Applied Instructional Design November 2011


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The Journal of Applied Instructional Design by AECT
Issue 2 2011

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Applied Instructional Design November 2011

  1. 1. Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 ∙ November 2011 This Issue: With Scholarship and Practice in Mind: The Case Study as Research Method by Paula Dawidowicz Instructional Design and the Training of Chaplains for Combat Medical Ministry by Zachary Tippetts Educating for an Instructional Design and Technology Future by Sonja A. Irlbeck Book Review: The Next Generation of Distance Education: Unconstrained Learning. by Sonja A. Irlbeck Review of Instructional Materials: Identities: English is Part of Who I Am. 4-Semester English Series for Mexican High Schools. by Barbara S. S. Hongan Association for Educational Communications and Technology publication View this journal at
  2. 2. Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 ∙ November 2011Contents: With Scholarship and Practice in Mind: The 5 Case Study as Research Method by Paula Dawidowicz Instructional Design and the Training of Chap- 13 lains for Combat Medical Ministry by Zachary Tippetts Educating for an Instructional Design and 19 Technology Future by Sonja A. Irlbeck Book Review: The Next Generation of Distance 25 Education: Unconstrained Learning. by Sonja A. Irlbeck Review of Instructional Materials: Identities: 26 English is Part of Who I Am. 4-Semester English Series for Mexican High Schools. by Barbara S. S. Hong The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 1
  3. 3. About ISSN: 2160-5289 JAID STAFF The purpose of this journal is to bridge the gap between theory and practice by provid- Senior Editor: Leslie Moller, Ph.D. ing reflective scholar-practitioners a means Associate Editor: Wilhelmina Savanye, Ph.D. Assistant Editor: Benjamin Erlandson, Ph.D. for publishing articles related the field of In- Contributing Editor: Jason Huett, Ph.D. structional Design. Production Editor: Don Robison JAID’s goals are to encourage and nurture the EDITORIAL BOARD development of the reflective practitioner as well as collaborations between academics Andy Gibbons, Ph.D., Brigham Young University and practitioners as a means of disseminating David Richard Moore, Researcher and Author Wilhelmina Savenye, Ph.D., Arizona State University and developing new ideas in instructional de- MJ (Mary Jean) Bishop, Ph.D., Lehigh University sign. The resulting articles should inform Rob Foshay, Ph.D., Walden University and The Foshay both the study and practice of instructional Group design. James Ellsworth, Ph.D., U.S. Naval War College David Wiley, Ph.D., Brigham Young University Ellen Wagner, Ph.D., Sage Road Solutions, LLC REVIEW BOARD JAID is an online open-access journal and is offered without cost to users. Chris Dede, Ph.D., Harvard University Gary Morrison, Ed.D., Old Dominion University View this journal at: Brent Wilson, Ph.D., University of Colorado Denver Mike Simonson, Ph.D., Nova Southeastern University MaryFriend Shepard, Ph.D., Walden University David Wiley, Ph.D., Brigham Young University Robert Bernard, Ph.D., Concordia University For questions contact Don Robison at Douglas Harvey, Ph.D., Stockton University Nan Thornton, Ph.D., Capella University2 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  4. 4. 2011 AECT International ConventionCelebrate 3.0: Design.Learn.CommunityAECTs Annual International ConventionNovember 8-12, 2011Jacksonville, Florida This year’s convention theme is Celebrate 3.0: Design.Learn.Community. The rapid evolution of Web 2.0 technol- ogies has generated a level of communication and interaction never before possible. In response, AECT 2011 seeks to explore the trans- formational potential that these innovations hold for education, as well as share current research and best practices related to these de- velopments.HIGHLIGHTS!Tuesday, November 8 – Pre-convention Workshops, Bus tour to St. Augustine, thenations oldest permanent settlement, features magnificent attractions and historiclandmarks at virtually every turn.Wednesday, November 9 – Pre-convention workshops, two-hour Walking Tour ofJacksonville, morning tours to the Sally Corporation, a Jacksonville-based companythat specializes in animatronics. The Ritz Theatre and Museum which celebrates therich legacy of Jacksonville’s African-American community. Opening General Session(4:45pm-6:00pm) and AECT Welcome Reception. (6:00pm-8:00pm)Thursday, November 10 –Breakfast with Champions, Concurrent Sessions, 2NDGeneral Session, Affiliate Reception, Annual International Dinner and Auction,Friday, November 11 –Concurrent Sessions, AECT Member Meeting, Joint Universi-ty Reception, AECT Party at the Landing, 8pm (still tentative)Saturday, November 12- Concurrent Sessions, Post Convention Workshops, Tours scheduledto the World Golf Hall of Fame and the IMAX Theater, “or” a half day of shopping to the St. Au-gustine Premium Outlets. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 3
  5. 5. 4 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  6. 6. With Scholarship and Practice in Mind:The Case Study as Research Method Paula Dawidowicz, Walden University Abstract: Unlike theoretical scholars who seek knowledge to expand humanity’s (or their) understanding of a topic, scholar practitioners seek knowledge that can be applied to understand change or create change in a spe- cific phenomenon. Although many of the same research methods can be used by both groups of educational scholars, and although research designs are determined in large part by the research questions being asked, sev- eral research methods can prove most useful for scholar practitioners examining learning environments. One, the case study, stands out as perhaps the most versatile and researcher-friendly, though. A case study, bounded by specific location and topic parameters, can allow solid evaluation of the workings of a program or teaching method. It can also allow consideration of specific needs to address an educational situation. This article brief- ly discusses the nature and purpose of different types of research, then focuses on the nature and usefulness of the case study methodology. Keywords: case study, practitioner research, evaluation, program evaluation The point of research for an instructional de- search agenda that has involved previous explanatory sign scholar-practitioner is not to discover knowledge and exploratory research in some form. Survey re- in a vacuum for the sake of having that knowledge. It search, sometimes used in quantitative analysis and is to gain knowledge to create change in instructional sometimes used descriptively, allows researchers to design—to develop better programs, identify student gain a concept of the environment (people, circum- needs, determine the usefulness of an intervention, or stances) related to the phenomenon they are studying. understand some other aspect of instructional designs Mixed methods research, a quantitative-qualitative re- in relation to educational environments. As such, in- search hybrid, allows researchers to gain generalizable structional design researchers attempt to gain a clear and in-depth insight through analysis of a small portion enough picture of what is occurring related to a specific of quantitative data and a small portion of qualitative design to be able to draw logical conclusions about data which, because of the design’s nature, must ad- instructional design activities. dress tightly focused questions about a narrowed aspect For the scholar-practitioner determined to of a phenomenon in order for researchers to maintain make the most of time and resources, a number of re- design integrity. Qualitative research, limited in some search methods are available, all of which offer both researchers’ eyes by its lack of generalizability, offers benefits and drawbacks. Quantitative research, exam- researchers the flexibility to gain exploratory and ex- ining specific relationships between variables or the planatory insights into numerous questions that could causality of a specific effect through the testing of one not be answered effectively using quantitative or mixed or more hypotheses, has stood the test of time—but is methods designs. most often used at the culmination of an in-depth re- The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 5
