1.	  General	  ideas	  on	  technology	  Today,	  I	  have	  5	  plans	  to	  tell	  you	  about	  Augmented	  Reality	  i...
The	   development	   of	   information	   and	   web	   technologies	   made	   this	   AR	   techniques	   meet	   the	 ...
 4.	  Effort	  and	  current	  situation	  So	  far,	  there	  are	  a	  great	  number	  of	  studies	  on	  applying	  A...
been	   possible	   before	   but	   also	   can	   provide	   each	   individual	   with	   one’s	   unique	   discovery	...
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AR In Education Presentation Script (12/06/1020)


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I did my presentation about Augmented Reality in learning and training as the research paper yesterday (12/06/2010). This is AR In Education Presentation Script I used yesterday.

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AR In Education Presentation Script (12/06/1020)

  1. 1. 1.  General  ideas  on  technology  Today,  I  have  5  plans  to  tell  you  about  Augmented  Reality  in  learning  and  training.  First  of  all,  I  will  give  you  some  general  ideas  about  technology  for  your  attention.  Subsequently,  I  will  tell  you  about  the   definition   of   Augmented   Reality,   followed   by   its   applying   to   education.   Effort   and   current  situation  of  AR  in  learning  and  training  will  be  told  as  the  4th  part  of  my  presentation.  Finally,  I  will  speak  to  you  about  the  future  of  AR  in  learning  and  training  and  some  more.  Let’s  start  with  the  1st  part  of  my  presentation,  ‘General  ideas  on  technology’.    Speaking  of  the  future  technology  in  late  19th  century.  There  was  a  U.S.  Mayor  in  a  wild  west  town,  when   he   saw   Alexander   Graham   Bells   new   invention   -­‐   the   telephone   -­‐   demonstrated   for   the   first  time,  the  mayor  said  ‘One  day  every  town  in  America  will  have  a  telephone!  In   20th   century,   after   Internet   had   been   introduced   to   public   and   was   getting   its   popularity   in   the  world.  Many  professionals  often  said  in  1989  ‘The  future  is  multi-­‐media’.  In  1999,  ‘the  future  is  the  web’.  Last  year,  2009,  many  experts  in  technology  said  ‘the  future  is  smart  mobile.’  As  they  predicted,  what  they  said  came  true.  Multimedia  brought  the  world  into  the  classroom.    And  smart  technologies  will  take  the  classroom  into  the  world.    In   this   aspect,   the   fashion   of   a   family   in   a   living   room   has   been   changed.   In   the   past,   family   members  get  together  and  watch  a  black  and  white  TV.  That  was  ‘We  are  family’  at  that  time.  But,   now   this   shows   what   a   family   is.   That   is,   Wii   are   family.   These   days,   family   members   gather  together  in  a  living  room  and  play  a  Wii  game  together.  Likewise,  technologies  are  changing  so  fast.  Many  experts  say  about  the  change  of  technologies  like  next  slides.    Dave   Cormier   who   is   an   educational   technologist   at   University   of   Prince   Edward   Island   in   Canada  mentioned   in   his   blog   that   ‘The   present   speed   of   information   based   on   new   technologies   has  undermined  traditional  expert  driven  processes  of  knowledge  development  and  dissemination.  Another   expert   in   the   educational   technology,   George   Siemens   who   is   an   educational   strategist   and   a  researcher   at   Athabasca   University   in   Canada   also   said   about   technology   and   information.   He   said  ‘We  simply  have  too  much  information  and  we  can’t  make  sense  of  it  all.  It  changes  too  quickly.’’    In   this   regard,   as   technologies   are   changing   and   developing   so   fast,   the   types   of   learning   are   also  making  their  shifts  into  informal  learning  rather  than  Classroom-­‐based  formal  learning  shown  in  this  picture.  