Augmented reality in education and training by Kangdon lee
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Augmented reality in education and training by Kangdon lee



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Augmented reality in education and training by kangdon lee
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Lee, K. (2012). Augmented reality in education and training. TechTrends, 56(2):13-21.



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Augmented reality in education and training by Kangdon lee Augmented reality in education and training by Kangdon lee Document Transcript

  • Augmented Reality inEducation and TrainingBy Kangdon LeeUniversity of Northern ColoradoAbstract real and the virtual in a seamless way (Chang, Morreale, & Medicherla, 2010). There are many different ways for people to According to Johnson, Levine, Smith, &be educated and trained with regard to specific Stone (2010), the history of AR goes back to theinformation and skills they need. These methods 1960s and the first system was used for both ARinclude classroom lectures with textbooks, com- and VR. It used an optical see-through head-puters, handheld devices, and other electronic mounted display that was tracked by one of twoappliances. The choice of learning innovation is different methods: a mechanical tracker and andependent on an individual’s access to various ultrasonic tracker. Due to the limited process-technologies and the infrastructure environment ing power of computers at that time, only veryof a person’s surrounding. In a rapidly changing simple wireframe drawings could be displayedsociety where there is a great deal of available in- in real time (Sutherland, 1968). Since then,formation and knowledge, adopting and apply- AR has been put to use by a number of ma-ing information at the right time and right place jor companies for visualization, training, andis needed to main efficiency in both school and other purposes. The term ‘Augmented Reality’business settings. Augmented Reality (AR) is is attributed to former Boeing researcher Tomone technology that dramatically shifts the loca- Caudell, who is believed to have coined thetion and timing of education and training. This term in 1990.literature review research describes Augmented According to Johnson, et al. (2010), ARReality (AR), how it applies to education and systems can either be marker-based or mark-training, and the potential impact on the future erless-based. Marker-based applications areof education. comprised of three basic components which Keywords: Augment Reality, Virtual Reality, include a booklet for offering marker informa-Training, Educational Technology tion, a gripper for getting information from the booklet and converting it to another typeA ugmented Reality (AR) is a technology of data, and a cube for augmenting informa- that allows computer-generated virtual tion into 3D-rendered information on a screen. imagery information to be overlaid onto a On the other hand, markerless-based applica-live direct or indirect real-world environment in tions need a tracking system that involves GPSreal time (Azuma, 1997; Zhou, Duh, & Billing- (Global Positioning System), a compass, and anhurst, 2008). AR is different from Virtual Reality image recognition device instead of the three el-(VR) in that in VR people are expected to experi- ements of maker-based systems. Markerless ap-ence a computer-generated virtual environment. plications have wider applicability because theyIn AR, the environment is real, but extended function anywhere without the need for specialwith information and imagery from the system. labeling or supplemental reference points.In other words, AR bridges the gap between theVolume 56, Number 2 TechTrends • March/April 2012 13
  • According to Chang, Morreale, and Medi- AR in School cherla (2010), several researchers have sug- Professionals and researchers have striven gested that learners can strengthen their to apply AR to classroom-based learning within motivation for learning and enhance their edu- subjects like chemistry, mathematics, biology, cational realism-based practices with virtual and physics, astronomy, and other K-12 education augmented reality. In spite of a great amount or higher, and to adopt it into augmented books of research during the last two decades, adopt- and student guides. However, Shelton (2002) es- ing AR in education and training is still quite timated that AR has not been much adopted into challenging because of issues with its integra- academic settings due to little financial support tion with traditional learning methods, costs from the government and lack of the awareness for the development and maintenance of the AR of needs for AR in academic settings. system, and general resistance to new technolo- gies. Now that AR, however, has the promise to AR in Business attract and inspire learners with exploring and In corporate venues, AR is a collaborative, controlling materials from a number of differ- skill-learning, explainable, and guidable tool for