  7. 7. Why Choose a Case Study? ies, and conclusions about designs and interventions that can allow researchers to hone phenomena’s usea- Among what are perceived as the qualitative bility and value in multiple situations (Hrabe, 1997).research traditions, case study provides the most flexi- However, since case studies rely on inductive reason-bility for researchers conducting everything from pro- ing to gain transferability (not generalizability) fromgram evaluations to exploratory resource examinations the examined data, researchers do not always valueto even people’s perceptions of their needs in specific case study designs (Merriam, 2002; Stake, 2006; Yin,situations. To illustrate, case studies have been used to 2009).examine the development of cultures (Doron & Rehay, This use of inductive reasoning, as well as2011), to explore effective reporting of results to audi- several other factors, have influenced some researchersences (Greer, 2010), and evaluate methods for teaching to avoid using the design for fear their own researchethics to public health students (Howard, Lothen- results may be called into question. First, researchKline, & Boekeloo, 2004). For instructional design consumers may be concerned that the researchers con-researchers in particular, Uribe, Klein, & Sullivan’s ducting a study may not have been meticulous, con-(2003) examination of the application of transferability cerned instead with interpreting and presenting dataproblems with computer-mediated collaborative learn- skewed to their own purposes rather than objectivelying provides a good example of the flexibility and use- (Yin, 2009). Further, as previously mentioned, re-fulness of a case study design. searchers using case studies gain in depth knowledge about a given bounded case because case studies areConcerns Regarding Case Studies “immersions into one real-life scenario” (Tashakkori & Case studies are often misunderstood and, Teddlie, 2010) and “particularizations” rather thanbecause of those misunderstandings, undervalued and “generalizable” (Stake, 2006). However, this lack ofunder used by researchers. Today’s research landscape generalizability can be seen as a weakness rather than atends to be riddled with judgments about the superior strength by some researchers, creating frustration forvalue of different types of research methods (Miles & them when they hope their studies’ results will identifyHuberman, 1994). The decades old debate of whether a “right” answer or conclusion (Yin, 2009). In addi-quantitative research—more objective and applicable tion, the length of time researchers may need to con-to a larger population—is more useful than qualitative duct a case study and the sheer size and complexity ofresearch—focused on rich description of processes and data acquired can also concern researchers and dis-reasons for people’s actions—has been joined by a suade them from considering conducting such studiesthird methodological design, mixed methods, which valuable in relation to other research designs. Finally,combines the two. In the heat of this three-philosophy the emphasis in education research on the establish-research debate, it appears that the value of the versa- ment of causal relationships has created a blind spot intile case study may have, for many, gotten lost (Plano researchers who do not recognize that case study re-Clark & Creswell, 2008). Ironically, Tashakkori and search can fill gaps in understanding about reasons forTeddlie (2010), prominent in the development and causality that may be unexplainable through an experi-refinement of the mixed methods methodology, have mental or quasi-experimental study (Yin 2009).stated that case studies are prime examples of the factthat mixed methods studies are not – in fact, should not Benefits of Case Studiesbe – placed on the design terrain but, instead, “entail or One value of case studies is that, althoughprivilege a particular design” (p. 241). In either case, often considered a qualitative research design, suchthe research landscape continues to evolve, providing studies can actually involve the use of either quantita-increased research design choices to researchers and, in tive or qualitative data or both. Although quantitativethe process, increasingly eclipsing the potential values data are often analyzed in case studies only as descrip-of qualitative research and case studies in particular. tive statistics, that is not always the case and certainly Case studies provide a venue for researchers does not have to be the case. With that kind of flexibil-to expand their understanding of phenomena and ex- ity, researchers can adjust case studies to effectivelyplain the phenomena’s landscapes and development in address a myriad of research situations. Quantitativespecific bounded cases, including why different previ- data sources—designed to include raw statistical com-ously tried instructional designs did or did not work parisons rather than specific predictability relation-(Bouck, 2008). They also allow evaluations, summar-6 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  8. 8. ships—can provide clear snapshots into the numbers negotiated participation in a specific community torelated to results—results teachers, a school, or a dis- allow optimal data collection. They also provide re-trict achieve with incorporation of a specific design searchers the flexibility, when appropriate, to take ad-aspect into the curriculum (Showler, 2000). On the flip vantage of hindsight—analyzing the effects of the pas-side, qualitative data sources—designed to gain in- sage of time—and applying those data to the presentsights into why, how, or under what circumstances a (Guba, 1990; Merriam, 2002).specific event occurs in relation to a phenomenon— Case studies yield thick, rich descriptions ofcan provide insights into under what circumstances the phenomena being researched, highlighting in thethose results will likely occur again (Küçük & Çepni, process the many complexities of a situation and the2005). Studies that combine both aspects, when the factors that can contribute to those complexitiesquestions to be answered require it, can provide com- (Howard, Lothen-Kline, & Boekeloo, 2003). As aprehensive insights into both the what and the how, result, researchers can identify the influence individu-when, where, or why (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009). als have on issues, including differences in attitude andIn addition, this use of broad, multiple data sources how differing attitudes may have impacted overall re-that is a hallmark of qualitative research designs allows sults. Using a wide variety of data sources, amongresearchers to gain in-depth knowledge about a given which can be test scores, observations, interviews, andbounded case—its circumstances, particulars, results, newspaper articles, researchers using a case study de-and impact (Merriam & Associates, 2002; Stake, sign can gain a comprehensive view of deep factors2006). involved in the phenomenon they are studying Perhaps equally valuable is the ability to con- (Merriam, 1988; Yin, 2009).duct comparative and multiple case studies, as de-scribed here. By combining data collected from sever- Case Study Approaches in Educational locations—several classrooms or several schools, for Often researchers attempt to define case studyexample—researchers can gain a clearer picture of a research based on what they perceive as the design’sphenomenon [loosely equated to what Stake (2006) uniqueness. However, case studies should not be de-refers to as a quintain]. Because this type of study fined by the methods employed but, rather, by theinvolves a larger total amount of data, as well as illus- questions a researcher asks and the research gap re-trations of how the phenomenon occurs in different searchers are attempting to fill. Case studies’ findingscases, the total picture developed provides greater in- are more concrete, more contextual, more developedsight into the utilization variations that occur so that by readers’ interpretations, and based more on refer-the overall results are more transferable (Stake, 2006; ence populations as determined by readers (Merriam,Yin, 2009). Even better, researchers can build studies 1988; Nachmias & Nachmias, 1976).to specifically compare aspects of implementation of a Case studies have certain essential properties.program or process in two different locations to identi- Along with being particularistic and inductive, they arefy, through comparison and contrast, the strengths and also descriptive and heuristic. They are almost neverweaknesses of different aspects of the program and used to test theories but, instead, to build case studyhow it is implemented in different circumstances. A propositions (Yin, 2009). Proposition development,good example of such a use is Zolla’s (n.d.) study ex- begun as researchers inductively develop the directionamining different information technology diffusion they take in a study (rather than deductively presup-implementation methods. posing a hypothesis and testing it during the study), That said, if someone wrote a commercial continues throughout the study and is completed onlyabout case studies, it could sound like television com- when final study conclusions are drawn (Guba, 1990;mercials for the “incredible, edible” egg—multiple Merriam, 1988). They emphasize the process-productuses and an unstoppable tool in the researcher arsenal. approach, the emphasis of illustrations or exemplars,Case studies can be used to define both the importance compromises and fusions to combat the differing con-and impact of immediate interactions between different straints of both generalizability and case specifism, andgroups, roles, instructional designs, or other factors in a series of contextualizations (Fowler, 1988; Guba &specific situations, depending on study research ques- Lincoln, 1988; Hammersley, 1995; Hedrick, Bickmantions. This is in part because case studies provide a & Rog, 1993).structure for unobtrusive but effective researcher- The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 7
