Id&t terminology


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Id&t terminology

  1. 1. ID&T Terminology Create a page ID&T Terminology Instructional Design & Technology Terminology Created by Enzo Silva ( Website by Kangdon Lee ( A Active Learning Principle - Meaningful learning occurs when the learner engages in apporpriate cognitive processing during learning, including attending to relevant aspects of the incoming information, mentally organizing the material into a coherent cognitive representation, and mentally integrating it with existing knowledge activated from long-term memory.(Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) - Safna K. ADDIE - An acronym used to describe the core elements of instructional design. A: Analysis D: Design D: Development I : Implementation E: Evaluation (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) ADDIE is a systems approach of components that work together to achieve the same goal. (Margaret) Various flavors and versions of the ADDIE model exist. (Andrea Manor) IDT professionals often refer to "the Addie Model," but according to Michael Molenda (University of Indiana), it is impossible to track down a solid source for this integral model. His conclusion is that it simply a common acronym used in IDT vernacular and an excellent guideline for the instructional design process. ADDIE is a dynamic and flexible "model," meant to be edited as needed by the practitioner. (Michael Molenda, Link to Article) Access - Access to information is a key piece of Knowledge Management. In order for KM systems to be successful individuals within a KM setting must have a "single, easy to use, universal gateway to all information and collaboration resources" (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007)--Margaret Achievement Test - a test designed to measure the degree of knowledge learning that has taken place after a person has been exposed to a specific learning experience (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007). Action Learning - An example of informal learning in the corporate environment. It is when small groups use what they are learning in training to solve problems that are really coming up in the workplace. (Reiser and Dempsey 2007, p. 170) Active learning principle - learning occurs when learners engage in appropriate cognitive processing during learning. (Clark, Mayer, 2008) Olivia Wozniak Adapting Resources - This term refers to resources which are changeable and can be reused in different contexts. For example, an online applet written by someone can be used by numerous instructors for different purposes. -Qi Adaptable Instruction: Instructional systems that allow the user choice in the sequence or content of instruction during the delivery of the content (Lee & Park, 2008). Tim M. Adaptive Control - A process where learners are directed or branched to different materials in a particular lesson based on the learners responses to previous questions or exercises (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Adaptive Instruction: An instructional approach that adjusts how content is presented to the learner. It alters the sequence, content, and format that a learner receives based on the learner’s individual characteristics (Shute & Towle, 2003). Tim[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  2. 2. ID&T Terminology M. Adaptive Technologies: Hardware and software that help achieve the adaptive goal of adjusting the instructional system to meet the particular needs of an individual learner (Shute & Zapata-Rivera, 2008). Tim M. Adopter Categories - A social classification system that is based on innovativeness. The concept states that for any given innovation, a certain percentage of the population will readily adopt the innovation, while others will be less likely to adopt. The categories are innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. (Reiser, R. & Dempsey, J., 2007, pp.106)- Thuy Nguyen. edited Barb C. C-D Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) - A collaboration between government and academia to establish a new distributed learning environment that permits interoperability of learning tools and course content on a global scale to also provide the highest quality education and training, tailored to individual needs, delivered efficiency, anywhere and at any time. (Reiser, Bratton-Jeffrey, Hoffman, Jeffrey, 2007, p. 190) Adoption and Diffusion - The rate at which new technologies and theories are utilized and then implimented on a mass scale. - Kyle W.In a social system, the way people accept an innovation is called adoption. Adoption is categorized into five areas: innovator, early adopter, early majority, late majority and laggard. Diffusion refers to how the innovation is accepted into the social system (Rogers, 2003). Adult Learners are non-traditional students who are usually older than traditional students and have returned to school for a variety of reasons. Their profile is very different from traditional, age-appropriate students. They are: Problem-centered; seek educational solutions to where they are compared to where they want to be in life Results-oriented; have specific results in mind for education - will drop out if education does not lead to those results because their participation is usually voluntary Self-directed; typically not dependent on others for direction Often skeptical about new information; prefer to try it out before accepting it Seek education that relates or applies directly to their perceived needs, that is timely and appropriate for their current lives Accept responsibility for their own learning if learning is perceived as timely and appropriate (Rochester Institute of Technology) (walter murphy) AECT - The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is a professional association of thousands of educators and others whose activities are directed toward improving instruction through technology. Ana Fuchs Affective Domain - The emotional component or domain of the human mind. There are contrasting theories regarding the effects of motivation on the affective domain vs. the cognitive domain. - Kyle W Affective Domain - that area of learning devoted to developing attitudes, values, or appreciations. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); / According to Krathwohl, it contains below 5 steps. ( From ) - Joy 1. Receiving is being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. 