1. General ideas on technology Today, I have 5 plans to tell you about Augmented Reality in learning and training. First of all, I will give you some general ideas about technology for your attention. Subsequently, I will tell you about the definition of Augmented Reality, followed by its applying to education. Effort and current situation of AR in learning and training will be told as the 4th part of my presentation. Finally, I will speak to you about the future of AR in learning and training and some more. Let’s start with the 1st part of my presentation, ‘General ideas on technology’. Speaking of the future technology in late 19th century. There was a U.S. Mayor in a wild west town, when he saw Alexander Graham Bells new invention -‐ the telephone -‐ demonstrated for the first time, the mayor said ‘One day every town in America will have a telephone! In 20th century, after Internet had been introduced to public and was getting its popularity in the world. Many professionals often said in 1989 ‘The future is multi-‐media’. In 1999, ‘the future is the web’. Last year, 2009, many experts in technology said ‘the future is smart mobile.’ As they predicted, what they said came true. Multimedia brought the world into the classroom. And smart technologies will take the classroom into the world. In this aspect, the fashion of a family in a living room has been changed. In the past, family members get together and watch a black and white TV. That was ‘We are family’ at that time. But, now this shows what a family is. That is, Wii are family. These days, family members gather together in a living room and play a Wii game together. Likewise, technologies are changing so fast. Many experts say about the change of technologies like next slides. Dave Cormier who is an educational technologist at University of Prince Edward Island in Canada mentioned in his blog that ‘The present speed of information based on new technologies has undermined traditional expert driven processes of knowledge development and dissemination. Another expert in the educational technology, George Siemens who is an educational strategist and a researcher at Athabasca University in Canada also said about technology and information. He said ‘We simply have too much information and we can’t make sense of it all. It changes too quickly.’’ In this regard, as technologies are changing and developing so fast, the types of learning are also making their shifts into informal learning rather than Classroom-‐based formal learning shown in this picture. And with the increase of informal learning, now that there are many ways for people to be educated in informal learning, Self-‐organized learning from the viewpoint of constructivism is getting more emphasized. Therefore, many professionals in the field of educational technology and learning science have mentioned E-‐learning 3.0. There are 4 focusing keywords in E-‐learning 3.0. These include distributed (cloud) computing, extended smart mobile technology, 3D visualization and interaction, and collaborative intelligent filtering. In these 4 keywords, augmented reality, which is the topic of my Research paper, belongs to 3D Visualization and interaction. Then, let’s move on to the definition of AR. 2. What is Augmented Reality? AR is an environment & a technology that allows computer-‐generated virtual imagery information to be overlaid into a live direct or indirect real-‐world environment in real time. Augmented reality started in the late 1960s. By the 1990s, augmented reality was being put to use by a number of major companies for visualization, training, and other purposes. In 1997, Dr. Ronald Azuma, who is a professor at University of North California as well as a research leader of Nokia Research Center in Santa Monica, CA, defined 3 AR definitions on his thesis. Those are combining real and virtual information, being interactive in real time, and being registered in 3D.