  9. 9. They can contextualize to accommodate political reality. Researchers conduct analysis using axiomaticand social contexts and value-free understanding of the criteria (displaying resonance with constructivist in-social world, control, social engineering, to advocate quiry), rhetorical criteria (relating to the form andthe underprivileged, and to affect given processes and structure, or presentational characteristics, of the writ-human interactions by heightening their awareness of ten document issuing from the inquiry), or action crite-individuals. They contextualize to either verify data ria (demonstrating the case study’s potential to evokegathered by review or input from the individuals being and facilitate action from the readers). These criteriastudied, to gain subjects’ buy-in on changes suggested serve either as empowering for individuals (providingby study conclusions through periodic subject input a structure for the analysis) or as transferability criteriaand review, and to create an educational revolution that (Guba & Lincoln, 1988; Merriam, 1988). The result-changes, through collective action, the nature of educa- ing research conclusions can either be grand, mid-tion itself (Firestone; Fowler, 1988; Guba & Lincoln, range, or substantive. Grand conclusions attempt to1988; Hammersley, 1995; Hedrick, Bickman & Rog, explain large categories of phenomena and are most1993). common in the natural sciences. Midrange conclu- sions address one conceptually abstracted area of hu-A Moment for Epistemology man experience and emphasize an explicit data base as A number of epistemologies (research per- their foundation. Substantive conclusions are restrict-spectives) commonly drive case studies. Some case ed to particular settings, groups, times, populations, orstudies are quantitative (Yin, 2009) and, as a result, problems (Yin, 2009; Merriam, 2002).utilize straightforward epistemologies. The majority ofcase studies, qualitative, are so impacted by researcher Conducting a Case Studyepistemologies that understanding the perspectives Given its value, then, a quick review of theresearchers conducting case studies might apply proves process of developing case studies is useful. Caseimportant. Four good examples are provided here studies are by definition studies that are bounded to abriefly for consideration. Postpositivism can be specific location and topic (phenomenon). When re-thought of as social engineering, designed to create an searchers conduct case studies, they intensively exam-appropriate or effective societal structure where reality ine and analyze specific units, individuals, or boundedis what works or what can be verified, knowledge is systems in specific locations to gain information thatsmall, and truth is a relative idea. Constructivism can identifies (exploratory) and explains (explanatory) spe-be thought of as storytelling, where researchers attempt cific issues and problems. A case in a case study doesto paint a picture of what life is about—a social and not have to be just a specific, bounded location,multiple construct where time does not stop and though. A case could also be a specific phenomenonknowledge is drawn from a consensus of individual (experience, event, or even time of year). For re-perceptions, meanings, and underlying values in rela- searchers, this can prove confusing during the designtion to a specific phenomenon. Critical theory can be process, particularly as researchers may read accountsthought of as social activism, where researchers at- of nonlocation-related “cases” described instead astempt to inspire members of underprivileged or disen- “phenomena.” Regardless of the term used to describefranchised groups to work to affect change and strive the case, however, case studies themselves are limitedthemselves to both discover knowledge and enact what to specific geographic locations with identifiableis good or right (Guba, 1990). boundaries because they are peculiarity-seeking rather Most education case studies use constructivist than generality-seeking (Stake, 2006).frameworks, attempting to portray and interpret the Study Questions and Locationsintersubjective meanings used in culture, language, When considering conducting a case study,symbols, and human organizations. They are nonfoun- researchers need to pay close attention to the questionsdational, growing from the concerns of the paradigm their studies are designed to answer. Case study ques-represented in the phenomenon they are investigating tions, even if the case studies use quantitative data,and present multiple, holistic, competing, and often should not be designed to identify causality or correla-conflictual realities of multiple stakeholders and re- tions between two or more variables treated as varia-search participants rather than using abstraction bles. Instead, since they are designed to identify the(reduction) or approximation (modeling) of a single nature of the factors involved in the phenomenon being8 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  10. 10. studied inside the bounded case, a narrow, two-factor Case Study Optionsexamination should be replaced with an in-depth con- Case studies normally incorporate face-to-sideration of the factors that present themselves. So, as face interaction so they can faithfully represent theresearchers develop their overall research questions, often multiple, constructed, conflicting realities re-serious consideration about whether the research prob- searchers may encounter due to the humanistic naturelem being examined yields questions appropriate for of qualitative inquiry. They also emphasize maintain-exploring or explaining the what, how, why, or when ing respondents’ privacy and anonymity while utilizingof a case study is necessary. Further, a clear examina- extensive word-for-word, natural-language quotationstion of their questions will help researchers decide (Guba & Lincoln, 1989; Merriam, 1988).whether or not they should use a single, multiple, or Case studies can focus on everything fromcomparative design for their case studies (Stake, 2006; individuals to institutions. For example, researchersYin, 2009). use the “One-shot Case Study” design to observe a As mentioned previously, case studies can be single group at a specific point in time for exploratory,used to examine either single or multiple locations. In or information-gathering, studies only. Normally, theybasic exploratory studies, often one location is select- observe their sample group following a specific evented. Depending on the size of the instructional tool or expected to elicit strong response. Researchers mightmethod developed, an instructional design researcher use such studies following the evolution of an instruc-might invoke a single case method (one location) to get tional program’s use, the introduction of an radicala strong exploratory handle on the impact of that tool design into a classroom, or when exposing a group ofin one location before considering expanding its use to students to a potentially revolutionary collaborativeother locations. The transferable results, conclusions process. Other researchers may focus on specific as-practitioners may draw when their own bounded loca- pects of a case by looking at the culture’s interactiontions are similar enough to the described bounded case with the phenomenon (ethnographic case study) by(location and phenomenon) studied so that practition- conducting a semiotic analysis (a unified approach thaters can reasonably expect similar research results were examines surface manifestations and their underlyingthe study to be conducted in their location, as well meanings), a dramaturgical analysis (an analysis based(Merriam, 2002; Stake, 2006; Yin, 2009). on the content of drama), or a deconstruction (a search However, if an instructional tool or method for multiple meanings implicit in such things as texts,researchers wish to study is already in use, researchers conversations, or events). Historical case study re-might choose to examine multiple locations (multiple searchers may focus on developing descriptions ofcase method) in order to get a more “instrumental” institutions, designs, and practices as they haveperspective (Stake, 2006). This type of study could evolved over time (historical). Psychological caseexamine one of two different types of scenarios. In the studies examine educational problems focused on thefirst type of study, the expectation is that all of the lo- individual, which can prove particularly useful whencations, for example, use an instructional design in the examining aspects of human behavior, like individuals’same manner—this is a simple multiple case study. In learning or behavior related to the use of twitter in athis type of study, if data bear out the commonality of classroom. Sociological case study researchers exploreoutcomes, then the thick description of the specific the constructs of society and socialization related tolocations and circumstances supplies information about some phenomenon like social networking software,the number of circumstances in which x result may be considering demographics, people’s roles in that socialexpected to occur if enough other factors are similar. life, and the community and other social institutions,In the second type of study, the expectation is that and related social problems. Phenomenological casesome locations are using the design in one manner, studies look for core meanings and understandingswhile others are using it differently. In this type of through those shared experiences, compare and ana-study, a comparative case method, the expectation is lyze the experiences of different people to identify thethat the thick description provided in the report or arti- essences of phenomena, and seek to gain some sensecle will help practitioners identify to which type of of defining characteristics of phenomena like collabo-circumstances (case) their location is closer. As a re- rative instruction (Feldman, 1995; Merriam, 2002;sult practitioners might better identify how to apply Nachmias & Nachmias, 1966; Pedhazur & Schmelkin,study results. 1991; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2008; Yin, 2009). The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 9
