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Applied Instructional Design April 2011


The Journal of Applied Instructional Design by AECT …

The Journal of Applied Instructional Design by AECT
Issue 1 2011

Published in Education , Business , Technology
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  • 1. Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 ∙ April 2011 This Issue: Editor’s Comments by Leslie Moller Contexts of Instructional Design by Andrew Gibbons Formative Research on the Goal-based Scenario Model Applied to Computer Delivery and Simulation by Chung-Yuan Hsu and David Richard Moore Using Chambers’s Participatory Rural Appraisal to Foment Sustainability in Teacher Engagement with Online Learning in Guatemala by Douglas Tedford and MaryFriend Shepard Essay: In Search of the Secret Handshakes of ID by Ellen Wagner Book Review: The Formation of Scholars: Rethinking Doctoral Education for the Twenty-First Century by MaryFriend Shepardan Association for Educational Communications and Technology publication View this journal at
  • 2. Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 ∙ April 2011Contents: Editor’s Notes 3 by Leslie Moller, Senior Editor Contexts in Instructional Design 5 by Andrew Gibbons Formative Research on the Goal-based Scenario 13 Model Applied to Computer Delivery and Simulation by Chung-Yuan Hsu and David Richard Moore Using Chambers’s Participatory Rural Appraisal 25 to Foment Sustainability in Teacher Engagement with Online Learning in Guatemala by Douglas Tedford and MaryFriend Shepard Essay: In Search of the Secret Handshakes of ID 33 by Ellen Wagner Book Review: The Formation of Scholars: 38 Rethinking Doctoral Education for the Twenty- First Century by MaryFriend Shepard The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 1
  • 3. About ISSN: 2160-5289 JAID STAFF The purpose of this journal is to bridge the gap between theory and practice by provid- Senior Editor: Leslie Moller, Ph.D. ing reflective scholar-practitioners a means Associate Editor: Wilhelmina Savanye, Ph.D. for publishing articles related the field of In- Assistant Editor: Benjamin Erlandson, Ph.D. Contributing Editor: Jason Huett, Ph.D. structional Design. Production Editor: Don Robison JAID’s goals are to encourage and nurture the EDITORIAL BOARD development of the reflective practitioner as well as collaborations between academics Andy Gibbons, Ph.D., Brigham Young University and practitioners as a means of disseminating David Richard Moore, Researcher and Author Wilhelmina Savenye, Ph.D., Arizona State University and developing new ideas in instructional de- MJ (Mary Jean) Bishop, Ph.D., Lehigh University sign. The resulting articles should inform Rob Foshay, Ph.D., Walden University and The Foshay both the study and practice of instructional Group design. James Ellsworth, Ph.D., U.S. Naval War College David Wiley, Ph.D., Brigham Young University Ellen Wagner, Ph.D., Sage Road Solutions, LLC REVIEW BOARD JAID is an online open-access journal and is offered without cost to users. Chris Dede, Ph.D., Harvard University Gary Morrison, Ed.D., Old Dominion University View this journal at: Brent Wilson, Ph.D., University of Colorado Denver Mike Simonson, Ph.D., Nova Southeastern University MaryFriend Shepard, Ph.D., Walden University David Wiley, Ph.D., Brigham Young University Robert Bernard, Ph.D., Concordia University For questions contact Don Robison at Douglas Harvey, Ph.D., Stockton University Nan Thornton, Ph.D., Capella University2 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 4. Editor’s Notes Leslie Moller, Ph.D. Senior Editor Welcome to the premiere issue of the Journal of Applied Instructional Design. We appreciate your visiting our new journal. This journal is the result of the work of a lot of people who put in endless effort to make it happen. First of all, we want to recognize Gary Morrison for developing the proposal and acting as the advocate for its ex- istence. We offer our deep appreciation to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology and its board and staff for sponsoring this publication. If you are not already a member of AECT, please follow this link and join a great organization dedicated to the advancement of Educational Technology. It is also important to notethat while my name may appear as editor, without the significant help of my fellow staff, Willie Savanye, Don Robison, Ben Erlandson, and Jason Huett, this journal would not have hap- pened. If you follow the link About you will also see a great group of collaborators serving on the Editorial Board and as reviewers. I do not know if it really takes a village to raise a child, but it does take a community to build a journal. This journal is an open source journal freely available to the world and is not limited to AECT members. Once again I encourage you to join this fine group of scholars and practitioners who in turn will continue to give life to this journal. The mission of the journal, that is elaborated elsewhere, is focused on the role and relationships of the scholar- practitioner who continually make contributions that improve the practice and knowledge base of ID. As our graphic design represents the circle of knowledge, we often start with a knowledge base full of theories and research, some out of research studies and equally important out of the reflection of IDers who use the ID approach to improve learning. That knowledge gets transferred into the application of ID, which leads to reflection of how we can improve or refine our existing knowledge of the field. To quote a Tao reading, After completion Comes new beginnings. To gain strength, Renew the root. Although as the journal matures, we expect many new enhancements to the journal and additional articles.Sharing of ideas and hopefully our commitment will further increase the value of the journal and thus our mutual contribu- tion to the growth of the ID discipline. We have assembled some excellent articles in this issue to get us started. We are most interested in receiving new submissions or ideas, which can only help to increase the value of JAID to you. Feel free to contact me at with your questions or ideas as well as potential submissions. Once again, welcome and I wish you peace The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 3