2. Responding is committed in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. 3. Valuing is willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  3. 3. ID&T Terminology phenomena. 4. Organization is to relate the value to those already held and bring it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. 5. Characterization by value or value set is to act consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized. Agents: Pedagogical agents are animated components of a learning environment that mimic face-to-face social interactions with other entitites in the learning environment. (Graesser, Chipman & King, 2008) - Tim M. Aggregator: the software that collect all the information contained in the RSS feed. It holds a list of websites and resources that offer RSS feeds. It may be a desktop application, a browser or mail application extension, or web-based. (Retrieved from content/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas%20for%20Educators111.pdf )- Thuy N. AICC - An acronym for the Aviation Industry CBT [Computer-Based Training] Committee. AICC is an international association of technology-based training professionals that develops training guidelines for the aviation industry. Similar to SCORM, AICC is a set of standards that are used for exchanging online training courses between various authors, course providers, and learning management systems. Barb C. Alternative Assessments- Assessments in opposition to standardized achievement tests and fixed-response tests. Alternative assessments are also called performance assessments because the learning is expected to perform. These assessments usually measure what a pen and pencil test can not measure such as problem solving and psychomotor skills. Graphic of Alternative Assessments Ampliative Skills - Jonassen suggests that ampliative skills include constructing and applying knowledge, analogizing, and inferencing. (Jonassen, 1997)Definition is enlarging a conception by adding to that which is already known. (from Anchored Instruction - lies within the social constructivist paradigm since small groups work together to understand and solve realistic problems. Anchored instruction is most closely related to the goal-based scenario model. While anchored instruction may also resemble problem-based learning but is less open-ended. Most anchored modules are designed for young learners, and thus embed all of the necessary data to solve the problem within the modules themselves. Substantial independent research and data collection are not required in anchored modules, but are required in Problem-based learning .Anchored instruction is closely related to the situated learning framework and also to the Cognitive Flexibility Theory in its emphasis on the use of technology-based learning.( ) Andragogy (Adult learning) - learner centered education for all ages, including adults. ( ) - Kyle W. / It is the concept Malcolm Knowles introduced from Europe in a 1968 article. It means "the art and science of helping adults learn" and is contrasted with "Pedagogy" which means "the art and science of helping children learn. (Merriam, 2007) - Joy & consists of learning strategies focused on adults. It is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners with the structure of learning experience. (Wikipedia) LMI App gap - a gap in which affluent children are more likely to use mobile educational games while those in low-income families are the most likely to have televisions in their bedrooms. (Lewin, T. Screen time higher than ever for children.) Olivia Wozniak Applied Research - Applied research consists of scientific investigations that are intended to solve practical problems. (Rogers, 2003) - Safna K. ARCS Model - A motivation model. ARCS stands for, Attention-Relevance- Confidence-Satisfaction. Kyle - W /The ARCS model takes on a problem-solving approach to motivation. It provides guidance for the selection and implementation of different tactics depending on the current motivation level of your audience. - (Reiser & Dempsey. 2007 pp 87). - Brandy Ross Asking questions related to the different steps of the model is important to do before instruction because otherwise you are simple assuming that the learner is motivated, interested, and sees the[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  4. 4. ID&T Terminology relevance to his or her job. (Dick, Carey, Carey 2001, p. 98) Arousal Theory - A theory that says adding entertaining material to instructional material will promote learning by stimulating emotional engagement (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Artificial Intelligence - Intelligence in computers will one day revolutionize instructional systems by being able to perform high functions without human intervention. - Kyle W. Artificial intelligence is a major part of Web 3.0 technology for the World Wide Web, for computers will be able to sort data more effectively and tailor content to meet your needs (after they have analyzed you). This is already occurring to some extent. For instance, if you shop on, you will find recommendation lists compiled for you based off of items you have purchased and items you have explored while browsing through the website (Nations, n.d.). -Timothy Hicks Assessment - An evaluation designed to measure knowledge of specific content or objectives. Assessments can be any thing that can be measured and related to a given objective. Traditionally assessments have been given in the forms of tests, quizzes, and term papers, but a new movement of alternative assessments in online learning is growing. Assessment-Centered Criteria - test or item criteria used to judge item writing qualities such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, clarity, parsimony, and the use of recommended item formatting rules. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Assessment Instruments - materials developed and used to assess learners status and progress in both achievement and attitudes. For achievement, objective tests, product development activities, and live performances are included. For attitudes, both observation and self-report techniques are included. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) - international organization whose purpose is to improve "knowledge, theory, and quality of learning and teaching with information technology" ( ) Association for Applied Interactive Multimedia (AAIM) - supports professionals who use and develop interactive multimedia for education and training ( ) - D. Saxon Associative Learning - is the process by which an element is learned through association with a separate, pre-occurring element. (Imani Mance) Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) - A professional organizaiton made up of educators trying to improve instruction throught technology. ( ) ASSURE Model - An instructional design model used to help create instructional modules. The componenets of the ASSURE model are analyizing learners, stating objectives, selecting instructional methods, media, and materials, utilizing media and materials, requiring learner participation, and finally evaluating and revision. ( ) ASTD - American Society for Training & Development - Professional organization for workplace learning and performance professionals. Founded in 1943. ( ) - U. Bhatti Asynchronous - not occurring at the same time; having each operation started only after the preceding operation is completed; of or pertaining to operation without the use of fixed time intervals (opposed to synchronous ). ( LMI Asynchronous Learning Network - Learners interact with each other through discussion boards, but they do not have to meet online at the same time. ( )- Thuy Nguyen Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model - The Atkinson–Shiffrin model (also known as the multi-store model) is a psychological model proposed in 1968 by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin as a proposal for the structure of memory. It proposed that human memory involves a sequence of three stages:[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  5. 5. ID&T Terminology 1. Sensory memory (SM) 2. Short-term memory (STM) 3. Long-term memory (LTM) (Source: Wikipedia) -Safna K Atomistic Approach - Different from holistic design approach, atomistic is studying all the parts of complex contents or tasks and how they work together to make a whole. For example, when an instructor reduces a difficult task into simple elements, the instructor is using the traditional atomistic approach. -Qi Attitude - An internal state that influences an individuals choices of decisions to get under certain circumstances. Attitudes represent a tendency to respond in a particular way. (Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 363) Attitude Assessment – an assessment that allows educators to identify how students view themselves and their attitudes and feelings about a particular course (Alexander & Cobb, 1992). Audiovisual Education or Multimedia-Based Education (MBE) - is instruction where particular attention is paid to the audio and visual presentation of the material with the goal of improving comprehension and retention. - Firat SARSAR Augmented Reality - view of a real world environment with an overlay of information (audio, text, video etc). See Video Authentic Assessment – Proficiency of a skill is measured by performing a task requiring the use of the skill learned. An effective authentic assessment is one that includes "ill structured challenges and roles that help students rehearse for the complex ambiguities of .... adult and professional life" (Wiggins, 1990) - Valerie S. Gallagher Authentic Learning Task - learning that uses real-world problems and projects and that allow students to explore and discuss these problems in ways that are relevant to them. -Ana Fuch Authoring Tool - Software application used to produce media-based learning content - Koffivi Automatic Skills - The skills that can be executed easily without conscious thought (for example, compare the mental effort required the first time to drive a car versus after years of driving). Automatic skills free up attention and memory for other parts of problem solving. (Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed). p. 58) -Safna K Autonomous Learning - Independent, self-direct learning initiated by an individual. The focus is on independent thought and self-assessment to a degree. The term usually applies to home schooling, but can apply to most independent study. An interesting article on autonomy and higher ed can be found here: -Timothy H. Avatar- a virtual alter ego who lives in a virtual worlds (where instruction is increasingly taking place). -Ana Fuchs - A digital persona that any user can create and customize in 3D for virtual worlds. ( Thuy Nguyen B Backward compatibility – Backward compatibility refers to a hardware or software system that can successfully use interfaces and data from earlier versions of the system or with other systems. In user interface design, this also means minimizing the learning curve so that existing users can easily adapt to changes in the interface. - Safna K. Bandwidth - Bandwidth refers to how much data can be moved over a network per unit of time, measured in bits per second. Bandwidth is the speed at which your web browser can get web pages from a server. (Billingsley & Cunningham, "Curriculum Webs Weaving the Web into Teaching and Learning" Second Edition) - Safna K Bandwidth should be considered when creating visuals in instructional design. (Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. p. 313) - Missy[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  6. 6. ID&T Terminology Barriers to Technology Integration: the overcoming of challenges in order to attain a goal--There are two levels of barriers to technology integration. One is the lack of training and skills while the second is the reflection of teachers attitudes towards technology integration. Basic Reserach - The original investigations for the advancement of scientific knowledge. (Rogers, 2003) Beta Test - A trail of software or machinery that is done by independent users or the client. (websters dictionary) A test for a computer product prior to commercial release. Beta testing is the last stage of testing, and normally can involve sending the product to beta test sites outside the company for real-world exposure or offering the product for a free trial download over the Internet. Beta testing is often preceded by a round of testing called alpha testing . (Webopedia) (walter murphy) Behavior - an action that is an overt, observable, measurable performance. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Behavioral Learning Theory- the study of psychology and learning that is focused on behavior. (Skinner, 1987); learning can be understood, explained, and predicted entirely on the basis of observable events, namely the behavior of the learner along with its environmental antecedents and consequences. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) Immonen Behaviorism- learning theory in which subject content is divided into a series of small steps; the learner participates actively, receives feedback on effort, and is guided to sucess. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }) Behaviorism - Incorporates several individual theories. Three basic assumptions are held in relation to the process of learning under behaviorism: (1). The behavior is observable rather than "internal thought processes"; (2) Behavior is shaped by the environment the learner is immersed in; (3) Contiquity and reinforcement are essential elements of the learning process. (Merriam, et al, 2007, p. 278). Behaviorism - measurement of human behavior associated with philosophy and values (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Behavioral Objective - Instructors and teachers give learners specific objectives that will be accomplished throughout the lessons and course. Kyle W. Type of objective that indicates the specific behaviors students must demonstrate to indicate that learning has occurred. - Brandy Ross Behavior Engineering Model (BEM) - BEM developed by Thomas F. Gilbert was considered as a significant milestone and it has been used as a fundamental analytic HPI tool. This model distinguishes between a person’s repertory of behavior (individual knowledge, individual capacity, individual motives) and the environmental factors (environment information, environment resources, environment incentives), which provides people with a way of systematically and systemically identify barriers to individual and organizational performance. (Chevalier, R. 2002, p.1) - Qi Any performance problem within the workplace can be placed into one or more of the six categories of Gilberts BEM. - A. Adams Benchmark - an objective test or measurement that evaluators use to compare two or more competing products.(Freid Beiss, 1999, p.57) Koffivi Houngblame Big6 - The Big Six information skills model (Big6) is intended to foster the acquisition of research, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills through the cooperation of both school library media specialists and classroom teachers. Mike Eisenberg (Dean Emeritus and Professor - University of Washington Information School) and Bob Berkowitz (School Library Media Specialist with the Wayne Central School District, Ontario Center, NY) developed this process which guides students through information problem-solving as well as provides a basic framework for teaching and promoting information literacy. The Big6 consists of 6 stages: Task Definition - In this step, the student determines exactly what the information[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  7. 7. ID&T Terminology problem is and the specific information related to the problem. Information Seeking Strategies - Once the problem is clearly expressed, attention turns to the range of possible information sources. Location and Access - This is where the information seeking strategy really begins. Once students have decided on the appropriate strategy, the strategy is carried out. Use of Information - Once students are able to locate and access a source, they must be able to read, view, listen or interact with the information and decide what is valuable for their particular situation. They must extract the information that they need using notes, copies, citations, etc. Synthesis - The restructuring or repackaging of information into new or different formats to meet the requirements of the task is synthesis. This is where the real learning takes place as new information is brought in and links are made to pre- existing knowledge Evaluation - Evaluation determines how effectively and efficiently the information problem-solving process was conducted. For more information: ( ) - Safna K Blended Learning - The combination of traditional classroom learning and e- learning. Also referred to as hybrid learning. However, there are four main reasons why blended learning is dangerous It does not seek the simple solution but an instructional approach. Used in formal instructional atmospheres. About 90% of learning is informal. Does not take into account cost noninstructional solutions are not examined to solve a problem. ( Marc J. Rosenberg, Beyond E-Learnining Approaches and Technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Performance , Pfeiffer, 2006 ) Blended Learning 2.0 - More than the traditional blend of classroom instruction and online instruction. It encompasses gaming, live labs, Webinars, virtual interaction, and moreL-M . -Kersa P. Block of Instruction - A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major subject area. Koffivi H. Blog - type of Web 2.0 service provides users with a webpage that they can provide continuous updates of whatever they like. Similar to an online diary. The two most popular blogging sites include YouTube (video blogging) and Blogger . - Brandy Ross Blogs differ from wikis in that in a blog only one person is able to add or edit content to the blog, other people are able make comments, but not add to or change the content. Blogs in plain English - Safna K Blooms Taxonomy of Learning - A hierarchical design of thinking and learning that orders the levels off thinking and learning from low to high as knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Modifications have been made to Blooms design of levels of thinking to change from noun forms to verb labeling and include creating as the highest level. (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, pp. 67-68) <-Click link to see two versions of Blooms Taxonomy of Learning. - A. Adams Blooms taxonomy chart - Safna K. Brache, Alan P. - With Geary Rummler, he developed a holistic model approach to organizational change. Their model focused on the gap between the individual and the organizational strategy (the flow between the organizational parts rather than activities in departments). Currently the two have established (1981) the Rummler- Brache group ( ) and implement their Nine Box Model and methodology, targeting fortune 500 companies. Rummler & Brache viewed HPT from the organizational perspective in their book Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organizational Chart. Break out groups – Dividing a group of people into smaller groups to work on a task and or assignment. References Alexander, J., & Cobb, J. (1992). Assessing attitudes in middle and secondary schools and[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  8. 