  11. 11. Researchers collect different types of data enhanced learning, they consider what methodologybased on the goal of their case study research. Typical would work best for them. They determine they needdata sources for each case study construction are dis- to conduct an exploratory study to see whether cellcussed here. First, however, it is important to quickly phone use is actually a viable alternative. Since theyconsider the number of data sources required to con- discover they cannot conduct the study in local publicduct a strong case study. Based on the nature of the school systems, they decide they will examine celldata sources used—normally qualitative or a combina- phone usage in a Montessori high school in their areation of qualitative and quantitative sources— using a case study. They train classroom facilitatorsresearchers using a case study design utilize source (Montessori classroom teacher equivalents) on poten-triangulation, which means collection and analysis of tial uses of cell phones, and brief students on how theyno less than three and, based on current case study can use the cell phones after they have participatingtrends, closer to six data sources (Yin, 2009). For ex- students complete surveys about how they believe theyample, researchers examining the use of twitter for might use cell phones in their classrooms. Followingstudents to share “aha” moments in a classroom might that, for one month they conduct two-hour long class-conduct interviews with teachers in different grades, if room observations twice a week at random times.possible, considering each group of teachers a different Concurrently, they have students keep a journal aboutdata source. They might consider archival records for their use of cell phones and the types of activities foreach of the grades; interview teachers as a data source; which they used them. After collecting all these data,interview administrators as a data source; or review the researchers analyze the information, identify whichstudents’ twitter records, journals they ask the students questions they would like to ask the students and facili-to keep, or extensive observations of each class as a tators based on the analysis, and conduct an interviewdata source. Each group of records for each class with each student and facilitator to answer those ques-could serve as a data source. tions. They conduct one more analysis and, if they still Data sources useful for each type of case need more information, they conduct final focusstudy need to be considered, as well. Ethnographic groups where researchers share with students and facil-case study researchers most often use observations and itators a number of their conclusions and the patternsgroups of interviews or focus groups with relevant they identified, getting feedback on their conclusions.participant groups (teachers, administrators, students, Having collected this extensive data, they draw finalor parents, for example). Historical case study re- conclusions about students’ use of cell phones to ex-searchers examine primary source materials pand learning in Montessori high schools and write the(interviews, focus groups, journals, archival records report.about the period of time), often amassing hundreds of In another example, researchers plan to con-pages of data to analyze. Psychological case study sider the use of blogs and Skype to create collaborationresearchers employ observations, interviews, archival between schools in different parts of the country or inrecords, and measurement techniques utilized by psy- other countries. They identify four schools—two inchologists. Phenomenological study researchers use the Northeastern United States and two in the South-data sources that provide the participants’ own western United States. The four schools are sisterwords—journals answering specific questions asked by schools, networking sixth grade social studies classesthe researchers, interviews, focus groups, essays—all with each other through the use of individual student-of these sources answering specific questions being created blogs and classes’ weekly small group activi-asked. Sometimes archival records, like photographs, ties. Two schools, one in the Northeast and one in thedrawings, or other materials are used to stimulate dis- Southwest, are Montessori schools, while the other twocussion (Merriam, 1988; Yin, 1994). (Feldman, 1995; use a traditional classroom structure. This could poseMerriam, 1988; Merriam, 2002; Yin, 2009) particular problems for researchers, but it does not Study data collection can occur sequentially need to. Researchers in this case begin by conductingor concurrently (Stake, 2006; Yin, 2009). For exam- interviews by Skype (with a phone back up) withple, if researchers determine there is a gap in teachers and administrators in each of the four class-knowledge surrounding whether the use of cell phones rooms in each location. After that, they conduct re-in the classroom could facilitate students conducting views of student blogs for a one-month period and ofinstant internet research and networking to facilitate their Skype record interviews, each serving as a differ-10 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  12. 12. ent data source, categorizing and analyzing them by Referencestype of classroom structure and, also, by part of thecountry. They follow that with a set of questionnaires Bouck, E. C. (2008). Exploring the enactment of func-students in all locations complete that ask relevant tional curriculum in self-contained cross-categoricalquestions about the blogging and interaction experi- programs: A case study. The Qualitative Report, 13(3).ence. After one more analysis, they present their find- Retrieved from via videoconference to students in class-sized fo- bouck.pdf .cus groups and get one last round of data as they re-ceive feedback on the conclusions they have drawn. Doron, B. & Rehay, R. (2011). The Jewis quarter afterFinally, they write a report on their study and its re- 1967: A case study on the creation of an ideological-sults. cultural landscape in Jerusalem’s old city. Journal of One last important consideration when con- Urban History, 37(5), 775-792.ducting qualitative research is the assurance of studyintegrity and trustworthiness, just as validity and relia- Feldman, M. (1995). Strategies for interpreting quali-bility are essential in quantitative research. However, tative data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.the methods for ensuring research integrity and trust-worthiness are different for qualitative research. Feed- Fowler, Jr., F. (1988). Survey research methods.back from study participants in focus groups, for ex- Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.ample, provides peer reviews for study conclusionsand increases study accuracy. Intersubjectivity (input Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability &from numerous individuals/subjects) proves important validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report,to allow greater representation of multiple perspec- 8(4), 597-607. Retrieved from, which increases study trustworthiness ssss/QR/QR8-4/golafshani.pdf.(representation of a number of different inputs) and, asa result, study validity. Finally, focusing specifically Greere, R. R. (2010). Reporting results to a skepticalon answering the research questions, ensuring that all audience: A case study on incorporating persuasivedata sources are the best choices to answer those ques- strategies in assessment reports. The American Reviewtions, researchers ensure research reliability of Public Administration, 41(5), 577-591.(Golafshani, 2003; Howard, Lothen-Kline, &Boekeloo, 2004). Guba, E. (Ed.). (1990). The paradigm dialog. New- bury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Conclusion Guba, E. & Lincoln, Y. (1989). Fourth Generation Researcher practitioners, particularly instruc- Evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.tional design researcher practitioners, straddle both theworlds of the theoretical and the practical. Examining Hammersley, M. (1995). The politics of social re-learning needs and testing the impact of designs, such search. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.practitioners need a clear understanding of what is oc-curring with the design or instructional methods they Hedrick, T., Bickman, L., & Rog, D. (1993). Appliedare examining. As such, they often need research de- research design: A practical guide. Newbury Park,signs that allow them to gain in depth understanding of CA: Sage Publications, Inc.not just the what, but also the how, when, why, or whoof a phenomenon. Although a number of study de-signs could be tailored to serve that purpose, case stud- Howard, D. E., Lothen-Line, C., & Boekeloo, B. O.ies often provide the best source. This article has pro- (2004). Using the case-study methodology to teachvided insights into how to use a case study design, the ethics ti public health students. Health Promotionkey factors to consider when developing one, and ex- Practice, 5. Retrieved from … doi:amples of the use of a case study. Finally, it provided 10.1177/1524839903258233factors to consider in order to ensure the design’s in-tegrity. Case studies can be useful tools in the re-searcher practitioner arsenal. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 11