  • 5. 2011 AECT International Convention Celebrate 3.0: Design.Learn.Community AECTs Annual International Convention November 8-12, 2011 Jacksonville, Florida This year’s convention theme is Celebrate 3.0: Design.Learn.Community. The rapid evolution of Web 2.0 tech- nologies has generated a level of communication and interaction never before possible. In response, AECT 2011 seeks to explore the transformational potential that these innovations hold for education, as well as share current research and best practices related to these developments. HIGHLIGHTS! Tuesday, November 8 – Pre-convention Workshops, Bus tour to St. Augustine, the nations oldest permanent settlement, features magnificent attractions and historic landmarks at virtually every turn. Wednesday, November 9 – Pre-convention workshops, two-hour Walking Tour of Jacksonville, morning tours to the Sally Corporation, a Jacksonville-based company that specializes in animatronics. The Ritz Theatre and Museum which celebrates the rich legacy of Jacksonville’s African-American community. Opening General Session (4:45pm-6:00pm) and AECT Welcome Reception. (6:00pm-8:00pm) Thursday, November 10 –Breakfast with Champions, Concurrent Sessions, 2ND General Session, Affiliate Reception, Annual International Dinner and Auction, Friday, November 11 –Concurrent Sessions, AECT Member Meeting, Joint Univer- sity Reception, AECT Party at the Landing, 8pm (still tentative) Saturday, November 12- Concurrent Sessions, Post Convention Workshops, Tours scheduled to the World Golf Hall of Fame and the IMAX Theater, “or” a half day of shopping to the St. Augustine Premium Outlets.4 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 6. Contexts of Instructional Design Andrew Gibbons, Brigham Young University Abstract: If a designer has clearly in mind what is being designed it is more likely that an appropriate approach will be taken to designing and that the most appropriate conceptual building blocks will be incorporated into its architecture. This paper describes two alternative design contexts which each place within a unique perspective the nature of designing or the thing being designed. Each of the contexts comes from outside the field of instructional design but each is readily applicable to instructional design thinking. These two examples of design contexts are used to illustrate the concept of a design context with the aim of initiating discussion of this new concept within the instructional design community. Further consideration of this concept is sure to reveal additional design contexts capable of helping designers locate their designs within the larger design space thus defined. structures—frames, responses, reinforcements, and INTRODUCTION sequences. These became the objects of design. Simi- larly, as media studies took center stage, the media From the earliest days of educational technol- product itself became the object of design—the film, ogy and throughout the history of formalized instruc- the filmstrip, the workbook, the synchronized slide- tional development up to the present, the question of sound production, the self-instructional package. what was being or what might be designed has hung as In almost every case historically, as one pre- a backdrop to the conversation, seldom being addressed vailing discourse gives way to a new one, the terms, directly. Instead, the designed object of choice in any and therefore the design objects of the old discourse, given period of time has tended to be understood, in are left behind. Progress in this kind of world is repre- terms of a prevailing design discourse, which in turn sented not by the accumulation of useful designed ob- has been dominated by one or more prevailing philoso- ject types but rather by the leaving behind of old phi- phies. For example, during and after World War I, the losophies, discourses, and objects and their replace- emphasis was on the development of industrial job ment with new ones. So at present, for example, the training, and public education courses that imple- instructional design literature is not abuzz with new mented reformist principles. The main terms of the findings on programmed instruction and self-contained, discourse at that time were task, job analysis, and self-instructional modules, but rather on findings on teaching method in the former case, and objective, Web-based media forms of all kinds. The effect of this measurement, and evaluation in the latter (Schrock, is that progress in design has not been cumulative, and 1995; Kridel & Bullough, 2007). designers still tend to be confined to a narrow range of This first discourse prevailed until after World product concepts which are determined by a prevailing War II, when the growing influence of behaviorism philosophy. Moreover, the discussion tends to center on introduced a new discourse which included terms for outward, media-related forms rather than on the inner mechanical devices, programs, and detailed strategic dynamic of the designed thing. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 5