ent perspectives that have not previously been workers, managers, and customers. Also busi- taken into consideration, AR in education and nesses have a better environment than those training is believed to have a more streamlined of educational settings regarding the ability to approach with wider user adoption than ever maintain the costs and support of AR applica- before due to the improvement in computer and tions. Many corporations are interested in em- information technology. Kerawalla, et al. (2006) ploying AR for the design and the recognition of stated that even though many AR applications their products’ physical parts. According to the have been developed for educational and train- evaluation of Shelton (2002), for example, enter- ing purposes since the advent of AR in the late prises not only may imagine designing a car in 1960s, its potential and pragmatic employment three dimensions in which they can make imme- has just begun to be explored and utilized. He diate changes when needed but also can create emphasized that AR has the potential to have virtual comments that explain to the technicians learners more engaged and motivated in discov- what needs to be fixed. ering resources and applying them to the real world from a variety of diverse perspectives that have never been implemented before. The Current Position of AR in Education and Training How AR Works in Education During the last few decades, many profes- and Training sionals and researchers have been develop- ing pragmatic theories and applications for the Johnson, et al. (2010) stated, “AR has strong adoption of AR into both academic and corpo- potential to provide both powerful contextual, rate settings. By virtue of those studies, some on-site learning experiences and serendipitous innovations of AR have been developed and are exploration and discovery of the connected na- being used to enhance the education and train- ture of information in the real world.” (p. 21). ing efficiency of students and employees. In ad- AR has been experimentally applied to both dition to that, there are a great number of studies school and business environments, although going on to improve the compatibility and appli- not as much as classic methods of education and cability of AR into real life. However, according training during the last two decades. In addition to Shelton & Hedley (2004), many questions still to that, now that the technologies that make AR linger about its use in education and training, in- possible are much more powerful than ever be- cluding issues of cost effectiveness, of efficiency fore and compact enough to deliver AR experi- between AR instructional systems and conven- ences to not only corporate settings but also aca- tional methods, and the like. demic venues through personal computers and mobile devices, several educational approaches AR in K-12 Settings with AR technology are more feasible. Also, Freitas & Campos (2008) developed SMART wireless mobile devices, such as smart phones, (System of augmented reality for teaching) that tablet PCs, and other electronic innovations, are is an educational system using AR technology. increasingly ushering AR into the mobile space This system uses AR for teaching 2nd grade-lev- where applications offer a great deal of promise, el concepts, such as the means of transportation especially in education and training. and types of animals. This system superimposes three dimensional models and prototypes, such14 TechTrends • March/April 2012 Volume 56, Number 2
  • Figure 1. A view of a student interacting with real objects (foam core card, table, wall) and artificial objects (Sun, Earth, annota- tions) through the augmented reality interface. This view is as would be seen if wearing an HMD (Shelton, 2002). Image by courtesy of Brett E. a car, truck, and airplane, on the real time vid- In another example for the employmenteo feed shown to the whole class. Because most of AR in astronomy, Johnson, et al. (2010) de-children spend a great deal of time playing digi- scribed Google’s SkyMap ( games, game-based learning is one way to en- com/watch?v=p6znyx0gjb4) as an applicationgage children in learning. Several experiments by using AR technology. SkyMap overlays infor-Freitas & Campos (2008) were performed with mation about the stars and the constellations as54 students in three different schools in Portu- users browse the sky with the see-through viewgal. The results of a number of studies by Freitas from the camera on their smart phones (p. 23).