  13. 13. Hrabe, B., Julian, M., Kinzie, M., & Kovalchick, A. qualitative approaches in the social & behavioral sci-(1997). Prescription: RX instructional design. Re- ences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.trieved from prologue.html. Uribe, D., Klein, J. D., & Sullivan, H. (2003) ETR&D, 51(1), 5-19.Küçük, M. & Çepni, S. (2005). Implementation of anaction research course program for science teachers: A Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design &case for Turkey. The Qualitative Report, 10(2), 190- methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.207. Retrieved from .Merriam, S. (1988). Case study research in educa-tion: A qualitative approach. San Francisco: JosseyBass.Merriam, S. B., ed. (2002). Qualitative research inpractice: Examples for discussion & analysis. Thou-sand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitativedata analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.Nachmias, D. & Nachmias, C. (1976). Researchmethods in the social sciences. New York: St. Mar-tin’s Press.Pedhazur, E. & Schmelkin, L. (1991). Measurement,design, and analysis: An integrated approach. Hills-dale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Plano Clark, V. L. & Creswell, J. W. (2008). Themixed methods reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub-lishing.Showler, J. (2000). Case study of classroom practice:A “quiet form of research.” The Qualitative Report, 5(3&4). Retrieved from, R. E. (2007). Multiple case study analysis. NY:The Guilford Press.Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2010) Sage handbook ofmixed methods in social behavioral research (2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.Teddlie, C. & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations ofmixed methods research: Integrating quantitative &12 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  14. 14. Instructional Design and the Training ofChaplains for Combat Medical Ministry Zachary Tippetts, Department of Pastoral Ministry Training, Army Medical Department Abstract: In an organization as vast as the United States Army, there are many different instructional design applications that can provide different kinds of insight into the field. This article presents how instructional de- sign practice and principles have been applied in the Combat and Emergency Medical Ministry Course present- ed by the Department of Pastoral Ministry Training (DPMT) at the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) Cen- ter & School. Lessons learned include reminders as to the powerful impact training can have on the target audi- ence (and its audience, too) and of some of the basic principles of instructional design that sometimes are for- gotten amidst the many activities instructional designers perform. Keywords: instructional design, design practice, basic principles Army Chaplains have been at the frontline of a two-week course presented by the DPMT, provides combat, supporting troops in their most difficult mo- the training for Chaplains and Chaplain Assistants to ments, since 1775. What many people don’t know, prepare them for the rigors of one of the most difficult however, is that Chaplains serve in the forward medical ministerial tasks in the world: emergency and combat facilities, combat support hospitals (CSHs), and region- medical ministry. Instructional design in the CMM/ al hospitals where the wounded come to begin healing EMM course is the topic of this article. or to die. To be prepared, some Chaplains participate in The genesis of the instructional design work hospital clinical pastoral education (CPE), a year-long undergirding this article is found in the DPMT staff’s training program (ACPE, 2008). CPE is the model pro- desire for continual improvement. Because internal gram for medical ministry training, both in and out of staff time was limited, the DPMT created space for and the military (Snorton, 2006). However, due to the time obtained funding to bring in a pair of contract instruc- and resource commitments necessary to train Chaplains tional designers. The focus of these designers’ contract in this manner (thus limiting enrollments), CPE is cur- was to develop new courses, but also to collaborate rently not an option for all Chaplains needing medical with staff on the improvement of the CMM/EMM ministry training. Also, National Guard and Army Re- course. Significant experiences of these instructional serve personnel do not have access to the year-long designers and the training team Chaplains over the program. Since current combat operations have re- course of the past year are chronicled below. Hopeful- quired more personnel than have been trained through ly, new and experienced instructional designers can CPE, an alternative was put in place. Combat Medical find additional insight into the field through these expe- Ministry/Emergency Medical Ministry (CMM/EMM), riences. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 13
  15. 15. Information about Casualties (Molenda, 2003) serve as the framework for this dis- cussion, since ADDIE served as the framework for the Since the beginning of Operation Iraqi Free- changes made to the course. ADDIE is the instruction-dom in 2002, more than 6,600 Soldiers have been al design process used to guide all formal instructionalkilled in action and more than 62,000 have been development throughout the U.S. military.wounded in a way requiring medical evacuation fromcombat zones (Congressional Research Service, 2010). Information about AnalysisInjuries can be significant physically, mentally, andspiritually. A Soldier who has lost a limb to an impro- The first task given to the instructional de-vised explosive device (IED) or one who has been signers was to analyze the current course. Since theshot, injured in a vehicle accident, or harmed in any task analysis had been completed earlier, the initialother way goes through emotional and physical crisis. “analysis, for this revision of the course, consisted ofHelping those Soldiers that survive wounding or who formative evaluation--that part of ADDIE that wouldgrieve over the loss or injury of their fellow Soldiers is again propel us through design, development, and im-one of the primary roles of Chaplains. Like other medi- plementation. As has been mentioned, “(t)he purposecal care providers, Chaplains spend much of their time of formative evaluation is to revise the instruction so ashelping people whose lives have been shattered. Cop- to make it as effective as possible for the largest num-ing with the waves of trauma that are inherent in war is ber of students.” (Gagne, Briggs, & Wager, 1992)a difficult task, but, as with any task, preparation can Evaluation/analysis provided a great oppor-make a difference in the success of the intervention. tunity to sit in the classroom and watch instructors There are over 1,500 active duty Chaplains in teach with a focus on identifying what works with thethe Army with hundreds more Chaplains in the Guard audience and what doesn’t. In combination with obser-and Reserves. For every Chaplain or Chaplain Assis- vation, additional evaluation instruments were added totant there is a first time to be deployed to a combat the course to supplement our analysis. Students took aenvironment. Since very few people have experienced Spiritual Attitude Inventory (USACHPPM, 2009),anything compared to combat, UMT members who completed section and course evaluations (representinghave not deployed have no conceptualization of what response, Kirkpatrick level 1) and received pre andthey will soon encounter and the toll it will exact from post tests representing learning (Kirkpatrick level 2)them. For those assigned to a combat support hospital (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006). The course-(CSH), the magnitude of their experience increases response data were analyzed by aggregating the means,many times over. One of the instructors in the