of the design meets the needs of the stakeholders. http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408/glossary.htm#r Koffivi D. Part-time practice- which may provide learners with additional practice for routine aspects of the complex task that need to be developed to a very high level of automaticity. Pebble in the Pond Approach - A ten step approach that assumes a designer has already identified an instructional goal. This approach is also built around the development of tasks (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Pedagogy - Literally means the art and science of educating children, pedagogy is often used as a synonym for teaching. Pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education. http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408/glossary.htm#p Edited by Koffivi H. Pedagogy- is the study of being a teacher or the process of teaching. The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction. (Wikipedia) LMI Pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman 1986, 1987) - a culmination of content and teaching: in an attempt to successfully teach the material a teaching strategy is used (of a subject or content) to instruct, based on characteristics and abilities of the learner Peer Review/Assessment - The act of reviewing the work of a subordinate in order to give feedback and quality insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the work of another. Ideally, this can lead to further revision and a dialogue between interested parties of a content area. It is important that reviewers completely explain their points so that the original author of a work can enact any necessary changes. -Timothy H. Perceived Attributes – There have been a number of diffusion studies done on perceived attributes. This is when “potential adopters base their feelings about an innovation on how they perceive that innovation in regard to five key attributes – relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialablitiy, and observability.” (Reiser and Dempsey 2007) Performance - component of a learning objective that describes what the learner should be able to do at the completion of instruction. - W. Clark Performance Analysis - "An analytical process use to locate, analyze, and correct job or product performance problems (Dick, Carey, & Carey, 2005)" Performance Analysis - A specific, performance-based needs assessment technique that precedes any design or development activities by analyzing the performance problems of a work organization. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. Performance Consultant (PC) - A professional HPI (Human Performance Improvement) practitioner; a person working in an organization that is charged with identifying gaps between needed and actual performance outcomes, analyzing the gaps, isolating the problems creating the gaps, and recommending a series of methods and tools to eliminate the gaps, resulting in the desired performance in the organization (Reiser & Dempsey (2007) Trends & Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.) -Bonnie Braine Performance Gap - The delta between desired and actual performance. http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408/glossary.htm#p Koffivi H. The discrepancy between an organizations expectations and its actual performance. (Rogers, 2003) Performance Objectives - A statement of what a trainee should be able to do at the end of a training session; usually starts with an action verb, such as a plan, change, explain, evaluate, or prepare; performance objectives should be measurable. (Beisse F., 1999, A Guide To Computer User Support,Course Technology) Koffivi Houngblame Performance Objectives - It describes what the learner should be able to do on-http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 51. ID&T Terminology the-job. This term is opposed to what the learner should be able to do within the learning environment as a result of the training. A detailed description of what the learner will be able to do when they complete a unit of instruction is known as behavioral objective or instructional objective. Criteria for assessing the performance are audience, behavior, condition, degree (ABCD). - Qi Performance Potential - What is learned may not always be exhibited at the time of learning. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 37). ~Tammy Performance Support Systems - Computer program that aids the user in doing a task. Examples include help systems, job aids, and expert system advisors. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1- 21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill (Andy Harrison) There are 3 types of performance support systems. (Adapted from Gery, 1995, p.51) External - Performance support that is not integrated into the users workspace that requires a worker to break from the work context entirely. Examples: help desk, job aids, manuals, search engines. Extrinsic - Perofmance support that is integrated with the system, but is not in the primary workspace. Examples: context-sensitive help, online help Intrinsic - Performance support that is inherent to the system itself. It is so well integrated that , to workers, it is part of the system. Examples: human factors engineering, user-centered design, wizards (-Safna K.) Performance Technology - a fundamental commitment to the identification of organizational performance problems and the development of the most appropriate solutions. Performance technology brings a holistic framework to the analysis of issues impacting human performance that are fundamentally interdisciplinaryDick, W., and Wager W. (1995). Preparing performance technologists: The role of the university. Performance Improvement Quarterly 8 (4), 34-42. - Firat SARSAR Personal Knowledge Management - an individuals personal approach of collecting, organizing, and storing knowledge and experiences for later use. - K. Hindsman Pervasiveness- commonness, popularity (LMI) Phishing - to try to obtain financial or other confidential information from Internet users, typically by sending an e-mail that looks as if it is from a legitimate organization , usually a financial institution, but contains a link to a fake Web site that replicates the real one. Photobucket- is an Internet site for uploading, sharing, linking and finding photos, videos, and graphics. Your free Photobucket account can store thousands of photos and hours of video. Photobucket also offers free tools for making slideshows of photos, videos with music. You can share your photos and videos with friends by email, IM and mobile phone. Plus, you browse through Photobuckets huge online library of photos and videos to find the latest and best photos, images and videos. Piaget, Jean - Jean Piaget, the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist, spent much of his professional life listening to children, watching children and poring over reports of researchers around the world who were doing the same Read more: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,990617,00.html#ixzz1fkwATT4T Picasa- a free software download from Google that helps you: Locate and organize all the photos on your computer. Edit and add effects to your photos with a few simple clicks. Share your photos with others through email, prints, and on the web: its fast, easy and free. Piecemeal Change- Modifying or adjusting one or two areas or parts of a system but leaving the basic structure as is. (Dempsey, J. and Reiser, R. (2007) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp. 210). (2nd Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ:http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 52. ID&T Terminology Merrill Prentice Hall) Pilot Test - a method of formative evaluation in which data is collected from a group of learners to determine whether or not the instruction is ready to be implemented. - W. Clark Plagiarism- the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as ones own original work. Source dictionary.com Plagiarism is becoming more popular as technology is enhanced. (Andrea Manor) Podcast - a series of digital audio/video files downloaded from the Internet. Many colleges and universities are making lectures available via podcast. - D. Saxon Positivism - The philosophy that every truth can be scientifically verified or mathematically proven. -Janelle S. Allen Positivist - Objectivist - Person who believes that knowledge exists independently of the individual and there are absolute truths that exist. Traditional instruction reflects this view (Dempsey, J. and Reiser, R. (2007) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp. 55). (2nd Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall) - Brandy Ross Postmodern Instructional Design - ID theory that basis itself on postmodern and humanistic philosophies. PID acknowledges the plurality of knowledge and encourages alternative interpretations of outcomes. http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~bwilson/postmodern.html - Uzma B. Posttest - an summative assessment used to help the designer evaluate instruction and identify areas that need improvement (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2005). - Janelle S. Allen Practice Object – a type of learning object that provides "skill and drill" where feedback is provided to give students an opportunity to use what they know and work together to follow the particular sequence, when needed, to solve problems. A good example might be following step-by-step procedure to solve division problems (Reiser & Dempsey 2012, p.293). Pretest - an assessment given before instruction that is used to evaluate entry behaviors and establish a baseline (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2005). -Janelle S. Allen Prerequite Test- portion of a pretest that measures content or skill preparation a learner has for starting the course or unit. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 349) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Presentation Object – in reference to learning objects, a presentation object can include a table or diagram or map in that it presents information to students in a way that help them to recognize and describe what they see (Reiser & Dempsey 2012, p. 293). Problem-Based Learning - first used for P.E., uses complex problems for the starting part of learning; often which are authentic and expected to provide relevance and motivation (Carr-Chellman, A. & Reigeluth, C, N.A.) - Melissa S. / In this contexts, agreat deal of learning occurs within the context of solving problem. Students are given complex, real-world problems to tackle (usually in small groups) and must acquire new knowledge and skills in order to solve them. (Ormrod, J, 2008, 5th edition, Pearson) - Joy Problem-Based Learning- According to Finkle and Torp (1995), problem-based learning as "a curriculum development and instructional system that simultaneously develops both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem-solver confronted with an ill-http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 53. ID&T Terminology structured problem that mirrors real-world problems." The key concepts of problem based learning are: 1)Learning is student centered 2)Learning occurs in small student groups 3)Teachers are facilitators or guides 4)Problems form the original focus and stimulus for learning 5) Problems are a vehicle for the development of clinical problem solving skills 6) New information is acquired through self-directed learning. (Finkle, S. L., & Torp, L. L. (1995). Introductory documents. Available from the Center for problem-based Learning, Illinois Math and Science Academy, 1500 West Sullivan road, Aurora, IL 60506-1000.) - Qi Problem Solving - The creative application of various rules, procedures, techniques, or principles to solve complex problems where there is no single correct answer. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill (Andy Harrison) Procedural information -is presented to learners because it helps them to perform the routine aspects of learning tasks. Process Chart - A chart that represents the sequence of steps or tasks needed to complete an operation. It serves as a basis for examining and possibly improving the way the operation is carried out.http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic Koffivi H. Process Evaluation - The third step/component in the CIPP model. Used to examine the ways in which an innovation is being developed, implemented, and the initial effectiveness and revisions of the innovation (Dempsey, J. and Reiser, R. (2007). Proctor - tradtionally, an individual who is present to administer a test. In e- learning, online proctoring is done electronically. Software is installed on the student computer and is used to monitor all activity during an assessment or test. Some packages can prevent Internet searches or opening of files during a test. Other packages have fingerprint recognition to verify student identity. Webcams are also incorporated into proctoring software to capture a 360 degree view of the test environmnet. (walter murphy) Professional Learning Community PLC - a group of individuals of a specific discipline that bring together various resources and personal curriculum to form a shared portfolio of educational materials both traditional and web 2.0 based. (M. Dixon) Product Evaluation - The fourth step/component in the CIPP model. Resembles summative evaluation. Measures outcomes specified in program objectives. Assesses the merit of the program and conducts a benefit-cost or ROI assessment. Programmed Instruction - B. F. Skinner360s model calling for instructional materials to present instruction in small steps, require active responses to frequent questions, provide immediate feedback, and allow for learner self-pacing. [Reiser, R. A. (2007). In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.] Tippi Hyde Project Management - "the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a broad rand of activities in order to meet the requirements of a particular project" www.pmi.org -Melissa S. Members of a project management team usually include instructional designers, computer programmers, artists, and subject matter experts. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)--Margaret Project Mangement- responsibilities for all functions that relate to the conduct of an instructional design project. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 350) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) - "a sequence of processes that includes scoping, planning, launching, monitoring, controlling, and closing out projects (Wysocki, 2009)." - A. Adams Reference: Wysocki, R. (2009). Effective Projecthttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 54. ID&T Terminology Management. (5th Ed). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY Promethean- Promethean believes that technology holds the power to unleash the potential of human achievement. As the global leader in learning technology, Promethean combines innovation, real-world experience, scientific insight and thought leadership to help realize the fullest potential of every instructor, presenter and student everywhere—from the classroom to the boardroom to any space where information, collaboration, and global citizenship must meet. (Promethean.com) LMI Promethean Active Board- Promethean interactive whiteboards bring images and sounds front-and-center to change the way students see education. (Promethean.com) LMI Prompted Simulation - Student performance of a simulated procedure under controlled circumstances. The student is prompted, guided through the procedure, provided necessary remediation, given explanations, and help is provided. It usually consists of video or graphic still frames.http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic Koffivi H. Protocol - A standard for communication. Different computers can communicate with one another over the internet because they use standard protocols -Safna K Prototypes - either workable models of the final product or simply shells that demonstrate teh projected appearance of the product (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 179). ~Tammy Psychomotor Domain - manual or physical skills / Dave (1967) defined psychomotor domain into 5 level. Imitate : Observe a skill and attempt to repeat it, or see finished product and attempt to replicate it while attending to an exemplar. Manipulate : perform the skill or produce the product in a recognizable fashion by following general instructions rather than observation. Precision : Independently perform the skill or produce the product with accuracy, proportion, and exactness; at an expert level. Articulation : Modify the skill or product the product to fit new situations; combine more than one skill in sequence with harmony and consistency Naturalization : completion of one or more skills with ease and making the skill automatic with limited physical or mental exertion. (Huitt, W. (2003). The psychomotor domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. From http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/psymtr.html ) - Joy Public Domain- A term applied to works that can be used without seeking permission from the creator of the work. Works that are in the public domain include: works that have reached expiration of copyright protection, most materials published by the U.S. government (excludes audiovisual works produced for federal agencies by independent contractors), works for which the copyright owner has abandoned the copyright. -Barb C Q Quality Assurance - plans and procedures to ensure that courses meet standards for excellence. Rubrics and checklists can be used for peer review or administrative review to ensure quality or determine remediation. Questionnaire - self-report data-collection instrument filled out by research participants designed to measure identified outcomes (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) R Rapid Prototyping- Commonly used in software engineering, this methodology involves developing a working model that is used in the early stages of a project to assist in the ADDIE process ((Reiser and Dempsey 2007). Rapid prototyping. In a design process, early development of a small-scale prototype used to test out certain key features of the design. Most useful for large- scale or projects. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook ofhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 55. ID&T Terminology instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) This design technique has been advocated as a means of producing quality instructional materials in less time than is required when more conventional instructional design techniques are employed. [Reiser, R. (). A history of instructional design and technology: part II: a history of instructional design. ETR&D, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2001, pp. 57–67 ISSN 1042–1629]. -Thuy Nguyen REALs - a model developed by Joni Dunlap and Scott Grabinger for designing authentic instruction called REALs ( rich environments for authentic learning). The model incorprates key aspects of constructivism into a prescriptive model for design. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p. 47) Redundancy - administered to prevent failure of a system through duplicate processes and procedures (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Redundant Onscreen Text - Onscreen text that contains the same words as corresponding audio narration (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Reflective Practice - process of examining ones performance to evaluate what we say we do, what we actually do and what we hope to do in our profession. Donald Schon was a pioneer in the field of reflective practice. His work has impacted many different professional fields including K12 educators, health professionals and executive leaders. (http://www.scribd.com/doc/9700519/Reflective-Practice-Lesson-1- Overview ) U. Bhatti Reinforcement Learning- recieving feedback on success in learning, thus being encouraged to continue learning. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 350)Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Reiser, Robert - editor of "Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology" a seminal work in this field. Widely published, he is an instructional design historian of sorts. -Ana Fuchs Relativism - is generally based upon the premise that all truth or knowledge is subjective, therefore all truths are equal. However, this is more of an extreme form of relativism which could be referred to as absolute relativism. Relativism is often used to state that there is a relative aspect to all truth, but this does not mean that all truths are equal. http://www.postmodernpsychology.com/Postmodernism_Dictionary.html - Firat SARSAR Reliability - the ability of research results to be repeated; the consistency or repeatability of your measures (Trochim, 2005). In terms of assessments, reliability refers to the consistency of assessment scores. For example, on a reliable test, a student would expect to attain the same score regardless of when the student completed the assessment, when the response was scored, and who scored the response. On an unreliable examination, a students score may vary based on factors that are not related to the purpose of the assessment. - Brandy Ross Reliability- ability of a test to produce consisten results when used with comparable learners. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 350) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Remediation - the act of correcting a deficiency. Through specific feedback, the learner is made aware of areas which need improvement and are able to improve areas where a deficiency exists. Remediation – This is a term popularized by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. They explored how current media types are shaped from older media formats. Remediation is essentially the movement of media from one form to another and how the newer format varies. The move in modern society is to use more hypermedia and achieve immediacy…a sense of being in another location in real time (Bolter and Grussin, 2000, pp. 3-25). This shift seems to be a move towards greater transparency of media and total immersion. -Timothy H. Representational holding refers to cognitive processes aimed at holding a mental representation in working memory over a period of time. For example, suppose that an illustration is presented in one window and a verbal description of it is presented in one window and a verbal description of it is presented in another window, but onlyhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 56. ID&T Terminology one window can appear on the screen at one time. In this case, the learner must hold a representation of the illustration in working memory while reading the verbal description or must hold a representation in working memory while viewing the illustration (Mayer & Moreno, 2003) Olivia Wozniak Representational holding in multimedia learning-aimed at holding verbal or visual representations in working memory. Research context - environmental factors that may influence the research process and/or the instructional outcomes under study including geographic location, the physical environment, time of day, social factors, and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex, income). Resistance to Innovation - There are different reasons why people resist innovation when it comes to adoption and diffusion. Some reasons are personal barriers, attitudinal barriers, organizational barriers, threatened by technology, and access. Studying barriers can be important to coming up with strategies to breaking them down. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007). Resources - In training, resources are "those assets essential to engaging in a training project." There are three categories of resources in business or academia; "1) people (those who plan, develop, and or deliver training); 2) time (the period needed to complete a training project); 3) money (capital available to invest in training)." Where there is scarcity of one type of resource then the type of training that can be planned is affected. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007) Return on investment - the measurement of worth in terms of value received (benefits) in return for resources spent (cost). -Janelle S. Allen It can also be considered level 5 of Kirkpatricks Levels of Evaluation- Kersa Pott ROI (return on investment) - ROI is in the 4th step (sometimes it is often referred to as the 5th step) in Kirkpatricks Four Level Model of Training. It is calculated by subtracting the total cost of the training program from the total dollar benefit. It is often used in business to measure the effectiveness of training. Retrospective survey design - asking questions about the past in relation to the present; to measure transfer of training - involves interviewing or having traineers and their supervisors, peers and subordinates fill out questionnaires several weeks / months after training to measure perspectives about whether traineers are applying what they learned (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) Reusability - "the ability to use the same resources multiple times in multiple way and in multiple contexts." Examples: when a design team creates a library of templates and objects that can be used more than once and for different projects, when a teachers uses an applet written or created by someone else in a course... Designers are saving time and money when resources can be reused. (Reiser and Dempsey 1007, p. 302) Reusable Learning Objects (ROLs) - an object or set of resources that can be used for intended learning outcomes, extracted, and reused in other learning environments. - W. Clark Revision - The process of producing an amended, improved, up-to-date version of a set of instructional materials(Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p. 366) Koffivi Houngblame Rich Media - Instructional programs that incorporate high-end media such as video, animation, sound, and simulation" and when used correctly rich media can increase learning (Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p. 312). Risk Management - Related to project management. An event that could happen in the future resulting in a positive or negative change to a project. In a project, risk management includes four parts: risk identification, risk assessment, risk mitigation, and risk monitoring. Rocketship Education - Charter school system that uses a hybrid model to reinforce skills learned in a traditional classroom with a portion of the day in the computer lab http://rsed.org/index.php?page=hybrid-school-model Rollover - A technique in which new content appears on the screen when the learners mouse contacts on-screen objects (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Also called mouse- over. Rossis Five Domain Evaluation Model- Based on Peter Rossis model ofhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 57. ID&T Terminology evaluation, which is designed to meet the needs of the particular program. The five domains in order are as follows: Needs Assessment, Theory Assessment, Implementation Assessment, Impact Assessment, and the fifth domain is Efficiency Assessment (Reiser & Dempsey 2012, p. 98). Rote Learning - is a technique which avoids understanding the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. (Imani Mance) Routinization - Also known as "continuation"--this is the process which leads from implementation of an innovation to institutionalization because the innovation is assimilated into the structure of the organization and changes the organization in a stable way. This process is identified by the routine use of the innovation in settings for which it was designed so much so that the innovation has become integral to the organization and is no longer considered an innovation (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007, pp.108-109). RSS (Rich Site Summary) is "a format for delivering regularly changing web content." Users may sign up for the RSS Feed to receive continuous updates for news-related sites, weblogs and other online publishers. (http://www.whatisrss.com/ )- Thuy Nguyen Rubric- A descriptive framework for guiding the evaluation of complex assignments or those requiring individual judgement. (Andrea Manor) Rummler, Geary - With Alan P. Brache, he developed a holistic model approach to organizational change. Their model focused on the gap between the individual and the organizational strategy (the flow between the organizational parts rather than activities in departments). Currently the two have established (1981) the Rummler- Brache group (www.rummler-brache.com ) and implement their Nine Box Model and methodology, targeting fortune 500 companies. Rummler & Brache viewed HPT from the organizational perspective in their book Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organizational Chart. S Scaffolding - "...allows learners to reach places that they would otherwise be unable to reach. With the right word or question or other device a teacher may put in place the scaffolding that will allow new knowledge to be constructed, incomplete or wrong concepts to be challenged or corrected, or forgotten knowledge to be recalled." (used when developing and designing WebQuests) D. Holton & D. Clarke (2006), International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 27, 127- 143. - D. Saxon Scaffolding. A technique of cognitive apprenticeship whereby the instructor performs parts of a task that the learner is not yet able to perform. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Scarcity – when demand exceeds supply. Occurs when there is a limited amount of people, time, or money. Reference- Busby, R. D. & Goldsmith, J. J. (2007). Managing scarce resources in training organizations. In R. A. Reiser, & J. V. Dempsey, Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp.126-134). Boston: Pearson. - A. Adams Scenario Planning - The process of identifying possible future outcomes through the use of strategic planning and creative narratives. The purpose is to remain flexible to plan for the future. -Janelle Allen Schema Automation: The point at which a schema is implemented while largely bypassing working memory. The automation of schema is critical for performing complex tasks. For example most adults have automated the schema for reading (Sweller, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998). Tim M. Schema Theory: knowledge that is represented in long-term memory as packets of information called schemata. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) LMI Schemata: organize information in categories that are related in systematic and predictable ways. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) LMI Scheme - "An internal knowledge structure. New information is compared to existinghttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 58. ID&T Terminology cognitive structures called scheme. Schema may be combined, extended or altered to accommodate new information." Instructional Design & Learning Theory, Brenda Mergel, Graduate Student Educational Communications and Technology, University of Saskatchewan, Many, 1998. http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm#The%20Basics%20of%20Behaviorism Nada School museums - laid the foundation for instructional design and technology in 1905. They disseminating visual instruction and portable museum exhibits including technologies such as: sterographs, slides, films, study prints, charts and other instructional materials. -Ana Fuchs Science - The pursuit of understanding. The goal of science is knowledge about the physical world. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 337). ~Tammy Scientific Problem Solving (SPS) – the distinction is based on using both science and engineering to solve problems. The steps for SPS are (Billy Wootens Prezi): Identify Problem Identify Cause & Source of Problem Identify Possible Solutions Evaluate Solutions Propose and Implement Final Solution Scope - the overall quality requirements for a project. Most commonly, a work breakdown structure is used to describe the scope of a project and may refer to its resources including time and cost. -Janelle S. Allen Scope Creep - Any change that was not included in the original plan of a project. It could be something that the client, project manager, and project team did not see coming (Wysocki, 2009). - A. Adams Scope Triangle - Related to Project Management. Includes the five constraints that operate in every project: scope, quality, cost, time, and resources. (Wysocki, 2009). http://www.my-project-management-expert.com/project-scope- triangle.html <-- this website provides a general picture of a scope triangle. - A. Adams SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) - SCORM is a set of technical standards for e-learning software products. SCORM tells the programmers how to write their code so that it can “play well” with other e-learning software. Specifically, SCORM governs how online learning content and Learning Management Systems (LMSs) communicate with each other. SCORM does not speak to instructional design or any other pedagogical concern, it is purely a technical standard. (www.scorm.com ) –Safna K. Scriven, Michael - in 1967, points out the need to try out drafts of instructional materials with learners prior to the time the materials are in their final form. (This was a new idea and much of the instructional material previously developed did not go through this process!) -Ana Fuchs Search Engine - a tool that finds Web pages in online databases based on terms and criteria specified by the user. Google, yahoo, ask and bing are popular search engines. Second Life - Second Life is an online 3D virtual world which allows users to come together to interact, play, learn do business and communicate in an online environment. The platform offers tolls which allow users (residents) to create their own avatars, build their own environment, choose their personalized clothes, and so on. Second Life can be used in various fields, such as education and business. (www.secondlife.com ) -Qi Second Life- a very popular virtual world where users interact through their avatars. Virtual worlds are increasingly being utilized for instruction. -Ana Fuchs Search and Discovery - The process of finding appropriate learning resources. Metadata is a tool that is used for search and discovery. -Barb Cebulski Seductive Details - A phrase coined by Garner and her colleagues in the early 1990s to refer to textual information that may be related to the general instructional topic, but is irrelevant to the main instructional goal. This information is inserted into instructional material for the express purpose of arousing interest in the instruction. However, it has been determined that seductive details often have a negative effect onhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 59. ID&T Terminology learning, Clark, R C. & Mayer, R.E. (2007). Using rich media wisely. In Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (p. 319). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. -L-M Barb Cebulski Selecting - refers to attending to relevant aspects of the information coming into our cognitive system through our eyes and ears. Learners are able to focus on a limited subset of the environment form the large amount of information available at any one time. Selection of relevant information ensures hat the learner focuses on important training content needed to build new knowledge and skills (Clark, Mayer, 2008) Olivia Wozniak Self motivation - is the ability to motivate yourself, to find a reason and the necessary strength to do something, without the need of being influenced to do so by another person. Working in a careful and consistent manner without giving up. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self_motivation - Firat SARSAR Self-Regulated Learning - the process whereby students activate, modify, and sustain thoughts, behaviors, and affects that are systematically directed toward achieving personal learning goals. -Bonnie Braine Self Paced Learning - A learning experience where learners are allowed progress through the learning experience at their own pace. Sensory memory - learners perceive organized patterns in the environment and begin the process of recognizing and coding these patterns. (Dempsey & Reiser, 2007) LMI Sensory-Motor Skills - important category of learning in many tasks and occupations . Motor skills can be classified as continuous, discrete, or procedural movements. The last category of skills are probably most relevant to real world applications such as typing, operating instruments, or maintenance. (http://www.instructionaldesign.org/domains/sensory-motor.html) Serendipity - Accidental discovery of a new idea. (Rogers, 2003) - Safna K. Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) - is a standard for web- based e-Learning an defines how the individual instruction elements are combined at a technical level and sets conditions for the software needed for using the content. (Retrieved from http://www.olat.org/website/en/html/website_glossary.html on November 19, 2008) SCORM - Anacronym for Sharable Content Object Reference Model - SCORM is a series of e-learning standards for ensuring interchangeability of course objects within SCORM compliant course management systems.(Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p. 366) Koffivi Houngblam. The objective of the SCORM development team was to cut down on redundancy within different learning situations. The solution was reuse, the ability to reuse content using a sharable learning object, that could allow for differentiated instructional designs but using one basic object. (Gonzalez- Barbone 1634) Shared Control - A form of adaptive control in which the program recommends several tasks based on learner performance and the learners select which tasks they prefer (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Short Term Memory- otherwise known as working memory permits the learner to hold information briefly in mind to make further sense of it and to connect it with other information that is already in long-term memory. (Dempsey & Reiser, 2007) LMI Singularity - Also know as the singularity. The singularity refers to the eventual creation of a human like, but smarter than human intelligence. The most widely know among these technologies is the work being done in artificial intelligence (Turkle, 2011). Signaling - a cognitive load reducing method. If one or both channels are overloaded by essential and incidental processing, we can provide cues for how to process the material to reduce processing of extraneous material. It can be done in a number of ways e.g. by stressing key words in speech, selecting images by adding arrows to animation, etc. (Mayer, Moreno, 2003) Olivia Wozniak Simulation- Is an artificial situation or environment. Simulation may refer to a VR wold or a simulation of probabilities such as market events. Instructional simulations must contain rules by which to participate and meet learning objectives. Simulationshttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 60. ID&T Terminology are more cost efficient forms of training in the areas resources, time, and space than real world exercises. www.oasismanagement.com/frames/TECHNOLOGY/GLOSSARY/s.html Melissa S. Simulation. A simulation is a simulated real life scenario displayed on the computer, which the student has to act upon. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Simulation Object – a type of learning object that allows learners to work within an environment that simulates the learning process and apply the skills necessary to achieve a real-world perspective of the task at hand. An example of a simulation object can be a flight simulator or an activity or series of activities where the learner becomes a detective or an engineer who must solve a particular problem (Reiser & Dempsey 2012, p. 293). Situated Cognition - a general theory of how knowledge is acquired. This theory emphasizes the importance of the activity, culture, and context in which knowledge is learned. -Bonnie Braine Situated Learning - "knowledge and skills are learned in the contexts that reflect how knowledge is obtained and applied in everyday situations"... four premises: grounded in everyday actions, acquired situationally and transfers only in similar situations, a result of a social process and exists a social environment. www.ericdigests.org/1998-3/adult-education.html Melissa S. Situated Learning Theory - relies more on social and cultural determinents of learning than it does on individual psychology. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 40). ~Tammy Situated Learning Theory- Situated learning considers learning phenomenon in a broader and holistic perspective incorporating behaviors and cognition by recognizing the interaction between people and environment and the role of situation. According to Wilson and Myers (2000), situated learning "is positioned to bring the individual and the social together in a coherent theoretical perspective." The key concepts of situated learning are listed in the following: 1) knowledge is not an object. Knowledge develops as individuals participate in and negotiate their way through new situations. 2) Learning happens when people interact within communities. 3 ) Construction of meaning is tied to specific contexts and purposes. 4) Situated learning often provides strong goals and motivation. 5) Communication among peers and near-peers are important. 6) "As situations shape individual cognition, individual thinking and action shape the situation. This reciprocal influence constitutes an alternative conception of systemic causality to the more commonly assumed linear object causality." ( Wilson, B.G., Myers, K.M. (2000), "Situated cognition in theoretical and practical context", in Jonassen, D.H., Land, S.M. (Eds),Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp.57-88. )-Qi Skinner, B.F.- Skinner influenced the field of Instructional Technology by writing a paper in 1954 titled, "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching". In this article Skinner described the requirements for increasing human learning such as presenting information in small steps, engaging learners by getting frequent responses, providing feedback and allowing the learner to pace themselves at their own speed. (Reiser&Dempsey, 2007, pg.25)--Margaret Check this out -Ana Fuchs Skill Retention Model - A model which provides a numerical score for an individual task used in predicting retention on that task. Of value for determining sustainment training requirements. http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408/glossary.htm#p Koffivi H. Slide Rocket - http://www.sliderocket.com/ web 2.0 presentation tool Slideware - Software or web 2.0 applications that allow for dissemination of information in a visual presentation such as PowerPoint or web 2.0 applications such as www.Prezi.com M. Dixon Smart Board- and active matrix allowing the interactive use of the computer in a format where all students have a direct visual as well as a possible tactile interactionhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 61. ID&T Terminology with content and web tools.- Mike Dixon Social Bookmarking - social bookmarking sites allow someone to keep track of favorite websites in a central location so the sites can be accessed from any computer. Unlike "bookmarks" or "favorites" that are resident files on one computer, these bookmarking sites can be accessed from anywhere. Often the websites kept on social bookmarking sites are public and can be shared with others who have similar interests, but you can make your saved sites private. Tags can be used to organize your saved websites. Social Capital - the ability to accomplish goals by drawing on resources, support and encouragement of other people. It is the connection between and among people and the strength and value of social networks. Social capital becomes larger and stronger the more it is used. Social Learning Theory - Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. http://www.learning- theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html (Imani Mance) Social Presense – the ability of learners to project themselves socially and effectively into a community of inquiry. Rourke, L., & Anderson, T. (2002). Exploring social presence in computer conferencing. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13(3), 259–275. Retrieved Dec.14, 2007, from http://communitiesofinquiry com/documents/ Rourke_Exploring_Social_Communication.pdf Social Software- "New category of collaborative tools that moves significantly beyond the classroom to embrace e-mail, threaded discussions, chat rooms, instant messaging, synchronous conference tools, and other technologies". (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007). - Thuy Nguyen Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) - a non- profit international association of individual teacher educators, affiliated organizations of teacher education in all disciplines, and others who are interested in the creation and dissemination of knowledge regarding the use of information technology in teacher education and related professional and organizational contexts. -Bonnie Braine Socio-Economic Educational Divide- the divide among those of varying means in relation to the accesability of educational technology and educational software. Relates to Cultural Capital or lack there of. (M. Dixon) Soft Skills - Soft Skills are behavioral competencies. Also known as Interpersonal Skills, or people skills, they include proficiencies such as communication skills, conflict resolution and negotiation, personal effectiveness, creative problem solving, strategic thinking, team building, influencing skills and selling skills, to name a few. (wikipedia) (walter murphy) SaaS (Software as a Service) refers to applications, e.g., word processing, spreadsheets, that can be accessed through a web browser versus having a licensed copy of the application(s) on an individuals computer. The application resides on a server and can be accessed by any number of users. Besides these commercial applications, many web 2.0 applications are considered SaaS. Examples of shared Internet applications are: wikis, prezi, sliderocket, Skype, Google docs, Google Maps. The obvious e-learning examples of SaaS are Learning Management and Content Management Systems. (walter murphy) Spatial Congruity - Spatial congruity is the observable measurement of distance between static text and and object. To better establish links between objects and the content objects need to relate to the static text. Specificity--The second of three dimensions (integrativity, specificity, and durability) of the concept of competence from a comprehensive, analytical study by van Merrienboer, van der Klink, and Hendriks (2002). This dimension indicates that a competence is always bound to a context that can be highly specific (e.g., a profession) or more general (e.g., a career) (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). Split-Attention Effect - described by Sweller. It is a situation when the learners visual attention is split between viewing the animation and reading the on-screen text. The eyes receive a lot of concurrent information, but only some of that information can be selected for further processing in visual working memory (Mayer & Moreno,http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 62. ID&T Terminology 2003) Olivia Wozniak Spoon-Feeding problem. The dilemma in training between (1) how much to simplify and control the learning situation and (2) how much to provide for exploration and exposure to real-world complexity. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) S-Shaped Adoption Curve - The curve shows the process of adoption of an innovation. "A successful innovation will go through a period of a slow adoption before experiencing a sudden period of rapid adopition, and then a gradual leveling off." (Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J., 2007, pp. 106)- Thuy Nguyen Stakeholder - Anyone who has an interest in the outcome of the project or the educational/training instruction. - Barb Cebulski Startl - a venture philanthopist company and a not for profit organized and operated exclusively for charitable and educational purposes, created through the collaborative efforts and funding of several major U.S. private foundations: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation , The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation , , The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation , Lumina Foundation , W.K. Kellogg Foundation . Startls objective is to make learning as engaging and effective as possible through the strategic use of digital media – from kindergarten to college, in and outside the classroom. (Startl.org) Valerie S. Gallagher State - a condition brought on by a situational stimulus or process. (Reisery and Dempsey 2007) Storyboard - the term refers to a process and finished product used when developing online curriculum. The process is used to create courses by organizing information is a sequential arrangement so that key topics are identified and aligned with the learning objectives. The process is particularly useful when organizing the information into units and modules of the curriculum. The finished product is the document that contains all the elements of the curriculum, e.g., objectives, topics, modules, and assessments. (walter murphy) Strategic Alignment - The creation of training modules in accordance with the objectives created by the company. Strategic Planning- A planning process used to determine and descrie future organizational directions, how to achieve the prescribed directinos, a nd how to measure whether the directions are achieved. Strategic planning encompasses a variety of models and processes. -Melissa S. Subject Matter Expert (SME) - an individual with expertise in a certain area who can be used in the research and or evaluation stage to provide feedback and answer questions with the development of instruction, processes, or products. SMEs are invaluable to all phases of the ADDIE models. During Analysis to accurately define the existing environment. During Design and Development to make sure content is accurate and correct. During Implementation to assure that all operating contingencies have been addressed. And finally during Evaluation to assure the validity of the assessment. (walter murphy) Subject Sampler- A higher level treasure hunt which requires students to explore the given multimedia links, answer questions about the search and how they feel about it. http://www.filamentality.com/wired/fil/formats.html - Thuy Nguyen Subordinate Skills - Skills that are required of learners before they can progress to higher level skills. When designing instruction, it is important to identify subordinate skills down to the level of basic skills to determine whether the piece of instruction includes all the needed information for the target audience to fully understand the instruction. Dick, W., Carey, L., Carey, J.O. (2009). The Systematic Design of Instruction (7th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Success Case Method (SCM), also called Brinkerhoffs Success Case Method evaluation model that follows five steps when evaluating training or other intervention: 1) the evaluator plans the success case study 2) constructs a visual impact model 3) conducts a survey research study to identify the best cases and the worst cases 4) conducts in-depth interviews and 5)communicates the findings. (Reiser and Dempsey, pp. 101-102)http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 63. ID&T Terminology Summative Assessment - evaluation after the completion and implementation of development.Summative assessments measure the learning performance at the end of instruction. A summative assessment can be administered at the end of a unit to assess learning performance of the unit instructed. -Janelle S. Allen Supply - available and accessible resources; usually refers to budget, training, developers, time, materials and tools (Goldsmith & Busby, 2007). -Janelle S. Allen Supportive Information - Information that explains to the learners how a learning domain is organized and how to approach problems in this domain (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg. 79) Koffivi H. Sustainability - If you can make money publishing open course ware, you can continue publishing open course ware for a very long time. This capacity is also known as sustainability. Dr. Justin Johansen just published a dissertation that is the first piece of empirical work that demonstrates clearly that a distance learning program can simultaneously (1) provide a significant public good by publishing open course ware and (2) be revenue positive while doing it. In other words, Justin’s study not only demonstrates that it is possible to publish open course ware without requesting donations from users or foundations, it goes further and demonstrates that it is possible to make money publishing open course ware. Valerie S. Gallagher Step-Up-To-Excellence- (SUTE) A program implemented in school districts to help change leaders with whole district improvements. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007) Streaming Media Encoding - The conversion of audio, video, or any other type of media into a digital format that is acceptable to the World Wide Web ( http://web.mit.edu/teachtech/multimedia.html#medialink) Supportive information-is made available to learner because it helps them to perform the problem-solving and reasoning aspects of learning tasks. Sweller, John a professor at University of New South Wales who has done much research on cognitive load and how specific instructional techniques affect cognitive load. See here for his publication list http://education.arts.unsw.edu.au/staff/john- sweller-726.html#Research%20Summary Synchronous - occurring at the same time; coinciding in time; contemporaneous; simultaneous; going on at the same rate and exactly together; recurring together; of, pertaining to, or operating using fixed-time intervals controlled by a clock (opposed to asynchronous ). (dictionary.reference.com) LMI Synchronous Learning - A real-time, instructor-led online learning event in which all participants are logge d on at the same time and communicate di rectly with each other. In this virtual classroom setting, the instructor maintains control of the class, with the ability to "call on" participants. In most platforms, students and teachers can use a whiteboard to see work in progress and share knowledge. Interaction may also occur via audio- or videoconferencing, Internet telephony, or two-way live broadcasts. http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/ict/services/teachingandresearchservices/elearning/aboutelearning/elearningglossary#s - Firat SARSAR Synergistic - This definition helps define the use of the term in the systems theory definition. With regards to the theory synergistic means that "together, all the elements can achieve more than the individual elements alone" Basically this means that the whole system is greater than the sum of its parts. (Reiser & Dempsey 2007, p. 11) --Margaret Syntactic - consisting of or noting morphemes that are combined in the same order as they would be if they were separate words in a corresponding construction: The word blackberry, which consists of an adjective followed by a noun , is a syntactic compound. System - a set of interrelated parts that work together to accomplish a desired goal. - W. Clark System Approach- an overall plan to problem solving that gies attention to all essential elements.