ET627 Take-Home Examination Spring 2011 Kangdon Lee1. In Chapter 14, explain what an emergent system is and how it could beused to teach something useful to learners.An emergent system is a game system that creates unforeseeable outcomes ofcomplexity by applying a limited set of rules to some parts of a game. In otherwords, game players cant see it in the set of rules on a screen or the rulebook ofa game. For example, in a business simulation game Gazillionaire, you can hireemployees and are expected to give them salaries on a regular basis. However,if you click on the button Pay it later, when seeing the payroll pop-up window,then your employees go on a strike and you will unexpectedly see your creditrating decrease. In this case, decreasing your credibility could be an example ofan emergence in Gazillionaire, because the rules of Gazillionaire dont say yourcredit changes.From the educational point of view, an emergence system could be utilized toteach students about concepts or definitions of some principles. As an example,in an educational game of math, students can answer their math questions about20, 21, 22, 23, and so on in an exponential function with some graphic stories. Bydoing this work, students can learn about some basic concepts of multiply inmath with the game designers purposes for making this game. In the end, after aset of math game, students will see a pop-up window that shows an actualexponential function graph with some texts explaining what previous questionsare related to an exponential function and asking them try to answer moredifficult math questions than previous ones and to see how differently anexponential function graph changes regarding different forms of math questions.Another example of an emergence could be found in Club Penguin. There aremany signs and landmarks in Club Penguin. Some landmarks have theirannotations that are shown when clicked, but some dont. So those signs andlandmarks can be used for educational purposes with players clicks. That is, ifthe background of Club Penguin were American Civil War, players will learnabout its history by clicking on various signs and landmarks, reading annotationsof them, or taking some notes about the episodes of signs and landmarks, whileplaying.
2. In Chapter 17, explain the difference between perfect and imperfectinformation in a game and how they would be used in an educational game.What is different between perfect and imperfect information in a game is thatperfect information is revealed to all players of a game, on the other handimperfect information isnt allowed for all players to see, but permitted for someplayers in a game to figure out what it is. In other words, perfect information isthe same information as the game Go has, in which two players know what theyhave in the game Go and how it proceeds, whereas information, which isallowed for limited players to see in the card game Poker is belonged to thecategory of imperfect information.Speaking of the usages of both perfect and imperfect information for theeducational purposes, these could be employed to improve students vocabularyabilities. For instance, in a vocabulary game Synonyms, there are perfect andimperfect information in Synonyms. Basically, the object of Synonyms is to formsets of two or three cards, which are synonyms. The dealer deals seven cards toeach player and these seven cards are imperfection information, which areallowed for only one player to see. The remaining cards are placed face down onthe table to form the draw pile. These face-down cards are also imperfectioninformation which all players cant see, because these cards are the game only,which belongs to the third category of four scenarios in the typology by CeliaPearce, a designer and a scholar. Regarding perfect information in Synonyms,these are perfect information which is already revealed to all players such as howmany cards each player has, how to play, and how to win the game Synonymsand so forth.3. In Chapter 26, explain concepts of embedded and emergent narrativeand provide examples of how each could be found in educational games.A narrative play is one of the game schemas that make a game more meaningfulto players. That is, a narrative represents how a game unfolds throughout thewhole period of a game and how players can make a game play more worthwhilewith better experiences and adventures. There are two kinds of concepts in anarrative, which are an embedded and emergent narrative. Firstly, an embeddednarrative is a pre-determined narrative content that exists prior to an actualplayers interaction with a game system and is designed to offer a player with aninitiative and a big picture for the concrete goals, events, and actions in a game.On top of that, an emergent narrative is a narrative that arises from the set ofrules controlling interaction in a game system. Unlike the embedded narrative,emergent narrative elements appear during play and often arise in unexpectedways. Most emergent narratives take place on a moment-to-moment basis rightthrough a game, as a players choice leads to unpredictable narrativeexperiences and adventures.
For instance, in the soccer game FIFA 2010, there is a narrative that explainshow FIFA 2010 consists of and how the game is played through the whole ofFIFA 2010. This narrative is the embedded narrative that has already beengenerated by the game designers as one of the game design procedures bydefault. During the play of FIFA 2010, if one player were tackled by anotherplayer and got a chance to have a free kick in the middle of the ground, then thiskind of narrative will be an example of an emergent narrative that possiblychanges the result of the game by scoring a goal in the end, which also createstotally opposite meaningfulness for both teams.From the instructional perspectives, both embedded and emergent narrative canbe found in educational games. For example, in the business simulation gameGazillionaire, an embedded narrative can be experienced by a player at thebeginning of the game Gazillionaire, giving you some overall ideas about thegoals, the constitutions, and the procedures of the game. Moreover, an emergentnarrative can be found during play in Gazillionaire. A player is expected to buysome commodities and sell them to others with the maximum profit, so a playertry to find out the best combination of purchasing objects to profit the most. In theprocess of figuring out the best profit, an emergent narrative occurs by alertingwith some weird sound and voice effects saying Bad deal or Good deal, as aplayer makes ones decisions to buy or sell some products. In this case, whilefiguring out the best choice within both an embedded and emergent narrative, aplayer can learn some basic principles of economics and math.