And  with  the  increase  of  informal  learning,  now  that  there  are  many  ways  for  people  to  be  educated  in  informal  learning,  Self-­‐organized  learning  from  the  viewpoint  of  constructivism  is  getting  more  emphasized.    Therefore,   many   professionals   in   the   field   of   educational   technology   and   learning   science   have  mentioned  E-­‐learning  3.0.  There  are  4  focusing  keywords  in  E-­‐learning  3.0.  These  include  distributed  (cloud)   computing,   extended   smart   mobile   technology,   3D   visualization   and   interaction,   and  collaborative  intelligent  filtering.  In  these  4  keywords,  augmented  reality,  which  is  the  topic  of  my  Research  paper,  belongs  to  3D  Visualization  and  interaction.  Then,  let’s  move  on  to  the  definition  of  AR.      2.  What  is  Augmented  Reality?  AR  is  an  environment  &  a  technology  that  allows  computer-­‐generated  virtual  imagery  information  to  be   overlaid   into   a   live   direct   or   indirect   real-­‐world   environment   in   real   time.   Augmented   reality  started  in  the  late  1960s.  By  the  1990s,  augmented  reality  was  being  put  to  use  by  a  number  of  major  companies   for   visualization,   training,   and   other   purposes.   In   1997,   Dr.   Ronald   Azuma,   who   is   a  professor  at  University  of  North  California  as  well  as  a  research  leader  of  Nokia  Research  Center  in  Santa   Monica,   CA,   defined   3   AR   definitions   on   his   thesis.   Those   are   combining   real   and   virtual  information,  being  interactive  in  real  time,  and  being  registered  in  3D.    
  2. 2. The   development   of   information   and   web   technologies   made   this   AR   techniques   meet   the   world  today.  When  people  think  of  AR,  people  often  imagine  these  words  for  AR.  They  are  smart  phone,  GPS,  geo-­‐tagging,  QR  code,  3D,  real  time,  etc.  Let’s   look   over   some   definitions   of   AR   terms.   First,   Gesture   recognition   enables   humans   to   interact  with   mechanical   devices   using   simple   natural   gestures.   I   will   show   you   a   video   that   explains   you  about  gesture-­‐based  computing.  This  is  from  PS3  by  Sony.    The   next   term   is   Geo-­‐tagging.   A   geo-­‐tag   is   a   GPS   coordinate   that   associates   content   such   as   videos,  textual   information,   audio   or   any   user-­‐generated   content   to   a   specific   location.   AR   applications   draw  on   specific   tags   created   by   companies   but   will   also   depend   on   content   that   everyday   users   add  through   Geo-­‐tagging.   Simply,   if   you   are   a   smart   phone   user,   you   can   use   applications   like   Foursquare  or  Yelp  and  put  some  tags  and  extra  information  about  certain  places  you  are  located  in  real  time.    As   a   key   element   of   marker-­‐based   AR,   QR   Code   is   a   matrix   barcode   (or   two-­‐dimensional   code),  readable  by  QR  scanners,  mobile  phones  with  a  camera.  The  code  consists  of  black  modules  arranged  in   a   square   pattern   on   white   background.   The   information   encoded   can   be  text,   URL   or   other   data.   It  triggers   text,   sound,   or   visual   information.     QR   Code   data   capacity.   Numeric   only   Max.   7,089  characters.  Alphanumeric  Max.  4,296  characters.    Binary  (8  bits)  Max.  2,953  bytes.    An   AR   browser   is   used  for  markerless-­‐based  AR.  It  triggers  text,  sound,  or  visuals  in  from  GPS  and  Compass   data.   A   smart   phone’s   camera,   compass,   and   GPS   information   is   needed   to   operate   an   AR  browser.   The   browser   first   locates   the   user   with   GPS   and   compass   of   phone.   Next,   it   retrieves  information   from   online   sources   based   on   those   geographical   coordinates.   The   information   and  graphics  are  then  overlaid  onto  the  camera  view  of  the  smart  phone’s  screen.    Now  we  look  over  the  concept  of  AR  with  reality  vs.  virtuality  continuum  created  by  Milgram  in  1994.  It   shows   where   AR   is   between   real   world   and   virtual   world.   