  • 7. The pattern of philosophy-dominated dis- omy, or any other factor of interest to a designer incourse and discourse-determined design objects contin- need of making a selection from the many possibilities.ues to the present time, as evidenced by the claims The objects inhabiting a design context are arrangedmade for ―constructivist instructional designs‖, which along the dimension of value. A design context allowsare inspired by the various views of the constructivist the designer to select the kind of thing to be designeddiscourse and philosophy on the one hand and, at the from a range of object forms, each of which exhibitsother end of the continuum, self-contained direct in- some set of structural or functional properties that suitstruction objects and methods inspired by the discourse it particularly for a type of service within real-worldand philosophy of direct instruction. settings. The notable exception to this has been the The consequence to designers of not havingpersistence of tasks, job analyses, objectives, meas- the concept of design contexts is that the designer isures, and evaluations from the very first discourse. The left without orientational terms with which to describemeanings of these designed objects have changed over the kinds or variations of things being designed, theirtime, and the details of their construction and use have properties, and the rationale for having chosen onebeen much elaborated, but as designed objects they over another. Without design contexts, decisions aboutstill form a core of what is created during instructional what to design can be made on the basis of what isdesign practice, though this tends to be true more in the easy or fashionable. In this state, the thing being de-area of direct instruction. In some areas of design even signed can only be determined by the prevailing phi-these are looked upon as relics of the past (mistakenly) losophical and discourse-related fashion. But today’sassociated with now less-fashionable behaviorist views categories are certain to age and be replaced as fashionand are therefore of less general interest. How long has changes. At present, as philosophies fall in and out ofit been since the last substantive academic publication fashion, designers have no principle for accumulatingon instructional objectives in a world gone mad about patterns of designed things in relation to each other,objectives? and designers have no meta-language with which to One thought tool that has been missing for communicate with each other and with design teamdesigners up to this point is a description of the members to promote shared conceptions of what isbroader conceptual contexts within which particular being created. Without this tool for professional com-design objects occupy a place, relative to each other. munication, the natural alternative is for designers toDesigners need a sense of the contexts within which either re-invent new design terms with the new designnumerous potentially useful designable artifacts from team or else to converse in terms of design process,all discourses and of many kinds exist from which the which is the prevailing state of things at present: de-designer may choose to satisfy specific purposes. Such sign process dominates design conversation, designcontexts taken together would form the foundations of pedagogy, and design literature. With a little imagina-a design lexicon independent of different time periods tion, the prevailing lore of design process itself can beand their discourses and philosophies. seen as a design context that is dimensioned by the Design contexts are dimensional spaces principles of passing time and intermediate productwherein different structural or architectural concepts of radiate along some coherent dimension, produc- This paper explores the concept design con-ing a range of structural-functional patterns of things text and examines two examples of contexts taken fromor objects which are designable. That is, different ab- the literature of other design fields where the conceptstract forms would be placed along one or more con- of design contexts has been introduced. The paper pro-tinua, providing the designer a principled lexicon of poses that both of the described design contexts arearchitectural and functional types, giving what was suitable for the purposes of instructional designersbefore considered only in isolation a context that ex- without modification and that this opens to instruc-plains it, gives a rationale for its variations, and relates tional designers a new kind of thought tool that allows:it structurally or in terms of purpose to other forms. (1) more meaningful conversation in the abstract about Design contexts consist of arrays of objects the properties of designed things, (2) more productivewhich populate a space defined by a principle of inter- discussions regarding product architectures during theest to a designer, for example, increasing complexity, early stages of designing, and (3) the possibility ofincreasing size, increasing formalism, increasing econ- constructing additional contexts which describe and6 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 8. relate families of designed things. The