& Campos (2008) indicated that SMART helps Augmented chemistry. Augmented chem-increase motivation among students, and it has istry is an interactive educational workbencha positive impact on the learning experiences that can show students how and what an atomof these students, especially among the less aca- or a molecule consists of via AR. Three elements,demically successful students. a booklet, a gripper, and a cube, are required to implement this task with both hands. Fjeld &AR in Higher Education Voegtli (2002) said that the booklet displays AR is a very efficient technology for both components by a printed picture and a name.higher education such as universities and col- One hand browses the booklet with a gripperleges. Students in both schools can improve their that has a button used to connect an atom to theknowledge and skills, especially on complex molecular model. According to Fjeld & Voegtlitheories or mechanisms of systems or machin- (2002), users first bring the gripper around theery. For example, Liarokapis, et al. (2004) dem- element in the booklet and get informationonstrated that AR can make complicated mecha- about the element by clicking the button of thenisms and difficult theories in higher education gripper. Users then move the gripper next to aaccepted and understood by students with con- cube, called a platform, which holds a molecule.textually enriched interaction using AR technol- Subsequently, by rotating a cube operated by theogy. In the results of their research, Liarokapis, other hand, users can determine where and howet al, (2004) showed an AR view of a student ex- the element connects to the molecule.amining an augmented 3D model of a camshaftarrangement in conjunction with a set of real en-gine components.The Application of AR in Different Subjects Augmented astronomy. In an astronomyclass, students learn about the relationship be-tween the earth and the sun. For the sake ofstudents’ understanding, educators may employAR technology with 3D rendered earth and sunshapes. Figure 2. Shelton’s (2002) study described the following: a) Booklet offering one element per page – here Na – sodium. Each element is rep- The virtual sun and earth are manipu- resented by a pattern. b) Gripper with a button (red) and a pattern. c) Cube with one distinct pattern for each surface (Fjeld & Voegtle, 2002). Image by courtesy of lated on a small hand-held platform that Morten Fjeld a Benedikt M. Voegtli. changes its orientation in coordination with the viewing perspective of the stu- dent. The student controls the angle of viewing in order to understand how un- seen elements work in conjunction with those that were previously seen (p. 324).Volume 56, Number 2 TechTrends • March/April 2012 15
  • Figure 3. geometry education in a wide range of ways. System set-up with a typical situation of For instance, using the AR application, teachers use: charging the Gripper with an ele- and students can intuitively explore properties ment from the booklet (left). The platform of interesting curves, surfaces, and other geo- (right) holds an unsaturated atom, with metric shapes. which a binding with the charged atom Physics education. Physics is another area may be triggered (Fjeld & Voegtle, 2002). Image by courtesy of Morten Fjeld and where AR can also be used to demonstrate vari- Benedikt M. Voegtli. Augmented biology. AR can be used to study the anatomy and structure of the body in biology. The Specialist Schools and Acad- emies Trust (SSAT) demonstrated that teachers could use AR technology to show what organs of human beings consist of and how they look by watching 3D computer-generated models in the real classrooms. Moreover, students may be able to study humans’ organs independently with their camera-embedded laptops and AR markers that connect PCs with AR informa- tion about biological structures of the human body (Retrieved from https://www.ssatrust. Reality.aspx). Figure 5. Figure 4. Students working with construct3D inscribe a sphere in a cone (Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2002). Image by courtesy A model of human beings’ internal organs with AR technology that can of Hannes Kaufmann be used in Biology class (Retrieved from ous kinematics properties. Duarte, Cardoso, and Image by courtesy of The Schools Network. Lamounier Jr. (2005) evaluated AR to dynami- cally present an object that varies in time, such as velocity and acceleration. The real and esti- mated experimental results can be visualized by using AR techniques that are more interest- ing than existing learning methods, and thus Mathematics and geometry education. improve learning. The research by Chae & Ko With AR technology, teachers and students can (2008) demonstrated that physics simulation is collaborate by interacting with each other for added to objects using open dynamics engine some issues on shapes or arrangements. Accord- (ODE) library. ing to Chang, Morreale, & Medicherla (2010), an AR application, called Construct3D, specifically How AR is Applied to Books was designed for mathematics and geometry ed- A book can become “magic” by adding AR ucation with three-dimensional geometric con- technology. Billinghurst (2001) determined struction models (as cited in Kaufmann, 2006; that people, especially young children, can read Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2002; Kaufmann, books in more interactive and realistic ways by Schmalstieg, & Wagner, 2000). This applica- superimposing 3D rendered models onto books tion allows multiple users, such as teachers and with AR technology. This is called “The Magic- students, to share a virtual space collaboratively Book” which makes people’s fantasies about be- to construct geometric shapes by wearing head coming a part of the story a reality by using both mounted displays that enable users to overlay a normal book and a handheld see-through AR computer-generated images onto the real world. device. People can turn the pages of a book, look Furthermore, Kaufmann (2009) determined at pictures, and read the text without any inter- that AR can be used in dynamic differential active assistance (figure 7a). However, if they16 TechTrends • March/April 2012 Volume 56, Number 2