The development of information and web technologies made this AR techniques meet the world today. When people think of AR, people often imagine these words for AR. They are smart phone, GPS, geo-‐tagging, QR code, 3D, real time, etc. Let’s look over some definitions of AR terms. First, Gesture recognition enables humans to interact with mechanical devices using simple natural gestures. I will show you a video that explains you about gesture-‐based computing. This is from PS3 by Sony. The next term is Geo-‐tagging. A geo-‐tag is a GPS coordinate that associates content such as videos, textual information, audio or any user-‐generated content to a specific location. AR applications draw on specific tags created by companies but will also depend on content that everyday users add through Geo-‐tagging. Simply, if you are a smart phone user, you can use applications like Foursquare or Yelp and put some tags and extra information about certain places you are located in real time. As a key element of marker-‐based AR, QR Code is a matrix barcode (or two-‐dimensional code), readable by QR scanners, mobile phones with a camera. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on white background. The information encoded can be text, URL or other data. It triggers text, sound, or visual information. QR Code data capacity. Numeric only Max. 7,089 characters. Alphanumeric Max. 4,296 characters. Binary (8 bits) Max. 2,953 bytes. An AR browser is used for markerless-‐based AR. It triggers text, sound, or visuals in from GPS and Compass data. A smart phone’s camera, compass, and GPS information is needed to operate an AR browser. The browser first locates the user with GPS and compass of phone. Next, it retrieves information from online sources based on those geographical coordinates. The information and graphics are then overlaid onto the camera view of the smart phone’s screen. Now we look over the concept of AR with reality vs. virtuality continuum created by Milgram in 1994. It shows where AR is between real world and virtual world. Its sharing part is called AR. The difference between AR and AV in mixed reality is that in AR, the virtual augments the real, on the other hand, in AV, the real augments the virtual. In order to apply AR in real life, there are AR components needed for individuals to have. For hardware, Mobile devices (e.g. smart phones), camera, display screen (PCs, glasses, phones),network infrastructure, location awareness (GPS), attitude awareness (accelerometer), and Compass are required. In terms of software, local applications, web services, and content server are needed. Once it was thought to require silly hats as you see on the screen. However relating technologies such as visual display, mobile technology, and network services have been developed so innovatively and fast. So, for now, with only a smart phone like this, individuals can experience AR in real life. Technologies have brought down all the resources of the Internet out of cyberspace and into ubiquitous reality. 3. Application to education Are you with me so far? Alright then, let’s move on the next ‘Applying to education’. In this section, I will speak to you about what AR is useful for learning and training by giving you 6 features of AR in education. If time is enough, I will show you some videos to improve your understanding about AR in learning and training. First of all, AR provides rich contextual learning for individuals learning a skill. Second, it appeals to constructivist notions of education where students take control of their own learning. Third, AR provides opportunities for more authentic learning and appeals to multiple learning styles. In addition, it has the potential to engage a learner in ways that have never been possible before. Finally, AR can provide each student with his/her own unique discovery path, as well as there are no real consequences if mistakes are made during skills training.
4. Effort and current situation So far, there are a great number of studies on applying AR into learning and training in corporate and academic settings. Among them, I will tell you some of the examples that had been striven to apply AR into education in this 4th part of my presentation. First, AR can be applied to astronomy study. A student with head-‐mounted display can see the relationship between the sun and the earth with 3D modeling as you see on the screen. Secondly, a student can study on the structure of atom and molecular with augmented chemistry workbench. To do this, a student needs a platform (a table) with a rear-‐projection screen, a booklet, a cube, and a gripper in order to see how and what a molecular consists of in augmented reality. Third, it is possible that AR could be employed to show students how real organs of a human body look. This AR model is used in some schools in UK right now. AR physics is the 4th example to show you today. This AR example can show students how real objects respond to a movement of an object in real life. Lastly in educational settings, AR can improve the realism of a book, especially in wild world creatures such as animals, fishes, and natural phenomena. Likewise, AR can be utilized in business venues as well. First of all, individuals can use AR in historical sites, especially in ruined heritage of ancient times. It is called ‘ARCHEOGUIDE’, Augmented Reality-‐based Cultural Heritage On-‐site GUIDE. ARCHEOGUIDE is the first results of an AR, Mobile Computing system in cultural heritage sites can be used in cultural heritage sites to show visitors the original images and inform travelers of its history or episodes with 3D effects in the right historical sites. Military training is a very active part of using AR for their training purposes. With the assistance of AR technology, military mechanical staff can conduct their routine maintenance tasks in a bulletproof vehicle more safely and conveniently. To do this, there are several required devices and apparatuses such as a tracked head-‐worn display to augment a mechanic’s natural view with text, labels, arrows, and animated sequences designed to facilitate task comprehension, location, and execution. Finally in corporate settings, BMW, one of the famous German motor vehicle companies, has been interested in utilizing AR techniques in their car maintenance and repair divisions and developed an AR maintenance and repair system and data goggles. And they are just about to use contextually and interactively advanced AR technology as a means to support their service staff in their complex and technical work environments. 