8. ID&T Terminology community colleges. Journal of Reading, 36(2), 146-149. Clark, R.C., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Clark,R., & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by Viewing versus Learning by Doing: Evidence- Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13. Cronbach, L. J., & Snow, R. E. (1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods: A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington Publishers: distributed by Halsted Press EDUCAUSE, 7 things you should know about augmented reality (2005), . Graesser, A., Chipman, P., & King, B. (2008). Computer-mediated technologies. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 277-294). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Lee, J., & Park, O. (2008). Adaptive instructional systems. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 469-484). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Merriam. S. B. (2007) Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive Guide (3rd edition), San Francisco: Jossey Bass Nations, D. (n.d.). What is Web 3.0? Retrieved from Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Shute, V., & Zapata-Rivera, D. (2008). Adaptive technologies. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 277-294). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Shute, V., & Towle, B. (2003). Adaptive e-learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(2), 105- 114. doi: 10.1207/S15326985EP3802_5 study-finds.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=app%20gap&st=cse C Calandra, Brendan (PhD) - After receiving degrees at Florida State University and he University of Florida, Dr. Calandra earned his PhD from the University of South Florida in 2002 while working in the Florida Center of Instructional Technology. Shortly there-after he became a professor at Georgia State University where he currently serves as the associate professor teaching courses such as IT 8000. Dr. Calandra Specializes in digital media as cognitive and transformative tools. Case Method - The presentation of real or fictional situations or problems to learners to analyze, to discuss, and to recommend actions to be taken. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Case Study -an instructional method that refers to assigned scenarios based on situations in which students observe, analyze, record, implement, conclude, summarize, or recommend. Case studies are created and used as a tool for analysis and discussion. (Giddens, A. (1984). In R. Yin (1993). Applications of case study research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.) Certified Performance Technologist – A performance technologist specialist that meets the certification requirements according to the 10 CPT standards. A CPT specializes in improving an organization’s efficiency in concert with codes of ethics. (Reiser, Davidson-Shivers, Rasmussen, 2007, p. 279) Certified Performance Technology Designation - The ASTD and ISPI offer[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  9. 9. ID&T Terminology certification for performance technology. The certification of performance technologist includes demonstration of mastery of ten standards as well as the code of ethics. The ten competencies Focus on results Take a systematic look at things. Add value in work Use partnerships and collaboration Be systematic in the assessment of the need and opportunity Be systematic in the work and workplace identity Be systematic in all aspects of the solution and requirements Be systematic in the implementation of the solution Be systematic in the evaluation and results. (Davidson-Shivers, G. V., & Rasmussen, K. L. (in press) Web based learning: Design, implementation, & evaluation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.) Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP) - Certification provided by ASTD. Candidates must have a minimum of 3 years experience in the field of learning and performance, pass a 150 question exam, and submit a work product. Change Agent – A change agent is one who others in a social system look to as a role model for adoption of an innovation (Rogers, 2003). Chief Learning Officer (CLO) -is the foremost resource in the rapidly growing industry of workforce learning and development. CLOs can be experts in corporate or personal training, with degrees in education, instructional design or similar. ( ) Koffivi Chunk of Instruction - All the instruction required to teach one objective or a combination of two or more objectives. [Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Chunking is a method of presenting information that splits concepts into small pieces or "chunks" of information to make reading and understanding faster and easier. The word chunking comes from a paper by George A. Miller , The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information . At a time when information theory was beginning to be applied in psychology, Miller observed that while some human cognitive tasks fit the model of a "channel capacity" characterized by a roughly constant capacity in bits, short-term memory did not. A variety of studies summarized that short-term memory had a capacity of about "seven plus-or-minus two" chunks. Miller acknowledged that "we are not very definite about what constitutes a chunk of information." (Wikipedia) (walter murphy) CIPP Evaluation Model - Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation Model that is four distinctive types of evaluation that can be conducted in a single comprehension evaluation or a stand alone evaluation (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007). It is a comprehensive model for evaluating programs, products, and personal work. The CIPP model can be used in a check list format. ( A web page devoted to the CIPP model) Classical conditioning - is a reflexive or automatic type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. It was first describe by Ivan Pavlov. Imani Mance Classroom on Wheels (COW). Mobile education vehicle typically featuring a bus or recreational vehicle (RV) equipped as a classroom. The intent is to make education more accessible by bringing instruction to students. Most uses focus on pre-K and adult services, addressing the needs of non-traditional students in these categories and, frequently, students in rural areas. A precursor to the COW is the bookmobile, which was a library on wheels. The term also refers to mobile conferencing equipment that can be "wheeled" into a location where distance learning classes are held. (walter murphy)[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  10. 