  • look at the pages through a handheld AR display, technologies including AR, 3D-visualization,they see three-dimensional models appearing mobile computing, and multi-modal interac-out of the pages (figure 7b). The results of the re- tion techniques. The equipment consists of asearch by Billinghurst (2001) demonstrated that Head-Mounted Display (HMD), an earphonewith the MagicBook and the AR see-through de- and a mobile computing unit. But other ver-vice, people are able to see 3D scenes from any sions include a PDA or a lightweight portableperspective simply by moving the AR device or computer with a simple input device. With these AR devices, individuals can visit histor- ic sites and tour around, both comparing an original image to an augmented modeling and viewing three-dimensional models of what the construction was, how it looked, and who the person was, even though it does not exist any more or just remains some ruins. Industrial Maintenance In the field of industrial maintenance, AR Image by courtesy of is a very practical assistance for staff in their Mark Billinghurst highly demanding technical work. Henderson & Feiner (2009) observed that corporate sec-Figure 6. tors such as military, manufacturing, and oth-a) A book in reality. b) The MagicBook in AR. A man is us- er industries are the applied fields where ARing the MagicBook to move between Reality and Augmented competitively thrives and expands the scopeReality (Billinghurst, 2001). of the technology itself. Particularly, according to their studies (Henderson & Feiner, 2009), which concentrate on the military sector, withthe book. The Magic Book is an enhanced ver- the assistance of AR technology, military me-sion of a traditional three-dimensional “pop-up” chanical staff can conduct their routine mainte-book. Moreover, Johnson, et al. (2010) described nance tasks in a bulletproof vehicle more safelythat augmented books can be developed into an and conveniently. To do this, there are severalAR edition after publication by installing specialsoftware, called AR tool kits, on users’ comput-ers and pointing an embedded camera of theirPCs at the book to view computer-generated 3Dmodels appeared out of the book.How AR is Employed inBusiness Settings AR technologies can be applied to a numberof business settings, including tourism, muse-ums, gaming, and industry. Figure 7. a) A mechanic wearing a tracked head-worn display performs a maintenance taskCultural Heritage Tour Guide inside an LAV-25A1 armored personnel carrier. b) The AR condition in the study: A AR can be used as an interactive tool in cul- view through the head-worn display captured in a similar domain depicts information provided using augmented reality to assist the mechanic (Henderson & Feiner, 2009).tural heritage sites by showing visitors the origi- Image by courtesy of Steven Henderson and Steven Feiner.nal images of the sites and informing travelers ofhistorical episodes of the places with 3D effects.Vlahakis, et al, (2002) demonstrated on their re-search of ARCHEOGUIDE (Augmented Reali- required devices and apparatuses such as aty-based Cultural Heritage On-site GUIDE) that tracked head-worn display to augment a me-the AR tour assistant system provides on-site chanic’s natural view with text, labels, arrows,help and AR reconstructions of ancient ruins, and animated sequences designed to facilitatebased on users’ position and orientation in the task comprehension, location, and execution.cultural site, and real time image rendering. AR- The same concept of the AR technologyCHEOGUIDE is based on computer and mobile as the military maintenance works can be ap-Volume 56, Number 2 TechTrends • March/April 2012 17