Its   sharing   part   is   called   AR.   The  difference   between   AR   and   AV   in   mixed   reality   is   that   in   AR,   the   virtual   augments   the   real,   on   the  other  hand,  in  AV,  the  real  augments  the  virtual.    In   order   to   apply   AR   in   real   life,   there   are   AR   components   needed   for   individuals   to   have.   For  hardware,   Mobile   devices   (e.g.   smart   phones),   camera,   display   screen   (PCs,   glasses,   phones),network  infrastructure,   location   awareness   (GPS),   attitude   awareness   (accelerometer),   and   Compass   are  required.  In  terms  of  software,  local  applications,  web  services,  and  content  server  are  needed.    Once  it  was  thought  to  require  silly  hats  as  you  see  on  the  screen.  However  relating  technologies  such  as  visual  display,  mobile  technology,  and  network  services  have  been  developed  so  innovatively  and  fast.   So,   for   now,   with   only   a   smart   phone   like   this,   individuals   can   experience   AR   in   real   life.  Technologies   have   brought   down   all   the   resources   of   the   Internet   out   of   cyberspace   and   into  ubiquitous  reality.      3.  Application  to  education  Are  you  with  me  so  far?  Alright  then,  let’s  move  on  the  next  ‘Applying  to  education’.  In  this  section,  I  will  speak  to  you  about  what  AR  is  useful  for  learning  and  training  by  giving  you  6  features   of   AR   in   education.   If   time   is   enough,   I   will   show   you   some   videos   to   improve   your  understanding  about  AR  in  learning  and  training.    First  of  all,  AR  provides  rich  contextual  learning  for  individuals  learning  a  skill.  Second,  it  appeals  to  constructivist   notions   of   education   where   students   take   control   of   their   own   learning.   Third,   AR  provides   opportunities   for   more   authentic   learning   and   appeals   to   multiple   learning   styles.   In  addition,  it  has  the  potential  to  engage  a  learner  in  ways  that  have  never  been  possible  before.  Finally,  AR   can   provide   each   student   with   his/her   own   unique   discovery   path,   as   well   as   there   are   no   real  consequences  if  mistakes  are  made  during  skills  training.  
  3. 3.  4.  Effort  and  current  situation  So  far,  there  are  a  great  number  of  studies  on  applying  AR  into  learning  and  training  in  corporate  and  academic  settings.  Among  them,  I  will  tell  you  some  of  the  examples  that  had  been  striven  to  apply  AR  into  education  in  this  4th  part  of  my  presentation.  First,   AR   can   be   applied   to   astronomy   study.   A   student   with   head-­‐mounted   display   can   see   the  relationship  between  the  sun  and  the  earth  with  3D  modeling  as  you  see  on  the  screen.  Secondly,   a   student   can   study   on   the   structure   of   atom   and   molecular   with   augmented   chemistry  workbench.  To  do  this,  a  student  needs  a  platform  (a  table)  with  a  rear-­‐projection  screen,  a  booklet,  a  cube,  and  a  gripper  in  order  to  see  how  and  what  a  molecular  consists  of  in  augmented  reality.  Third,  it  is  possible  that  AR  could  be  employed  to  show  students  how  real  organs  of  a  human  body  look.  This  AR  model  is  used  in  some  schools  in  UK  right  now.  AR   physics   is   the   4th   example   to   show   you   today.   This   AR   example   can   show   students   how   real  objects  respond  to  a  movement  of  an  object  in  real  life.  Lastly   in   educational   settings,   AR   can   improve   the   realism   of   a   book,   especially   in   wild   world  creatures  such  as  animals,  fishes,  and  natural  phenomena.    Likewise,   AR   can   be   utilized   in   business   venues   as   well.   First   of   all,   individuals   can   use   AR   in  historical  sites,  especially  in  ruined  heritage  of  ancient  times.  It  is  called  ‘ARCHEOGUIDE’,  Augmented  Reality-­‐based   Cultural   Heritage   On-­‐site   GUIDE.   