DPMT examining trends over time, and performing qualitativewas deployed with a brigade that experienced more analysis of the student comments by looking for trends.than 25 deaths in a year-long deployment. UMTs serv- The student pre- and post-test scores were examined toing in a CSH see that many individuals in a week, all see in which content areas the instruction was notin crisis. meeting the needs of the students. While the tests The CMM/EMM course was specifically de- themselves are still in the process of being validated,signed to reinforce the Chaplain’s mental and spiritual preliminary information has already given the instruc-strength by putting him or her in a position to taste tional designers insight into the effectiveness of thewhat the combat medical experience is like. In the content and helped them identify changes that could becourse as it was put together at the beginning of this implemented in the course. The analysis provided threeproject, Chaplains and Chaplain Assistants were ex- significant lessons.posed to the rigors of trauma while serving as duty First, learner characteristics were better de-Chaplains/Chaplain Assistants at Brooke Army Medi- fined, which helped narrow the focus of the instruc-cal Center, participating as the Chaplain on the trauma tion. As noted by Bednar, Cunningham, Duffy andteam, and receiving another 60 hours of training on Perry (1995), what is meant by a learner, is most fre-topics ranging from Grief and Loss to Traumatic Event quently a larger population of learners, and includesManagement and Ethics. The resulting changes to the the general conditions and range of how the systemcourse have not been radical, but they represent an needs to function. From the data and observations, itimportant shift in how such courses are viewed and became apparent that the audience was not homogene-how improvements can be made. The instructional ous. The Unit Ministry Team (UMT) consists of asystems design (ISD) steps known as ADDIE Chaplain and a Chaplain Assistant. In most cases there14 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  16. 16. are several differences between the two members of tween the theory and practice. These tools help placethe team. Typically, the Chaplain is older and the assis- the learning in context. Thus, based on a careful analy-tant younger; the Chaplain is an officer and the assis- sis, creating active learning activities and adding ap-tant is enlisted; the Chaplain has a religious affiliation propriate supportive media became the goals for theand the Chaplain Assistant may not; the Chaplain has a course improvement.master’s degree or doctorate and the assistant’s educa-tion begins with a high school diploma and may go to a Information about Design, Development, andbachelor’s degree. While some assistants have more Implementationeducation than that, the proportions are very small. Based on these goals, the first changes to theUnderstanding the audience is key for adapting train- course had to do with increasing the fidelity of theing. course in terms of representation and practice. For ex- Second, breaking up long stretches of Power- ample, video was added that showed what the UMTsPoint slides was important. Death by PowerPoint is would be dealing with in the field. Luckily, there wasalmost a cliché. However, anyone who has sat through an HBO film produced in 2003, Baghdad ER, thatfour-hour blocks of PowerPoint instruction without a showed trauma and also showed the Chaplain’s role inchange in instructional method understands the possi- the trauma room. Using copyrighted media, like Bagh-ble mind-numbing effects. Also, by repeating content dad ER, adds its own strictures to developmentpresentation through role-plays, the learner has a (allowing for time to obtain permission to use the con-chance to deepen his or her understanding of the con- tent in training, for example), but has the benefit of atent. Although the tight scope of the course prevents typically higher aesthetic as well as access to contentsignificant spacing effects from occurring (Thalheimer, and situations not normally available to instructional2006), it doesn’t decrease the power of modeling and designers. Using the video allowed Chaplains withoutrepetition (Taylor, Russ-Eft, & Chan, 2005). experience in a deployed environment to see actual Third, the complicated skills of dealing with events, thus helping them to foresee what their experi-grief, performing a crisis intervention, or responding to ence ministering to a person whose leg has just beentrauma, cannot simply be described to be learned. One blown off might be like. Next, role plays and groupof the strengths of the course before our arrival was the activities were added. What do you say, for example,time spent actually working in the trauma room to a Soldier who’s just lost his battle buddy to a sniperproviding pastoral support while working under the attack? Also, the team developed an Oregon-Trail-typesupervision of an experienced trauma Chaplain. Our game (Sugar & Brown, 2008) with the goal of placinggoal, where possible, was to replicate that kind of the various learning topics into their practical context.learning in the other areas of the course. This meant In the game, students manage their time through theincreasing role plays and practice sessions where the use of tokens, allotting hours to sleep, physical train-students assume the roles of the injured or grieving ing, spiritual development (for Chaplains), rapportparty and the Chaplain or Chaplain Assistant who pro- with fellow Soldiers (for Chaplain Assistants), person-vides the help. al time, and coordination. Based on the student’s After examining these three areas, it became choices on how to distribute his or her time, the dayclear that more activities and role plays were needed to plays out differently. The game has been a great teach-address our three concerns. First, activities would help ing tool for those who haven’t deployed. As noted byaddress the differences between the Chaplains and the Klopfer, Osterweil, and Salen, “The productivity ofChaplain Assistants. By doing role-plays, each would gaming environments lies in the fact that [students]get to experience the topic in his or her own role and among themselves are free to discover and createsometimes in the role of the other. Second, interactive learning and teaching arrangements that work foractivities would help break up the PowerPoint presen- them.” (2009)tations and allow the learners time to digest and imple- To change the pacing of the instruction, goodment their instruction. Third, activities and role plays ideas from instructors teaching the course for limitedwould give the students an opportunity to practice the sections (and who used a more diverse approach thanskills they were learning. To prepare for such activities simply PowerPoint) were implemented in order toand role plays, the instructional designers identified spread those ideas into other areas. This meant devel-media tools to provide intermediate knowledge be- oping a combination of PowerPoint, role-playing activ- The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 15
  17. 17. ities, group work, games, video, and journaling. The students means decreasing the satisfaction (if not theinstructional designers made sure that the materials learning) of other students. For example, where morenecessary for group work were provided so that it was- interaction was instituted, some students pointed outn’t difficult to set up and lead brainstorming and other how much they enjoyed PowerPoint. Continual moni-collaborative activities. toring of student data (checking for age of the student Also, an audience response system (ARS) was population or the numbers of previously deployedintroduced into the course. Audience response systems Chaplains and Chaplain Assistants) has been useful forallow learners to use remote controls to participate in tracking trends and for testing and improving activi-polling, group questions, or activities. Software tied to ties. Demographic data were gathered for each coursethe remotes aggregates the data from all the students and compared to the evaluations and overall responseand allows for immediate display of a snapshot of an- to the course. Continued observation of sections of theswers. Unfortunately, due to technical problems with course allows the designers to make recommendationsthe Qwizdom ARS tool utilized in the course (it slows for improvement. Monitoring the course and makingdown the longer the system is used; sometimes taking changes requires a time commitment that can be signif-two-to-four minutes to move from one question to an- icant, but it is very useful for incremental change.other) it isn’t as useful as it could be. However, the Speaking of incremental changes, one exam-activities using the ARS are always welcomed by the ple demonstrates the benefits of trying out differentstudents and serve to increase student enthusiasm. methods of instruction to find the most effective in- Finally, the issue of audience disparity was structional practice. In the course, a review activityaddressed. This proved to be the one item for which was conducted using a learning game that utilized