  • plied to manufacturing industries. A great deal the augmented reality.” Johnson, et al. (2010) of research in the field of AR has been paving also demonstrated that one type of AR games the way for companies to employ AR technol- includes a flat game board (map) that becomes ogy in their own sectors. For instance, BMW, a 3D rendered model with a mobile device or a one of the famous German motor vehicle com- webcam. This kind of game could easily be ad- panies, has been interested in utilizing AR tech- opted by a variety of disciplines, including ar- niques in their car maintenance and repair di- chaeology, anthropology, geography, and other visions and developed an AR maintenance and subjects. K. L. Schrier (2005), for example, ex- repair system and data glasses (Retrieved from perimented with a role-playing game about history using AR technology. In her historic augmented_reality_introduction_1.html). And role-playing game with AR, participants are as- they are just about to use contextually and in- signed to a specific historic role and spot and go teractively advanced AR technology as a means to the real site to examine the role with a GPS- to support their service staff in their complex enabled handheld device, which shows the real and technical work environments. According site map with augmented information about the to BMW, technicians, wearing special data gog- historic event relating to the role allotted. After gles and connecting to their computer servers, completing a historic role-playing game, par- have all the information at their disposal, pre- ticipants get items about the historic role and cisely where they need it: in the workplace, at spot on the mobile display and come back to the the vehicle. By wearing AR glasses, for example, classroom where they started, and then discuss mechanics receive additional three-dimensional what they have done and how they felt during information on the part they are repairing to the role-playing game. According to the results help them in diagnosing and solving the fault. of her study, education and training via AR Apart from the real environment, they see ani- techniques, to a great extent, has 4 virtues. With mated components about the part that needs re- this AR game, individuals can not only create placing and the tools to be used, while an audio an authentic practice field for solving problems instruction talks to mechanics about each of the and using real-world contexts and tools but also working steps through headphones integrated increase the potential for collaboration among inside the goggles. participants, and enhance opportunities for re- flection. Furthermore, AR games enable users to Museum Experiences express new identities through role-playing and Another aspect of the employment of AR in to encourage individuals to more profoundly ex- corporate venues is museums. Museums are the plore a real site by interacting between the real places where hundreds of ancient and precious and augmented world. Another approach to AR heritages are well preserved and displayed to visi- games enables users to create their own virtual tors for the sake of their education. Kondo (2006) people or objects, have them located in a specific examined how AR technology can be applied to place in the real world, and interact with them museum display systems. As an example, there in real time to solve given problems. are actual skeletons of dinosaurs in museums. Many visitors, mainly children, however, do not really know what a dinosaur looked like such as the shape of its body or its skin color. According to the research by Kondo (2006), individuals can see the recreated look of the dinosaur overlaid on the actual skeleton in this AR museum display system, which is primarily for children not only to have a better understanding of a dinosaur’s ap- pearance before but also to think scientifically. AR in Gaming AR Gaming is now particularly relevant to education and training in both academic and corporate venues. The Horizon Report (2010) said, “AR games that are based in the real world Figure 8. and augmented with networked data can give Students who participated in the history role-playing game “Re- educators powerful new ways to show relation- living the Revolution” with AR technology (Schrier, 2005). Image ships and connections between the real life and by courtesy of Karen L. Schrier.18 TechTrends • March/April 2012 Volume 56, Number 2
  • Conclusion educational AR, it is possible that education and training-oriented AR can improve the ex- The future of AR as a visualization technol- tent and quality of information in both schoology looks bright, as shown by the interest gen- and business settings by making education anderated in business and industrial circles as well training environments more educational, pro-as discussed in popular periodicals and research ductive, and contextual. In this perspective,papers in the education and training fields. Many there seem to be many contextual elementsquestions still linger in terms of efficiency and possibly embedded in educational AR applica-when compared to traditional methods, particu- tions in order to enhance the quality of educa-larly given the investments needed in research tion and training by producing and deliveringand design. However, there is much optimism rich, constructive, and gainful content. For in-of AR in education and training for the future. stance, Geo tag information for historical andNew technologies and information communica- cultural heritages could be connected as well astions are not only powerful and compact enough annotation regarding complex physical objectsto deliver AR experiences via personal comput- and artifacts could readily be added to AR toolsers and mobile devices but also well developed in