10. ID&T Terminology - Example at GSU: Bio-Bus Cloud computing - refers to the applications, resources, services and even data that are hosted virtually. Google has a number of applications, such as Google docs and Voice, that are examples of cloud computing. Uzma B. Within this broad definition, there are variations of cloud computing: SaaS (Software as a Service) refers to applications, e.g., word processing, spreadsheets that can be accessed through a web browser versus having a licensed copy of the application(s) on an individuals computer. Utility Computing refers to a service by which additional data storage and virtual servers are accessed on an as needed basis. Web Services refer to business services that are delivered via the Internet, e.g., ADP payroll processing, Google Maps, or credit card authorization and processing. ( (walter murphy) Coaching. A technique of cognitive apprenticeship whereby the instructor observes students as they try to complete tasks and provides hints, help and feedback as needed. Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Code of Professional Ethics - Code of ethics created by the AECT that all instructional designers and technologists are expected to uphold. Codification - the method of documenting and storing explicit knowledge. The best known codification is the public library. (Rosenberg ,Marc, Beyond E-Learning: Approahces and technologies to Enhance Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Performance, Pfeiffer, 2006.) Cognition - The mental or internal process of knowing, thinking, learning, recalling and judging. This includes problem solving, language and memory. - Melissa S. Cognitive apprenticeship: "is a method of teaching aimed primarily at teaching the processes that experts use to handle complex tasks. The focus of this learning-through- guided-experience is on cognitive and metacognitive skills, rather than on the physical skills and processes of traditional apprenticeships" (Conway, 1997). Cognitive Apprenticeship is also “… designed, among other things, to bring these tacit processes into the open, where students can observe, enact, and practice them with help from the teacher…” (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989). Also check: Cognitive Apprenticeship is also "an instructional model that seeks to emulate the opportunities for extended practice on authentic tasks that apprentices have while working under a master craftsman." Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Cognitive domain - This domain concerns to how individuals think; their intellectual capabilties, level of development and perferred thinking styles. Related terms/concepts include; cognitive or thinking styles, intellectual development, critical thinking. Ex. Blooms Taxonomy - Melissa S. / The cognitive domain includes 6 major categories, knowldge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. ( from ) - Joy Cognitive Flexibility Theory - According to Godshalk et al (2004: 510), Cognitive Flexibility Theory “maintains that instruction in complex, ill-structured domains must allow the learner to "crisscross" the domain knowledge by comparing and contrasting information gained from different perspectives and themes pertinent to the domain. The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. In other words, learners must be flexible in their understanding of a topic to apply important concepts.” - Firat SARSAR Also defined as "A theory of learning for advanced knowledge. Advanced knowledge is seen as less rule-based and rigid than introductory knowledge. The theory recommends approaching content from multiple perspectives through multiple analogies and the use of[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  11. 11. ID&T Terminology hypertext instruction." Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Cognitive Flexibility Theory - is a conceptual model for designing learning environments based on cognitive learning theory. Spiro and Jehng (1990 Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. In Nix, D., Spiro, R. (Eds.), Cognition, education and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.) defined cognitive flexibility as “the ability to adaptively re-assemble diverse elements of knowledge to fit the particular needs of a given understanding or problem-solving situation” (p. 169). This theory focuses on learning in complex and ill-structured domains – which represent most situations in real life. Major principles of Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Instructions should avoid oversimplification Learning activities must use multiple representations of the content Emphasis on case-based instruction Advanced knowledge must be acquired in a real-world context Emphasis on knowledge construction (not transmission of information) Knowledge sources need to be highly interconnected rather than compartmentalized. Although this theory can be used in lower levels of learning, it is generally focused on advanced knowledge acquisition (particularly in the use of hypertext). Nicikel.pdf - Firat SARSAR Cognitive Information Processing Theory- a multistage, multistore theory of memory that is generally regarded as the basis for information processing theory. Three memory systems in the learner (sensory, short term, and long-term memory) are assumed to receive information from the environment and transform it for storage and use in memory and performance. In addition to stages through which informaiton passes, processes such as attention, encoding, and retrieval are hypothesized to act on informations as it is received, transformed, and stored for later recall and use. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007) LMI Cognitive Load - Learners process information in different ways. The cognitive load theory assumes that learners have limited working memory and unlimited long-term memory. The goal of learning is to free up working memory from unnecessary mental effort and integrate new information and knowledge into schemas in long-term memory. (Clark, Nguyen & Sweller, 2006). Cognitive Load Theory- it is a theory of cognitive processes and instructional design. It considers the structure of information and the cognitive architecture that allows learners to process that information. Cognitive Strategy - Metaprocesses of the mind that enable and manage personal learning. ((Dick, W., Carey L. & Carey, J(2005) The Systematic Design of Instruction. 6th ed. p. 363) Cognitive Trait Model - a model that uses cognitive traits to profile learners. Cognitive traits are persistent and tend to be valid over a period of time. There are 4 cognitive traits: working memory capacity inductive reasoning ablility processing speed associated learning skills Cognitive Psychology. "The scientific analysis of human mental processes and memory structures in order to understand human behavior" Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill. (Andy Harrison) Cognitive Learning Style- unique way an individual receives and processes information as classified on a number of scales ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J.[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  12. 12. ID&T Terminology (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); / an individuals characteristic and consistent approach to organizing and processing information. Cognitive and learning styles are typically represented as polar opposites of a single dimension so that a person is described as field dependent or indipendent, reflective or impulsive, serialist or holist, a converger or a diverger, aleveller or a sharpener, a vebalizer or visualizer and so on. (Tennant, M, 2006, psychology and adult learning. chapter 6. learning Styles.) -Joy Cognitive Strategies- highest level of cognitive learning, typified by problem solving. ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab- images : thingbar-images }); Cognitivism - "Cognitive theorists recognize that much learning involves associations established through contiquity and repetition. They also acknowledge the importance of reinforcement, although they stress its role in providing feedback about the correctness of responses over its role as a motivator. However, even while accepting such behavioristic concepts, cognitive theorists view learning as involving the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information. (Good & Brophy, 1990, pp.187) Basics of Behaviorism Nada Coherence Principle -Students learning might be negatively affected when interesting but irrelevant words, pictures, sounds and music are added to a multimedia presentation. In addition, studnet leanring is improved when extraneous words are removed from a multimedia presentation. (Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press). -Qi Collaboration - Collaboration is one of the three key elements of Knowledge Management (also includes codification and access). In respect to Knowledge Management, collaboration "is the peer-to-peer sharing of tacit expertise, insight, and experience across the global community". Collaboration involves collectively working with an individual or a group in an effort to accomplish an agreed upon goal / agenda. Collaborative learning -Collaborative Learning Learning that occurs in a group and can include group discussions, collective hands-on activities, multimedia presentations, demonstrations, or hands-on activities. (Beisse, F.,1999, Course Technology) Koffivi Houngblame Collaborative Workspaces- Virtual spaces that allow students (in various locations) to work together in a shared environment. Colocated Teams--a team whose members work in the same building or general area and can physically C-D meet. [Ritchey, R. C., Morrison, G. R., & Foxon, M. (2007). In Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (Eds.)Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.] Tippi Hyde Community - a sense that members have belonging, members matter to one another and to the group (Brock and Oliver) Community in relation to online interaction in collective online communities such as social networking and blogging (M. DIxon) Community of Inquiry Framework: An educational community of inquiry is a group of individuals who collaboratively engage in purposeful critical discourse and reflection to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding. The Community of Inquiry theoretical framework represents a process of creating a deep and meaningful (collaborative-constructivist) learning experience through the development of three interdependent elements—social, cognitive, and teaching presence. [Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000).]- K. Hindsman Communities of Practice : Communities of practice are group of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact reguarly. (from ) Communities of practice facilitate collaboration by enabling people with similar interests, need, and responsibilities to work together across time and distance. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p 159) - Joy - Communities of practice are distinguishable from[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  13. 13. ID&T Terminology committee and groups because of their informal and fluid nature. The communities ebb and flow in reponse to the participants needs - Uzma Comparative Testing- usability testing that compares two or more instructional technology products or designs and distinguishes the strengths and weaknesses of each. Competencies- Having sufficient skill, knowledge, experience, or qualified to perform a particular task (Reiser and Dempsey 2007). Complex Goal—a goal that involves more than one domain of learning. Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey J. O. (2005). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson A&B] Tippi Hyde Complexity Theory -Complexity theory is the study of adaptive , self-organizing systems —that is, learning systems—which resist explanation in terms of the reductive methods used in most traditional science. Complexity theory focuses on the dynamic relationships and patterns among phenomena rather than the static properties of isolated objects. Its explanatory framework and core concepts—which include emergence , evolution and embodiment —have been adopted by mathematicians, biologists, physical scientists and social scientists, as well as many thinkers in the humanities. Many educators have used complexity theory and science to understand, explain and explore their experiences of teaching, learning , classrooms and other educationalactivities. - Firat SARSAR Common Cartridge - Common Cartridge (CC) is a learning object that enhances SCORM to incorporate the sharing of tests and assessments, distributed content accessible via the web, and collaborative forums (Anido-Rifon & Gonzalez-Barbone, 2009, p. 2). Imani Mance Computer-Assisted Instruction- in the early days of instructional technology, in the 1950s, IBM developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) including a program that was to be used in public schools. -Ana Fuchs Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) -The use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Functions of CMI can include a management administration system designed to track student performance over a period of time, provide information concerning performance trends, record individual and group performance data, schedule training, and provide support for other training management functions. Koffivi H. Concept- name or expression given to a class of facts, objects, or events, all of which have common features. Concept Mapping: a technique for representing knowledge in graphs. Knowledge graphs are networks of concepts. Networks consist of nodes (points/vertices) and links (arcs/edges). Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relations between concepts. Conceptual Blending (Fauconnier and Turner) Connecting two concepts to create new meaning. The process of bringing concepts in relation to each other together. Conditions of Learning - stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning. The significance of these classifications is that each different type requires different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. Confirmative Evaluation - expands traditional evaluation to measure long term and expanded performance improvement and focuses on long-term effects or results over the life cycle of a change program. (Giberson, Tracey, & Harris, Confirmative Evaluation of Training Outcomes: Using Self-Report Measures to Track Change at the Individual and Organizational Level Performance Improvement Quarterly. Hoboken: 2006. Vol. 19, Iss. 4; pg. 43, 19 pgs). - Firat Sarsar Connectivism- Learning theory defined by George Siemens (2004). An approach to[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]
  14. 14. ID&T Terminology learning that considers technology as a key factor (Solomon & Schrum, 2007). Connected Learning - coined by Belenky et al (1986), where learners build knowledge by connecting to other people or things .Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books. Constituent skills: A term that is used in holistic (whole-task) instructional design models to identify the skills that are aspects of the complex skill. In a whole-task model, the term "constituent skills" replaces the term "subskills."- Barb Cebulski Constructive Learning Environments - should produce the following to be effective: Engage learners in authentic learning constructs and activities. Provide collaboration during the learning process and encourage group discussions. Support the individual goals of learners. Help learners reflect on their learning experience. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007 p. 42) Constructivism - a philosophy that underlies theories from which pedagogies and models are derived; primarily an epistemological and onto logical conception of what is reality, knowledge, the mind, thought, and meaning are. (Reiser & Dempsey) LMI Constructivists put the action of learning onto the learner and the instructor acts more as a coach or guide instead of as a lecturer. Constructivism - the process of knowlege and understanding. The learners receives information from the environment, transforms it, acquires knowledge, and stores it into memory (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Consultative- to be like a counselor and listen and advise your customers toward providing the most suitable performance solution reccomendation possible, which may not be instruction per se. -Ana Fuchs ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. P. 347) Kim new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }) Context Evaluation - The assesment of the environment in which the technology will be used. Contiguity Principle - A principle that states people learn more from multimedia lessons when distracting stories, graphics, sounds, and extraneous words are eliminated (Clark & Mayer, 2008). Communication theory - the principle of how information is transmitted and delivered. - Melissa S. Computer as tool - the use of the computer as a learning tool. The student uses the computer as a tool to accomplish a goal, but the computer is not providing the instruction or the actual reinforcement. - Brandy Ross Computer as Tutee - the use of the computer as a tutee. In this role the computer simply responds to stimuli presented by a student or a teacher. The learner gives the computer instruction and then the computer responds. This allows the student or teacher to gain greater understanding of the topic they are teaching as well as learn how to communicate effectively with the computer. - Brandy Ross Computer as tutor - the use of the computer as a tutor. The computer is programmed to be an expert on a particular subject. The student is then tutored by the computer executing the program(s). The computer presents some subject material, the student responds, the computer evaluates the response, and, from the results of the evaluation, determines what to present next. - Brandy Ross Computer-based instruction (CBI)-- software program that displays information and instructions on a video screen, requiring learner participation and choices ((Morrison. G, Ross S. & Kemp J. (2001) Designing Effective Instruction. 3rd ed. p. 347) new MiniTabSwitcher({ linkselectab-pages : thingbar-pages, linkselectab-images : thingbar-images }); Computer-based training- Also known as CBT, a learning course that is primarily delivererd via a computer. It is usually used to teach computer related topics, but can be used to teach any topic. (,,sid9_gci873507,00.html ) Condition - component of a learning objective that describes the specific situation in[2/8/12 4:25:38 PM]