((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 350) Kim Systematic - creative problem solving or the notion of adopting to rules and procedures (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Systemic Change- The redesign or change of a system in its entirety. (Dempsey, J. and Reiser, R. (2007) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technologyhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 64. ID&T Terminology (pp.210). (2nd Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall) Systems Theory - "The transdiciplinary study of the abstract organization of phrnomena, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence. It investigates both the principles common to all complex entities, and the (usually mathematical) models which can be used to describe them." from http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/SYSTHEOR.html Joy --> "a system and its elements are interdependent, synergistic, dynamic, and cybernetic" ( Gustafson and Branch) Traci T T-test – a data analysis procedure that assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other Tacit Knowledge- "Knowledge of experience and insight." (Reiser and Dempsey 2007) Tagging- The practice of creating and managing labels (or “tags”) that categorize content using simple keywords. -Safna K Tag (metadata)- a keyword or term associated with or assigned to a piece of information. - Thuy NguyenR-S-T R-S-T Talent Development - A focus on creating training that develops leadership and management potential. When a company focuses on talent development the design of instruction shifts away from performance and more onP-Q bench strength Tangential Learning - is the process by which some portion of people will self- educate if a topic is exposed to them in something that they already enjoy such as playing an instrument like the guitar or playing the drums. (Imani Mance) Target Population--the toal collection of possible users of a given instructional team. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Task Analysis- a collection of procedures for analyzing the information needed to achieve the objectives.This is a driving force in performance technology and instructional systems development. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 350) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Taxonomy - A classification system. Originally, the term applied to the classification of organisms. In education, the term is often associated with Bloom (Blooms taxonomy or learning domains) or Gagne ( (Events of instruction). These methods require classifying learning outcomes and conducting learning or instructional analysis to achieve the learning outcomes. Barb C. Teachable Agent - A component of a learning system that implements the principles of learning by teaching(Bodenheimer, Williams, Kramer, et al. 2009) Teachable Agent Environment - Where learners explicitly teach and directly receive feedback about their teaching through interactions with a computer agent(Bodenheimer, Williams, Kramer, etal. 2009) Team Development for Project Management- Wellins, Byham, and Wilson state that teams are both business entities as well as social groups and that in order to develop a successful project management team there are six factors that are necessary for team development: Commitment Trust Purpose Communication Involvement Process Orientation (Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p.119) Technics - Unique learning tactics made available by e-learning technologies. Instructional technices are activities or tactics that use technology designed or selected to attain specific learning outcomes. Instructional technics could use any combination of on-campus lectures, computer-based training modules, onlinehttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 65. ID&T Terminology seminars, reference websites, e-books, DVDs, threaded discussions, video conferences, weblogs, simulations, performance support systems, and numerous other elements by which learning is accomplished. Reiser & Dempsey, Third Edition, pg. 284 (- Safna K.) Technology- "technologia" from Greek, which is "craft" Kim Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) - A theoretical model that is used to help researchers explain and predict user behavior of information technology. (Legris, Ingham, & Collerette, 2003).It includes two main concepts--perceived ease of use and perceived usability. Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2) - An expansion of the TAM model that further explains perceived usefulness and usage intentions of information technology. Technology Cluster - A technology cluster consists of one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being closely interrelated. (Rogers, 2002) - Safna K. Technology Delivered Instruction (TDI) - instruction presented or facilitated through the use of instructional technology http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/glossary.php Koffivi H. Technology Integration - describes the efficiency and effectiveness of technology used/incorporated in education for facilitating learning. - Melissa S. Technology Transfer - Technology transfer is the term used to describe the processes by which technological knowledge moves within or between organisations. International technology transfer refers to the way in which this occurs between countries. - Safna K. Technophile - An individual or group that is enamored with technological features and may overload training with more sensory stimuli than learners can process (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Telecollaboration - learning activities in which learners communicate with others at a distance as an integral part of curriculum-based study. -Bonnie Braine Telemedicine- "Tele" means at a distance, so in its simplest form, telemedicine is defined as medicine at a distance. The Institute of Medicine defines telemedicine as the use of electronic information and communications technologies to provide and support healthcare when distance separates the participants (Grigsby & Sanders, 1998.) Grigsby and Sanders define telemedicine as the use of telecommunications and information technology to provide healthcare services to persons at a distance from the provider. Telemedicine contains all of the following components: Separation or distance between individuals and/or resources Use of telecommunications technologies Interaction between individuals and resources Medical or healthcare (Simonson M., Smaldino S., Albright M., Zvacek S. Teaching and Learning at a Distance, Pearson Education Inc. 2000, 4th ed. pg. 18) Terminal Objective- An objective the learners will be expected to accomplish when they have completed a course of instruction, made up of subordinate objectives. Often, a more specific statement of the instructional goal.(In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc) Koffivi Test criteria - component of a learning objective that describes the quality or standard of performance that will be considered acceptable. - W. Clark Test Reliability -The degree to which a test/test item gives consistent results each time it is used.http://www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408/glossary.htm#r Koffivi H. Theory - Describing phenomena and predicting (hypotheses) consequences from given conditions (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 338). ~Tammy Theory of Planned Behavior - Describes how attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are direct determinants of intention, which in turn influence behavior. (Dillon & Morris) -K. Hindsman Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) - Defines relationships between beliefs, attitudes, norms, intentions, and behaviors. According to TRA, attitude toward ahttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 66. ID&T Terminology behavior is determined by beliefs about the consequences of the behavior and the affective evaluation of those consequences. (Dillon & Morris) -K. Hindsman Think Sheets - provide students step-by-step instructions for completing the assignment and to engage students in responding to higher-order questions before, during and after technology activities (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) Threaded Discussion- A discussion that builds on a given topic question. All responses relate to the topic, but build on the previous responses to add further useful information or insight into the given topic. Barb C. TIP Model - The Technology Integration Planning (TIP) model is a classroom level technology integration model. The TIP model gives teachers a general approach to addressing challenges involved in integrating technology into lessons. TIP model has 5 phases - determine the relative advantage, decide on objectives, design integration strategies, prepare the instructional environment, and evaluate and revise integration strategies. - Safna K. Tolman, Edward C. - A contemporary of B.F. Skinner, Tolman was also interested in behaviorism. Tolman believed that learning was an internal change that takes place in individuals; he emphasized the idea of latent learning, where learning occurs in an individual but there are no external signs of it. A performance or demonstration of some sort is the only way for others to observe that learning has taken place (Omrod, 2007, pp. 150-151). -Timothy H. Training - The teaching and learning process that focuses on performing activities and building expertise; can be short term and is often tested by measuring a learners ability to perform specific tasks.(Beisse A., 1999, p. 167) Koffivi Houngblame Training - Instruction which emphasizes job-specific, near-transfer learning objectives; traditionally skills-based instruction, as opposed to education.Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1- 21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Training Needs Assessment - An assessment designed to determine where training is needed and if it is needed. Especially useful for determining training gap (gap analysis ) Trait - "is a stable psychological need or drive" (Reisery and Dempsey 2007) / dimension of personality used to categorized people according to the degree to which they manifest a particular characteristic. Human behavior can be summarized by a few traits. Traits are continuous and describe individual differences. For any trait, there is an opposite and both lie on the same dimension. It can be distinguished from "STATES". (Prager, K. J., from http://www.utdallas.edu/~kprager/trait.htm ) - Joy Traits : enduring and stable over long periods States : brief, situation-specific Transfer of Training - Transfer of training occurs when the employee on the job behavior changes to the desired outcome of the training. Transfer of training is a part of Kirkpatricks four level model of training. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 97) Transfer Paradox - The general phenomenon that the best instructional methods to reach isolated, specific objectives are often different from the best instructional methods to reach integrated learning goals and transfer of learning (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg 77 c/o van Merrienboer, de Croock, & Jelsma, 1997). ~ Tammy, Edited by Koffici H. Transformational Learning Model - As defined by Mesirow is, "about developing new meaning structures that fundamentally reframe adults meaning making." (King, 2005, p. 132) ~Tammy Transformer - Used at the British Open University where the designer is considered the transformer. The subject matter expert prepares a draft of the materials and then the instructional designer "transforms" the draft into an effective set of instructional material (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, pg. 176). ~Tammy Treatment -The detailed narrative description of the instructional designers project to be used for planning, development, production, and evaluation. This description is usually developed and discussed with the client and production specialists (Reiser et all., 2007).http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 67. ID&T Terminology Triangulation - using multiple research methods to gather information or multiple sources of information on one topic or research question usually with the intent of improving reliability and/or validity . Sometimes referred to as using "multiple measures." Turing Test - A test introduced by British computer scientist Alan Turing to measure if computers could exhibit human like thought. The test involves allowing The test and the body of work that Turing produced became the basis for research in artificial intelligence and human computer interaction. (Example ) Twitch Games - Online games that rely on fast and accurate motor responses on a game device such as a joy stick for success (Clark & Mayer, 2008). References Wysocki, R. (2009). Effective Project Management. (5th Ed). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY. - A. Adams Bolter, J. D., and Grusin, R. (2000). Remediation: Understanding new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Clark,R., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by Viewing versus Learning by Doing: Evidence- Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13. Dillon, A. and Morris, M. (1996) User acceptance of new information technology: theories and models. In M. Williams (ed.) Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Vol. 31, Medford NJ: Information Today, 3-32. Alan Mathison Turing. (2011). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition Goldsmith, J. J. and Busby, R. D. (2007). Managing scarce resources in training projects. In R. A. Reiser and Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. Ormrod, J. E. (2007). Human learning (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. R. A. Reiser and Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychology Review, 10(3), 251-296. doi: 10.1023/A:1022193728205 Turkle, S. (2011). Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books. Trochim, W.M. (2005). Research methods: The concise knowledge base. New York: Thomson. Wysocki, R. (2009). Effective Project Management. (5th Ed). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY. U Ubiquitous Computing - is a model of human computer interaction in which information processing is integrated into everyday objects and activities (Wikipedia). In other words technology and access is available everywhere, invisible and taken for granted. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 289) -Imani Mance Ubiquitous Computing- names the third wave in computing, just now beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop.http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 68. ID&T Terminology Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives. called the "Third Paradigm" computing. (Xerox) LMI Ubiquitous Learning - the use of devices with sophisticated computing and networking capacities which are now pervasively part of our everyday lives from laptops to mobile phones, games, digital music players, personal digital assistants and cameras for learning. It is similar to how some define mobile learning but not restricted to handheld mobile devices. There are few conferencing that focus specifically on UL one is coming up this week in Boston. For more information:http://q08.cg-conference.com Undesirable Consequence - " the dysfunctional effects of an innovation to an individual or to a social system" (Rogers, 2003). - A. Adams Usability - Stresses ease of use for a piece of software, a process, or an application. Usability is useful for gauging whether a piece of technology has a primary or secondary use (M. Dixon). Usability is useful after doing a learner analysis as the usability of a software/process/application is dependent on the user. *Usability testing occurs when product designers work with members of the target audience in order to test a product and make sure that it can be used easily. Not only is it a matter of testing an items interface, but its also a matter of making sure it meets the needs of the target audience. Ideally, usability testing will occur throughout the design process, but most often it occurs in the late stages of development. - Timothy H. Utilization-Focused Evaluation, also called Pattons Utilization-Focused Evaluation (U-FE) this evaluation says that an evaluation is to be judged to the extent which it is used. The whole time the evaluator is creating the evaluation, there is constant focus on how the information from the evaluation will be used. (Reiser and Dempsey p. 102-103) User-Centered Design - Design in which the end user is the most important element taken into account (www.wbtic.com/primer_glossary.aspx ) *User-centered design necessitates having a clear understanding of the target audience and extensive usability testing throughout a development process. Robert R. Johnsons book User-Centered Technology: A rhetorical theory for computers and other mundane artifacts is an excellent resource for anyone interested in UCD or usability. -Timothy H. User-Oriented Instructional Development (UOID) - An instructional design method in which E. Burkman specifically linked diffusion theory with educational technology in order to develop a way to create instructional products that would be more appealing to potential adopters. The five steps to Burkmans UIOD are: Identify the potential adopter Measure relevant potential adopter perceptions Design and develop a user-friendly product. Inform the potential adopter (of the products user friendliness). Provide post-adoption support (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007, p. 106) V Validity - the level of integrity by which operations reflect their theoretical constructs and constructs can be observed within operations. -Janelle S. Allen Validity - relates to the degree to which an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Validity- direct relationship between test questions and the learning objectives. Venture Capital in Education Summit A conference designed to nurture innovation in education by connecting capital with education companies. The first summit was held in 2009 and hosted by Stanford University and investment bank Berkey Noyes. http://www.venturecapitalineducationsummit.com - Valerie S. Gallagher((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 350) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images });http://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 69. ID&T Terminology Video Conferencing - Video conferencing is a communications technology that integrates video and voice to connect remote users with each other as if they were in the same room. Each user needs a computer, webcam, microphone, and broadband internet connection for participation in video conferencing. Users see and hear each other in real-time, allowing natural conversations not possible with voice-only communications technology. (www.wisegeek.com ) - Safna K. Visual Instruction Movement, (Visual Education Movement)- A period of the early 1900s in which there was an "increasing interest in using media in the school." The term "visual education" was used as early as 1908 (Keystone View Company). The era was fed by the creation of school museums, the use of sterographs and slides, and the publishing of instructional films. During this time period there were etablished five national professional organizations whose purposes were to advance the cause of visual education. [Dempsey, John V., and Robert Reiser. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd Edition). 2 ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.] Visual Learner - Visual learners learn best by seeing information. For visual learners, information need to be presented in pictures, diagrams, or charts. - Safna K. Visual Literacy - involves the ability to interpret (read) and to produce or use (write) culturally significant images, objects, and visible actions. -Bonnie Braine Virtual Community of Practice (VCOP) - An online means for professionals to connect with, share, and obtain information from other individuals in the same profession. A VCOP could be a listserv, forum, FAQs, or other online tool. Barb C. Virtual High School - a high school where students attend when they are in georgaphically different locations. They can be managed by the state, the region, by a private entity, or by a local district or school. Virtual Learning Community- Group of learners that meet in a virtual world or any other type of synchronous online environment for the purpose of learning. Virtual Learning Environment - VLEs are a combination of technology, multi- media and various resources that are used to manage online learning environments (an example would be to create a virtual, interactive content-based learning tool that uses real-life simulation and even avatars figures to engage the student and deliver the content effectively) Virtual Team - team whose members are located in different places and are not able to meet physically, sometimes in different areas of the same country and sometimes in other countries. [Ritchey, R. C., Morrison, G. R., & Foxon, M. (2007). In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.] Tippi Hyde Virtual Schools - (also known as cyber schools) distance education programs targeting grades K-12, which utilize the full potential of technology mediated instruction and may be operated by a state, district, non-profit organization, corporation, charter school, consortia, higher education, or some other entity (Rice, K. L., 2006). Virtual classroom technology is considered a hybrid tool, as it incorporates aspects of both asynchronous e-learning and instructor-led face-to-face classrooms (Clark & Kwinn, 2007). Virtual Worlds - Virtual worlds are interactive computer-simulated model worlds that reflect the real world. Virtual worlds allow learners to be fully immersed into a “simulated environment that looks and feels like the real world, allowing them to be fully involved in their learning process instead of being passive observers” (Inoue, 2007, p. 5). *Virtual worlds are mostly used for gaming (massively multiplayer online role-playing games - MMORPG) and social networking, but there is a concerted effort to use them for educational purposes. Second Life is the most commonly used virtual world for education. It is very popular for its ability to host simulations created with its built in programming language (Linden Scripting Language - LSL). You can learn more about LSL here: http://wiki.secondlife.com/wiki/LSL_Portal -Timothy H. Virtual University- Virtual university refers to any orgnization that provides higher education programs through through electronic devices such as the computer. Thosehttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 70. ID&T Terminology universities may have a physical address but may have little more in terms of buildings, relying instead on online resources. ( Dempsey, J.V., & Van Edk, R.N.