both business and school venues.and sophisticated to combine real world with Efficiency and effectiveness. There is theaugmented information in interactively seam- potential that AR can promote the efficiency ofless ways. education and training in academic and corpo-The Future of AR in Education and Training rate surroundings by providing information at the right time and right place and offering rich Several cutting-edge AR applications to date content with computer-generated 3D imagery.have been mostly developed for location-based AR may appeal to constructivist notions of edu-information, social network services, and enter- cation where students take control of their owntainment. New AR tools for other purposes such learning and could provide opportunities foras education and training, however, will continue more authentic education and training be developed as the technology becomes more Besides, there are no real consequences if mis-highly evolved and advanced than ever before. takes are made during skills training in terms ofA considerable number of professionals and re- dangerous and hazardous work environments.searchers from the field of education and train- As the results of several studies have shown,ing science predict that simple AR applications AR systems can provide motivating, entertain-in education will be realized within a few years. ing, and engaging environments conducive for Interactive education. It is highly likely that learning. In addition, AR applications in edu-AR can make educational environments more cational settings are attractive, stimulating, andproductive, pleasurable, and interactive than exciting for students and provide effective andever before. AR not only has the power to en- efficient supports for the users.gage a learner in a variety of interactive ways that AR keywords in the future. There are sev-have never been possible before but also can pro- eral keywords about AR in the future referredvide each individual with one’s unique discovery to by a large number of professionals and re-path with rich content from computer-generated searchers in the field of AR in education andthree dimensional environments and models. considered as the results of the developments Simplicity. As shown in a great deal of pre- of AR in the coming years. These include ARvious research and professionals’ opinions, AR sensor and software technology for the stan-could probably be focused on simplicity and ease dardization of existing mobile devices, growingof providing education and training experiences, power of mobile technology and devices, andso that learners can accept knowledge and skills the improvement of head-mounted displayswith 3D simulations generated by computers and and other AR hardware.other electronic devices. In addition to that, re-lated industries and technologies, such as com- Future Works in Training with AR.puter and mobile industries, information and AR systems and applications have been de-communication technologies, and Internet net- veloped and applied to many educational fieldswork infrastructures, including both wired and such as AR chemistry, biology, mathematics,wireless services, possibly enable AR in educa- and history in K-12 educations and mechani-tion and training to be much more straightfor- cal engineering in higher education. On theward and succinct to approach and utilize than other hand, relatively few studies have beenever before. done for the adoption and the usability of AR Contextual information. In the view of systems and innovations in industrial train-many professionals and experts in the field of ing. Both military training and manufactur-Volume 56, Number 2 TechTrends • March/April 2012 19
  • ing maintenance works are the only applicable be a good idea that OSH training with the as- areas of AR to date. However, as a number of sistance of the AR technology can be enhanced professionals and researchers positively stated in terms of rich content and empirical practices on the future possibility of AR in business sec- and might be improved in the aspect of the ef- tors in their studies, AR in industrial venues has fectiveness of training for managers and work- the potential for the expansion of its extent into ers. Whole changes on training materials and other business areas such as manufacturing, ser- systems of industrial settings are definitely out vices, government-related sections, and other of the question. However, some parts of indus- industrial settings. Among them, there may be trial trainings could be alternated into three-di- a good possibility that AR can be applied to mensional content and environments generated occupational safety and health (OSH) sectors. by AR techniques. For instance, within an em- AR could be adopted into safety inspection in pirically enhanced AR work environment, that power plants, chemical plants, and oil refiner- is more advanced and evolved than the virtual ies, OSH education for managers and employees reality (VR) in the perspectives of graphics, ver- with computer-generated 3D