thethere was no “best single answer.” To increase the edu- ARS. The game had two scoring options: one in whichcational level of the course to meet the Chaplains’ the first correct answer from a team of students won allneeds would most likely move the course content out- the points and another in which team scores were ag-side the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, gregated. Students quickly figured out option one and1978) for the Chaplain Assistants. Likewise, role plays teams would simultaneously submit each possible an-that are good for the Chaplain Assistant are oftentimes swer so as to be the first to answer correctly in order toseen as too basic for Chaplains who have more coun- win the point. This was not helpful for learning. Theseling experience. This conundrum applied across the designers switched to the other (aggregate) option.board. So, the approach taken to deal with this difficul- Such wrinkles to the process were ironed out based onty was variety. Sometimes higher-level content is continuing evaluation and improvement.taught and the Chaplain Assistants struggle. Some- As updates to the course were made, it be-times the content is more basic to meet the needs of the came clear that improvement is an ongoing processChaplain Assistant. Variety provides the opportunity to that is often limited by resources. The changes thatbalance the instruction so all learners benefit. were made were based on resource availability. At the point at which more resources might become available,Evaluation more improvements could be made. For example, cri- sis intervention is difficult to practice without a role After addressing the concerns and implement- model to emulate. While videotaping students perform-ing changes, evaluating these changes was the next ing role-plays was implemented to provide a talkingstep. The same processes used in analysis provided point for practice, a better approach would be to in-information about the changes made. Tracking student crease the fidelity of the demonstration interventionevaluations, monitoring, especially, their comments video. A more realistic setting, better acting, and theabout each section of instruction, proved fruitful. Also, demonstration of intervention skills would help stu-continued observation of the course and watching the dents visualize actual interventions. Another usefulimplementation of the various new approaches helped instructional tool for interventions would be a simula-the instructional designers refine the processes. In most tion in which students could try many of the commoncases students were appreciative of the changes imple- intervention techniques (both correct and incorrect).mented. However, not all students appreciated all The immediate presentation of consequences demon-changes (a byproduct of the audience issues noted strated by such a tool would help students avoid someabove). In fact, sometimes meeting the needs of certain of the negative effects of poor interventions. While16 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  18. 18. resources aren’t available currently for these types of hopefully, optimal. If the products are found wanting,tools, the results of our evaluation indicate that the then they should be would be beneficial. Also, the initial ideas designed to meet stu- Last of all, Kirkpatrick level 3 evaluations dent needs will have to be tried, revised, and tried(Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006) have been sent out again. This is not a flaw in the system. Instructionalone year after each course section to determine if the designs live in the same way that databases, dailyinstruction was helpful, what information may have news, and other information processes based on learn-been lacking when compared to the operational envi- ing, growing people live. Because changes are wroughtronment, and what recommended changes could be simply by students and context existing from day tomade to the course. So far, the comments received day, the instruction must adapt, too.back have been positive about the effect of the course Third, instructional design processes are driv-on the Chaplains and Chaplain Assistants who have en as much by available resources as they are by de-responded to the survey. sired instructional outcomes. The available amount of subject matter expert (SME) or faculty time determinesDiscussion and Recommendations the amount of change that can be implemented at any time. As workload increases in the office so that the As instructional designers approach working trainers’ duties increase, the amount of time for in-with clients from the complete spectrum of learning structional modification and change decreases. Theneeds, some enduring factors must be taken into ac- same basic principles apply to technology, software,count (and these are some of the lessons learned from and other resources that can improve final instructionalworking on this course). First, instructional designers product.are really in the people business, meaning they work Fourth, ongoing evaluation will provide thethrough, with, and for people. Respect is a key compo- best measuring stick for how well instructional goalsnent. The adage, “I don’t care how much you know are being met. There are differing metrics for courseuntil I know how much you care” implies caring, un- effectiveness. Student evaluations (e.g., Likert scales)derstanding, and acknowledging where each individual give one perspective. Testing provides another. Prac-is in his or her life. This includes recognizing the con- tice portrays even another. In the best situations, long-straints that currently limit performance and respecting term performance gives the best picture of the impactthe knowledge and experience each participant brings of instruction. Constant evaluation helps to discoverto the desired educational goals. The significance of trends in students and trends in instructional practice.relationships is important for the instructors, the tech- Ongoing evaluation can track content creep (wherenology or support staff who help with the achievement content and presentation change incrementally basedof the learning outcomes, and the students who will on student interaction), but documentation lags sinceapply the content provided and use it to protect, de- no “major changes” have occurred.fend, and serve others. Instructional designers whocannot contribute to these kinds of connections will Conclusionsfind they can make little headway in fomenting in-structional change. While working on this fairly traditional course Second, instructional design is typically an (although there are online components in addition toongoing process based on experience and iterative the instructor-led components), the instructional de-change. Each instructional design solution carries with signers learned a variety of lessons. It has been encour-it a package of constraints, or “layers,” (Gibbons, aging to note that the methods used to create good in-2003), that, had they been different, may have resulted struction have power across modalities. It has beenin a different instructional solution. Instructional de- insightful to recognize that all instruction is bound bysign products are also a result of the experience and constraints (time, money, and skill) and that people doknowledge of the instructional designers working on the best they can with the resources available to them.the project. As the constraints change with time and as Most of all, this course has been a reminder that train-instructional designers know more (through experience ing is used to improve lives. Working with the DPMTor evaluation), instructional products should be tested faculty has been eye-opening to the work entailed inso they may, if necessary, be transformed. They should meeting the needs of Soldiers throughout various com-be tested to verify that they are still adequate and, bat environments. It has allowed us to use our skills to The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 17