(2007). In Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (Eds). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.)- Qi Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - VoIP refers to a way to carry phone calls over an IP data network, whether on the Internet or your own internal network. A primary attraction of VoIP is its ability to help reduce expenses because telephone calls travel over the data network rather than the phone companys network. (Source: www.cisco.com ) - Safna K. Volition - will power, self conscious decision; ultimate purpose is to hlep people stay on task and overcome difficultieis, conceptualized as several, interrelated control processes that facilitate goal-striving behavior (ego-depletion effect) (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) Vygotsky, Lev - Soviet psychologist who introduced the theory of social learning.Asserted that learning is shaped by the culture and context surrounding the learner. W W3 Schools – This is an excellent online resource that can teach anyone how to use various computer codes and programming languages. The site is meant for independent, self-directed learning. Users just read through tutorials and try to use coding techniques in test modules on the site. There are also quizzes that users can take to reinforce the material that they have learned. http://w3schools.com/ Web 2.0 - the buisness revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform. Chief among those rules is this: Build applications that harness network effects to get better the more people use them. (OReilly, 2006) - Brandy Ross Web 2.0 tools (Examples) - blogs, wikis, podcasting, prezi, animoto, edmodo, ning. - A. Adams Web 2.0 - The shift from the single user web 1.0 to a multi-user multi-faceted shared internet experience based on the sense of community, allowing for feedback and collaboration among participants/students. (M. Dixon) Web 3.0 -Web 3.0 refers to a simulated virtual world where users interact as avatars. The term “Web 3.0” is a play on the name of it’s predecessor “Web 2.0” and the 3-D nature of virtual worlds (like Second Life). -Ana Fuchs Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) - a platform for creating inquiry science projects for middle school and high school students using evidence and resources from the Web. WISE inquiry projects include diverse elements such as online discussions, data collection, drawing, argument creation, resource sharing, concept mapping and other built-in tools, as well as links to relevant web resources. (Source: Wikipedia) -Safna K. Web-Based Learning/Training (WBT) - A generic term for training and/or instruction delivered over the Internet or an intranet using a Web browser. Web- based training includes staic methods--such as streaming audio and video, hyperlinked Web pages, live Web broadcasts, and portals of information-- and interactive methods -- such as bulletin boards, chat rooms, instant messaging, videoconferencing and discusstion threads. Businesses often use Web-based training to educate employees. The instruction can be facilitated and paced by the trainer or sef-directed and places by the trainee. Webopedia. www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/WBT.html Nada Weblog - web-accessible information distinguished from what had come to be called a "homepage". A weblog is similar to an annotated bookmarks list available for public viewing and typically included a "log" of journeys around the web with links and commentaries. -Bonnie Braine Webquest - A learning activity designed by educators, sometimes specifically for their classes. During this activity learners read, analyze, and synthesize information, chosen by the educator on the World Wide Web. -Ana Fuchs - WebQuests are designed to use time more effeciently, putting the focus on using the information instead of looking for it. - D. Saxonhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 71. ID&T Terminology Webquests are inquiry based activities often defined by the teacher or instructor with predetermined parameters and search criteria as to block unwanted or errant information (M. Dixon). There are six critical components in a web quest (Safna K.). Introduction - This section provides an overview of the learning goals. Task - This section describes what the students will have accomplished by the end of the web quest. Process - This section describes the steps the learners should go through in order to complete the task. Resources - This section provides links to various resources that the learners will need to complete the task. Evaluation - This section includes a rubric for the task. Conclusion - This section contains reflections by the students and possible extensions of the topic. Web Browser - A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. The major web browsers are Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, and Opera. (Source: Wikipedia) – Safna K. Web Inquiry Projects (WIPs) - Similar to WebQuests but instead of providing students with a procedure and resourced needed to complete the task, WIPs place more emphasis on having students develop their own task and procedures and find the needed online resources. webinquiry.org - D. Saxon Weeding - a load-reducing technique when interesting but extraneous material is eliminate in order to ensure essential cognitive processing possible (Mayer & Moreno, 2003) Olivia Wozniak Well-Structured Problems - a problem with a right answer and a simple solution process. Typically seen in empirical disciplines such as mathematics or engineering. - Janelle S. Allen Wenger, Etienne - notable scholar on the topic of communities in practice. Co- authored the book Cultivating Communities of Practice. Widget - Small, light-weight application that can be added to a given operating systems desktop or online environments to bring extra functionality to them. Widgets normally gather information/content from external sources to then display them on the desired website, generally as a small box. Wiki - A common-knowledge base maintained by its users; processed on Web sites that allow users to add, remove, and edit content. (Example: Wikipedia ) Kroenke (2008), Glossary. Nada Wikis differ from blogs in that all members of a wiki are able to add and edit all data within the wiki. Wiley, David - Dr. David Wiley is Associate Professor of Instructional Psychology and Technology at Brigham Young University, where he also serves as Associate Director of the Center for the Improvement of Teacher Education and Schooling with responsibility for the research unit. David is founder and board member of the Open High School of Utah and Chief Openness Officer of Flat World Knowledge . David was formerly Associate Professor of Instructional Technology and Director of the Center for Open and Sustainable Learning at Utah State University. David has been a Nonresident Fellow at the Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School, a Visiting Scholar at the Open University of the Netherlands, and a recipient of the US National Science Foundations CAREER grant. David is also the Founder of OpenContent.org and was recently named one of the 100 Most Creative People in Business. His career is dedicated to increasing access to educational opportunity for everyone around the world. Valerie S. Gallagher Windfall Profit - the economic gain earned by innovators or first adopters of a new idea/innovation in a system (Rogers, 2003). - A. Adams Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)- Breaks down a complex project in smaller parts to show all the work to be done to meet requirements (Wysocki, 2009). This is usually illustrated in a diagram http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/wbs/ - A. Adams Worked Example - A step-by-step demonstration used in instruction to demonstrate how a problem can be solved or how a task can be performed. (Clark & Sweller, 2006). Working Memory: The conscious part of memory where all knowledge objects arehttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  • 72. ID&T Terminology purposefully manipulated. Theorized to only be able to hold about seven items at a time and manipulate fewer. Its limited capacity influences the effectiveness of instructional designs (Sweller, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998). Tim M. Worth - The market value of what is being evaluated, or its value to the stakeholder, an organization, or some other collective. (Scriven, 1991) WWII - prompted the growth of audio-visual instruction in the US military (for training). The psychologists and educators who developed these training materials, (Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagan, etc.) influenced the characteristics of the training materials they developed, basing much of their work on instructional principles derived from research and theory on instruction, learning, and human behavior. -Ana Fuchs X Xerox PARC - Division of Xerox Corp. credited with the invention of Ethernet and Graphical User Interface in the late 1970s and early 1980s. M. Dixon Z Zone of Proximal Development - measure between a learners actual performance and a learners performance with support from a mentor/facilitator. ZPD illustrates the potential for future growth. Introduced by Lev Vygotsky. - U.Bhatti References Clark, R.C., & Kwinn, A. (2007). The new virtual classroom; Evidence-based guidelines for synchronous learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Clark, R. Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in Learning - Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. Inoue, Y. (2007). Concepts, Applications, and Research of Virtual Reality Learning Environments. International Journal of Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1 - 7. Retrieved September 9, 2008 from http://www.jstor.org Mayer, R.E., & Moreno, R. Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52. OReilly, T. (2006, December 10). Web 2.0 Compact Definition: Trying Again. Retrieved October 5, 2008, from OReilly Radar: http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2006/12/web-20-compact-definition- tryi.html R. A. Reiser and Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Rice, K. L. (2006). A comprehensive look at distance education in the K-12 context. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Proquest Educational Journals. 38 (4), pp. 435-448. Rogers, Everett M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press. Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F. (1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychology Review, 10(3), 251-296. doi: 10.1023/A:1022193728205 Created by Enzo Silva (http://bit.ly/AwdZYH) Website by Kangdon Lee (http://iglassbox.thoth.kr/) Creative Commons BY (Attribution) - NC (NonCommercial) - SA (ShareAlike) Kangdon Lee 0 Published 25 minutes ago 12 views 0 likes About Support Terms Report @checkthis Powered byhttp://checkthis.com/6btk[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]