environments, as satility, and portability, users can experience real well as AR games and simulations about hazard- risks and potential hazards, which are sporadic ous materials handling. and ubiquitous around any workplaces, by pro- Safety inspection with AR. There are no actively discovering those dangerous situations more important tasks than safety inspections, in the real worksites with an AR goggle or other especially in power plants and oil refineries. AR devices. This example especially belongs to Accidents that can happen in those factories dangerous and hazardous workplaces where an might be more catastrophic and pernicious accident that could happen in the real world is than anything else. Most safety supervisors and considerably detrimental, harmful, and poison- managers have been doing their duties in tra- ous. When it comes to safety training materials, ditional ways, which include using paper-based it is a definite possibility that AR technologies checklists and on-site inspections on an offline- can make safety training media, such as booklets, based scheduling. If AR technologies were applied posters, videos, and other content, much more to the safety inspections on power stations and productive and fruitful than ever before. By vir- oil refineries, the regular safety checkups may tue of that rich training content with AR tech- be more efficient and advanced than the conven- niques, the owners of companies may boost the tional approaches. For example, safety directors efficacy of safety trainings in their enterprises. put all information about a power plant, such In addition, the workers of corporations might as what it consists of, the history of inspection uncomplicatedly accept their training skills and records, regular inspection schedules and other be aware of the degree of risks and hazards that additional metadata of a power station, followed may have been ignored and ambiguous before in by creating the metadata markers of location their workplaces. Nonetheless, AR safety train- and content about a power plant, which will ing materials have the same issues as the safety be attached or posted on a certain building inspection, which are the developing and sus- or title of a plant, to communicate with and taining cost of AR content for safety drills in re- be read by electronic handheld devices such lating workplaces. as a smart phone and a tablet pc. Subsequently, Future of safety consulting and training. when a safety manager inspects factories and As referred in this paper, it is a definite possibil- equipment around a power station, a manager ity that safety inspection and training are poten- can see and know what is needed and what has tial fields that AR technologies may be applied to been done at a certain factory by scanning a and are almost the same as AR in education and marker attached on the nameplate of a build- other business settings is likely to be. However, ing with a smart phone. This safety inspection it is certain that a few issues on developing and scenario, however, has some prerequisites about adopting AR systems in real educational settings establishing an AR system and maintaining should be answered in advance of the actual ap- the consistency of the AR system, which need plication and adoption. Those problems are how to be met beforehand. With solving these two AR in education thrives in the real world and issues, the safety inspection system using AR how AR systems and materials improve the ef- techniques might be worthy of the consider- fectiveness and efficiency of instruction in both ation as an alternative way to improve the time- corporate and academic venues. In conclusion, and cost-efficiency of safety inspections. further studies are needed to examine solutions Safety training with AR. In the same con- for the cost- and efficiency-related issues and to text as safety inspections employing AR, it might draw more attention from governmental and20 TechTrends • March/April 2012 Volume 56, Number 2
  • corporate settings with financial supports to AR Kaufmann, H. (2009). Dynamic differential geometry inin education and training. education. Journal for Geometry and Graphics, 13(2), 131-144.Kangdon Lee ( has been working Kaufmann, H., & Dünser, A. (2007). Summary of usabil-for Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) ity evaluations of an educational augmented realityfor 10 years as a safety consultant and an instructional de- application. Second International Conference, ICVRsigner in Korea, and is currently a graduate student of Edu- 2007. Beijing, China.cational Technology at University of Northern Colorado. His Kerawalla, L., Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S., & Woolard, A.interests include learning and training with Augmented Real- (2006). Making it real: Exploring the potential ofity, collaborative learning, learning 2.0, and social networking augmented reality for teaching primary school sci-for learning. ence. Virtual Reality , 10(3-4), 163-174. 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