  19. 19. improve the training Chaplains and Chaplain Assis- Taylor, P.J., Russ-Eft, D.F., & Chan, D.W.L. (2005). Atants receive as they embark on a very difficult task— meta-analytic review of behavior modeling training.meeting the spiritual needs of our Army Soldiers in the Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 692-709.dehumanizing battlefields of war. Thalheimer, W. (2006). Spacing learning events over time: what the research says. Work-learning Research.References Retrieved May 3, 2011 from (2008). Information for prospective students. opencms/system/galleries/download/lernsoftware/Retrieved February 25, 2011, from http:// Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The devel-Bednar, A.K., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T.M., & Perry, opment of higher psychological processes. Cambridge,J.D. (1995). Theory into practice. In Anglin, G.J. (Ed), MA: Harvard University Press.Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (p.105). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.Congressional Research Service (2010). U.S. militarycasualty statistics: Operation New Dawn, OperationIraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom. Re-trieved February 25, 2011, from, R.M., Briggs, L.J., & Wager, W.W. (1992).Principles of instructional design (p. 30). Ft. Worth:Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Gibbons, A. S. (2003). What and how do designersdesign? TechTrends, 47(5), 22-25.Kirkpatrick, D.L. & Kirkpatrick, J.D. (2006). Evaluat-ing training programs, 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Ber-rett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., & Salen, K. (2009). Movinglearning games forward. The Education Arcade, Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology. (p.3). RetrievedMay 3, 2011, from, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIEmodel [Electronic version]. Performance Improvement,42 (5), 3-4.Sportin, T. E. (2006). Setting common standards forprofessional chaplains in an age of diversity. SouthernMedical Journal, 99(6), 660-662.Sugar, W. & Brown, A. (2008). An examination of thelast fifty years of DAVI/AECT convention presenta-tions. TechTrends, 52(2), 59-69.18 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  20. 20. Essay:Educating for an Instructional Design andTechnology Future Sonja A. Irlbeck, Capella University In the first issue of The Journal for Applied concern that it is not known how instructional design-Instructional Design (April 2011), Wagner challenged ers actually make instructional design decisions, raisingthe instructional design and technology profession to doubts about whether ID processes are as procedural orconsider what it is we do as a profession. Wagner prescriptive as once thought. Ertmer and Stepichasked, “what do YOU think an ID should be able to (2005) referenced a key point by Jonassen that “ID is ado? Are we technologists? Psychologists? Evaluators? complex, ill-defined skill that is largely (perhaps entire-Programmers? DO we need business skills? Theoretical ly) dependent on the context in which it is done” (p.cognitive skills? IT skills? Are we artists or engineers 38). Christensen and Osguthorpe acknowledged Reige-or a little of everything in-between?” (p. 37). Educators luth, in that he “emphasized that prescriptive theoryand professionals in instructional design and technolo- concerns what the instruction should be like, while thegy (IDT) are becoming aware of an emerging message ID process outlines how to plan and prepare the in-that IDT is changing as a profession – in Wagner’s struction” (p. 46). Silber (2007) reinforced these chang-words, one that is embracing a level of technology pro- ing ideas when stating that “ID should be taught as ill-ficiency, an awareness of design, and an ability to com- structured problem solving rather than as a procedure,municate (p. 37) along with traditional skills about using appropriate methods” (p. 13). Kim, Lee, Merrill,knowledge of theory, models, and processes. If the Spector, & van Merriënboer (2008) indicated thattasks being embraced are evolving, how are these teaching and learning are moving “from a content-changes being conveyed to new instructional designers centric perspective to a user-centric perspective” (p.wishing to enter or move further in the profession? The 808), resulting in a shift from what is done with thegoal of this essay is to launch a conversation about content toward greater awareness of context and pro-changes in the ways IDT concepts are taught and a pos- cesses of learning.sible career path for those entering the instructional The shift away from having content presenteddesign profession. is true for how IDTers work as well, in that interven- tions are designed and created rather than content beingThe Past informs the Future presented. If teaching and learning paradigms are changing, instructional design approaches need to Professionals who have contributed much to change, and this implies a need for a change in the waythe idea of the changing profession (Dijkstra, 2000; instructional designers are taught. If the learning para-Jonassen, 1997; Reigeluth, 1999, 2009; Silber, 2007) digm is changing, then logically it is time for teachingecho the message that IDT is a form of problem solv- about instructional design and technology to change asing. Christensen and Osguthorpe (2004) expressed the well. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 2 19
  21. 21. Framework to Guide Reflection ties help advanced instructional designers focus on a variety of solutions and approaches to enhance learn- Understanding ideas related to instructional ing (divergence) rather than strive to have the learnerdesign technology, principles, learning, problems, and achieve a predefined goal (convergence). Generic stepsproblem solving set the stage for thoughts presented in for problem solving strategies are skills that enablethis essay. What it means to be an instructional design- advanced instructional designers to understand ander and technologist has changed from earlier 1950s implement complex learning interventions. Problemdefinitions to more current understandings of the role. solving skills should become a part of the advancedAn instructional designer: instructional designer’s toolkit, and these problem solving and design skills need to find a systematic way “invents, conceptualizes or creates concrete to be conveyed to novice IDTs. products or materials for instructional or educa- tional purposes … is responsible for the educa- Experience Guides the Discussion tional, instructional, or pedagogical aspects of the product… is able to reflect on his or her Sims & Koszalka (2008) began to address work” (Visscher-Voerman & Gustafson, 2004, advanced roles and skills instructional designers may p. 70). need with the point that it “may no longer be the in- structional designer’s role to define, but rather … to The Association of Educational Communica- enable [emphasis added] the individual participants totions and Technology (AECT) defines instructional adapt the learning environment to their individual andtechnology as “the theory and practice of design, de- contextual needs” (p. 573). Current thinking embracesvelopment, utilization, management, and evaluation of the idea that IDT is a field of learning sciences as sug-processes and resources for learning … a discipline gested by Jonassen, Cernusca, & Ionas, (2007). Moredevoted to techniques or ways to make learning more than a decade earlier, Jonassen (1997) made the pointefficient based on theory but theory in its broadest that instructional design is a problem solving process,sense, not just scientific theory” (AECT: 2.What is the and ill-structured problem solving can be thought of asKnowledge Base?, para. 4). These concepts – design, a design process, rather than a systematic procedure fordevelopment, evaluation, processes, learning – are akin problem solutions (p. 79), ala the instructional designto those used by Visscher-Voerman & Gustafson systems approach of the past; and Dijkstra (2000)(2004) to describe the role of an instructional designer. made the point that design problems are “more chal-These roles seem to be merging. lenging than more directive and confined learning Jonassen (2002) explored complexity as it tasks and goals” (p. 218). The IDT experts in the pro-relates to instructional design and determined that fession are beginning to voice the similar refrain that“Problem solving is not … a uniform activity” (p. IDT is not about process and procedures but about cre-110), hinting that prescribed procedures no longer fit atively solving learning challenges.the needs for IDT. Absent the premise of uniformity in A strong theoretical foundation is needed toinstructional design processes, how can one determine support this potential transition and promote furtherskills and principles that instructional designers and discussion by the IDT profession. IDT was and is in-technologists need to know in order to practice their formed by cognitive psychology literature where theprofession? How does a principle-based approach help premise is that teaching involves well-structured proce-solve instructional design related problems? The chal- dures (Silber, 2007, p. 11)… but a significant develop-lenge for the instructional design profession is to find ment in the past five years has resulted in a move awayways to help instructional designers and technologists from cognitive psychology literature and/or infor-learn how to perform in the profession – that is to rely mation processing theories as evidenced by ideas thaton early experience, demonstrate skills, apply and inte- “Content has become readily available and rich in rep-grate – to integrate stable principles and problem solv- resentational formats” (Kim, et al., 2008, p. 808),ing to reach an instructional design solution. which is creating a shift “from a content-centric per- The positioning of concepts related to prob- spective to a user-centric perspective” (p. 808). Thislem solving compared to following procedures for in- shift calls for changes for considering what is donestructional solutions creates opportunities to explore with the content, not the content itself, and this shiftlearning and teaching in new ways. These opportuni- begins to change theories and foundations of IDT prac-20 ∙ November 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289