5. Conclusion The future of Augmented Reality in learning and training as a visualization technology looks bright, as shown by the interest generated in business and industrial circles as well as discussed in popular periodicals and research papers of learning and training field. But many questions still linger about its use in learning and training in light of the efficiency between AR system investment and the significance of problems in both academic and corporate settings as well as the effectiveness between using AR technology and traditional learning and training methods. I suppose, however, there are more optimistic chances of AR in learning and training in the future than negative aspects of AR in business and school venues. Before concluding my presentation today, I will give you 4 key features of AR in the coming years that make the future of AR in learning and training brighter and more positive rather than weak points of AR in education. The first attractive point of AR in education in the future is ‘Interactive’. It is highly likely that AR can make educational environments more productive, pleasurable, and interactive than ever before. Because AR not only has the power to engage a learner in a variety of interactive ways that has never
been possible before but also can provide each individual with one’s unique discovery path with rich content from computer-‐generated three dimensional environments and models. Second of all, the majority of AR systems so far required us to wear awkward and heavy head-‐mounted display to use AR in real life. However, as shown in a great deal of previous research and professionals’ references, AR could probably be focused on simplicity and ease of providing learning and training experiences, so that students and trainees can uncomplicatedly accept knowledge and skills with 3D simulations generated by computers and other electronic devices. In addition to that, related industries and technologies, such as computer and mobile industries, information and communication technologies, and Internet network infrastructures possibly enable AR in learning and training to be much more straightforward and succinct to approach and utilize than ever before. The third bright feature is ‘Contextual’. ‘Contextual’ means applying what you know to a current situation or problem. In the view of many professionals and experts in the field of educational AR, it is possible that learning and training-‐oriented AR can improve the extent and quality of information in both school and business settings by making learning and training environments more educational, productive, and contextual. In this perspective, there seem to be many contextual elements possibly embedded in educational AR applications in order to enhance the quality of learning and training by producing and delivering rich, constructive, and gainful content. For instance, Geo tag information for historical and cultural heritages could be connected as well as annotation regarding complex physical objects and artifacts could readily be added to AR tools in both business and school venues. Finally, There is the potential that AR can promote the efficiency of learning and training in academic and corporate surroundings by providing information at the right time and right place and offering rich content with computer-‐generated 3D imagery. AR may appeal to constructivist notions of education where students take control of their own learning and could provide opportunities for more authentic learning and training styles. Besides, there are no real consequences if mistakes are made during skills training in terms of dangerous and hazardous work environments. Last but not least, occupational safety and health matters of employees in workplaces could be one of fields that AR training thrives on in the future. When it comes to OSH consulting, there are no more important tasks than safety inspections especially in power plants and oil refineries. It is because accidents that can happen in those factories might be more catastrophic and pernicious than anything else. AR can be applied to OSH inspections as AR in other businesses could be. For example, safety directors put all information about a power plant, such as what it consists of, the history of inspection records, regular inspection schedules and other additional metadata of a power station, followed by creating the metadata markers of location and content about a power plant, which will be attached or posted on a certain building or title of a plant, in order to communicate with and be read by electronic handheld devices such as a smart phone and a tablet pc. Subsequently, when a safety manager inspects factories and equipment around a power station, a manager can see and know what is needed and what has been done at a certain factory by scanning a marker attached on the nameplate of a building with a smart phone. This safety inspection scenario, however, has some prerequisites about establishing an AR system and maintaining the consistency of the AR system, which need to be met beforehand. With solving these two issues, the safety inspection system using AR techniques might be worthy of the consideration as an alternative way to improve the time-‐ and cost-‐efficiency of safety inspections. Likewise, AR technologies can be employed in OSH training as it could be applied to OSH inspections. This brings me to the end of my presentation today. If you have any questions about my presentation ‘Learning and training with AR’, I am here to answer those questions you may have. Since there is no more questions, I will finish my presentation today by saying ‘thank you for listening to my presentation’.