ARCHEOGUIDE   is   the   first   results   of   an   AR,   Mobile  Computing  system  in  cultural  heritage  sites  can  be  used  in  cultural  heritage  sites  to  show  visitors  the  original  images  and  inform  travelers  of  its  history  or  episodes  with  3D  effects  in  the  right  historical  sites.      Military  training  is  a  very  active  part  of  using  AR  for  their  training  purposes.  With  the  assistance  of  AR  technology,  military  mechanical  staff  can  conduct  their  routine  maintenance  tasks  in  a  bulletproof  vehicle   more   safely   and   conveniently.   To   do   this,   there   are   several   required   devices   and   apparatuses  such  as  a  tracked  head-­‐worn  display  to  augment  a  mechanic’s  natural  view  with  text,  labels,  arrows,  and  animated  sequences  designed  to  facilitate  task  comprehension,  location,  and  execution.    Finally   in   corporate   settings,   BMW,   one   of   the   famous   German   motor   vehicle   companies,   has   been  interested   in   utilizing  AR  techniques  in  their  car  maintenance  and  repair  divisions  and  developed  an  AR   maintenance   and   repair   system   and   data   goggles.   And   they   are   just   about   to   use   contextually   and  interactively  advanced  AR  technology  as  a  means  to  support  their  service  staff  in  their  complex  and  technical  work  environments.        5.  Conclusion  The  future  of  Augmented  Reality  in  learning  and  training  as  a  visualization  technology  looks  bright,  as  shown  by  the  interest  generated  in  business  and  industrial  circles  as  well  as  discussed  in  popular  periodicals  and  research  papers  of  learning  and  training  field.  But  many  questions  still  linger  about  its   use   in   learning   and   training   in   light   of   the   efficiency   between   AR   system   investment   and   the  significance   of   problems   in   both   academic   and   corporate   settings   as   well   as   the   effectiveness  between   using   AR   technology   and   traditional   learning   and   training   methods.   I   suppose,   however,  there  are  more  optimistic  chances  of  AR  in  learning  and  training  in  the  future  than  negative  aspects  of  AR  in  business  and  school  venues.    Before  concluding  my  presentation  today,  I  will  give  you  4  key  features  of  AR  in  the  coming  years  that  make  the  future  of  AR  in  learning  and  training  brighter  and  more  positive  rather  than  weak  points  of  AR  in  education.    The  first  attractive  point  of  AR  in  education  in  the  future  is  ‘Interactive’.    It  is  highly  likely  that  AR  can  make   educational   environments   more   productive,   pleasurable,   and   interactive   than   ever   before.  Because  AR  not  only  has  the  power  to  engage  a  learner  in  a  variety  of  interactive  ways  that  has  never  
  4. 4. been   possible   before   but   also   can   provide   each   individual   with   one’s   unique   discovery   path   with   rich  content  from  computer-­‐generated  three  dimensional  environments  and  models.      Second   of   all,   the   majority   of   AR   systems   so   far   required   us   to   wear   awkward   and   heavy   head-­‐mounted  display  to  use  AR  in  real  life.  However,  as  shown  in  a  great  deal  of  previous  research  and  professionals’  references,  AR  could  probably  be  focused  on  simplicity  and  ease  of  providing  learning  and   training   experiences,   so   that   students   and   trainees   can   uncomplicatedly   accept   knowledge   and  skills  with  3D  simulations  generated  by  computers  and  other  electronic  devices.  In  addition  to  that,  related   industries   and   technologies,   such   as   computer   and   mobile   industries,   information   and  communication   technologies,   and   Internet   network   infrastructures   possibly   enable   AR   in   learning  and  training  to  be  much  more  straightforward  and  succinct  to  approach  and  utilize  than  ever  before.      The   third   bright   feature   is   ‘Contextual’.   ‘Contextual’   means   applying   what   you   know   to   a   current  situation  or  problem.  In  the  view  of  many  professionals  and  experts  in  the  field  of  educational  AR,  it  is  possible  that  learning  and  training-­‐oriented  AR  can  improve  the  extent  and  quality  of  information  in  both  school  and  business  settings  by  making  learning  and  training  environments  more  educational,  productive,  and  contextual.  In  this  perspective,  there  seem  to  be  many  contextual  elements  possibly  embedded  in  educational  AR  applications  in  order  to  enhance  the  quality  of  learning  and  training  by  producing  and  delivering  rich,  constructive,  and  gainful  content.  For  instance,  Geo  tag  information  for  historical  and  cultural  heritages  could  be  connected  as  well  as  annotation  regarding  complex  physical  objects  and  artifacts  could  readily  be  added  to  AR  tools  in  both  business  and  school  venues.      Finally,  There  is  the  potential  that  AR  can  promote  the  efficiency  of  learning  and  training  in  academic  and  corporate  surroundings  by  providing  information  at  the  right  time  and  right  place  and  offering  rich   content   with   computer-­‐generated   3D   imagery.     AR   may   appeal   to   constructivist   notions   of  education   where   students   take   control   of   their   own   learning   and   could   provide   opportunities   for  more  authentic  learning  and  training  styles.  Besides,  there  are  no  real  consequences  if  mistakes  are  made  during  skills  training  in  terms  of  dangerous  and  hazardous  work  environments.      Last  but  not  least,  occupational  safety  and  health  matters  of  employees  in  workplaces  could  be  one  of  fields  that  AR  training  thrives  on  in  the  future.  When  it  comes  to  OSH  consulting,  there  are  no  more  important   tasks   than   safety   inspections   especially   in   power   plants   and   oil   refineries.   It   is   because  accidents   that   can   happen   in   those   factories   might   be   more   catastrophic   and   pernicious   than  anything  else.  AR  can  be  applied  to  OSH  inspections  as  AR  in  other  businesses  could  be.  For  example,  safety   directors   put   all   information   about   a   power   plant,   such   as   what   it   consists   of,   the   history   of  inspection   records,   regular   inspection   schedules   and   other   additional   metadata   of   a   power   station,  followed  by  creating  the  metadata  markers  of  location  and  content  about  a  power  plant,  which  will  be  attached  or  posted  on  a  certain  building  or  title  of  a  plant,  in  order  to  communicate  with  and  be  read   by   electronic   handheld   devices   such   as   a   smart   phone   and   a   tablet   pc.   Subsequently,   when   a  safety   manager   inspects   factories   and   equipment   around   a   power   station,   a   manager   can   see   and  know  what  is  needed  and  what  has  been  done  at  a  certain  factory  by  scanning  a  marker  attached  on  the  nameplate  of  a  building  with  a  smart  phone.  This  safety  inspection  scenario,  however,  has  some  prerequisites   about   establishing   an   AR   system   and   maintaining   the   consistency   of   the   AR   system,  which  need  to  be  met  beforehand.  With  solving  these  two  issues,  the  safety  inspection  system  using  AR  techniques  might  be  worthy  of  the  consideration  as  an  alternative  way  to  improve  the  time-­‐  and  cost-­‐efficiency  of  safety  inspections.    Likewise,  AR  technologies  can  be  employed  in  OSH  training  as  it  could  be  applied  to  OSH  inspections.    This  brings  me  to  the  end  of  my  presentation  today.  If  you  have  any  questions  about  my  presentation  ‘Learning  and  training  with  AR’,  I  am  here  to  answer  those  questions  you  may  have.    Since   there   is   no   more   questions,   I   will   finish   my   presentation   today   by   saying   ‘thank   you   for  listening  to  my  presentation’.