design contexts ends of the interpersonal and intercommittedness di-described in this paper are Krippendorff’s trajectory of mensions of designs. If designers want to increase theartificiality (Krippendorff, 2006) and Young’s levels of interpersonal value of instruction and the degree ofdesign (Young, 2008). commitment it demands from the user, they will focus toward the upper end of Krippendorff’s continuum.KRIPPENDORFF’S TRAJECTORY OF ARTIFICIALITY As designers mature in their craft, they give new abstract structuring principles priority, while oth- Krippendorff’s trajectory of artificiality ers become less important and therefore subordinate as(Krippendorff, 2006) is a design context whose main priorities in design decisions. At different stages of aaxis is defined in terms of social involvement and de- designer’s career, different sets of design purposes cangree of commitment to involvement. Krippendorff, control the structuring of a design, using different de-who is a design theorist and not an instructional de- sign constructs. This is evidenced in Gibbons’ (2010)signer, defines a continuum of user-centered design description of the evolution in ―centrisms‖ in the think-targets—kinds of ―things‖ that can be designed—that ing of most novice designers. Krippendorff’s trajectoryranges from low-social, low-commitment to high- implies that just as a designer’s vision of what is beingsocial, high-commitment. At one end of Krippen- designed can mature in strategic ways structurally, itdorff’s continuum are artifacts which do not require can mature also in terms of the social and interpersonalpersonal commitment to social interaction. At the other commitment dimension.end are artifacts that cannot perform their function Krippendorff’s ―trajectory of artificiality‖ (seewithout considerable social interaction and personal Figure 1) can be interpreted as ―a trajectory of…designcommitment. At the most distal end of the continuum problems…each building upon and rearticulating thelies the designable object through which social interac- preceding kinds and adding new design criteria…tion within a design specialty is carried out—the dis- extending design considerations to essentially newcourse. Krippendorff’s trajectory therefore asserts both kinds of artifacts‖ (Krippendorff, 2006, p. 6). FIGURE 1. THE TRAJECTORY OF ARTIFICIALITY (From Krippendorff, 2006) Discourses Generativity Rearticulability Solidarity Projects Social viability Directionality Commitment Multiuser Systems/Networks Informativeness Connectivity Accessibility Interfaces Natural interactivity Understandability Reconfigurability Goods, Services, and Identities Marketability Symbolic diversity Folk and local aesthetics Products Utility Functionality Universal aesthetics The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 7
  • 9. Krippendorff’s trajectory of design problems learning), enactment (e.g., simulation, role-play, tuto-invites the designer to answer the question, ―What kind rial), or instructional strategy (e.g., problem-basedof thing are you designing?‖ The trajectory describes a learning, direct instruction, apprenticeship, simula-fault line between artifacts that are used by individuals tion). Krippendorff classifies design problems in termsin isolation with little sustained commitment and those of the degree to which the artifacts created bring peo-that require social responsiveness and sustained per- ple or technologies together in joint activity and by thesonal commitment from the users. Krippendorff’s tra- level of commitment and participation required ofjectory defines design problems in terms of their social them.goals: each type of problem defines a particular kind of Table 1 provides a list of descriptors for eachsocial relationship between the user of the artifact and type of artifact on the trajectory. Krippendorff hasothers. In this respect, Krippendorff’s continuum tran- given new meanings to some common terms (such asscends traditional categories of designed artifact, espe- project) and has used them as category labels, so spe-cially for instructional designers, who commonly de- cial care must be taken to note and remember Krippen-scribe their artifacts either in terms of mediation (e.g., dorff’s definitions.distance education, blended instruction, Web-based TABLE 1 DEFINITIONS OF KRIPPENDORFF’S ARTIFACT CATEGORIES (From Gibbons & Griffiths, 2010) KRIPPENDORFF KRIPPENDORFF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ARTIFACT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES CATEGORYProducts  The end result of a manufacturing process  “Packaged” instructional modules  Designed according to producer’s intentions  Designed instructional systems  Intended to be used in a particular wayGoods, Services, and  Manufactured to be traded and sold  “Reusable” instructional resourcesidentities  Meant to acquire exchange value  Online instruction  Qualities not of a tangible kind  Service-providing Web sites (Google,  Concerned with marketability Wikipedia)  Possess symbolic qualities that encourage being  Web services (Twitter, e-mail) acquired  Productivity tools of all kinds  Designed to appeal to diverse perceptions and local values  Consumer goods  Possible qualities: stability, dependability, reputa- tion, valuesInterfaces  Human interfaces with technologies (computers,  Personal learning environments airplanes, power plants, automotive controls)  Learning management systems  Create interactivity—action-response sequences  Knowledge management systems  Create dynamics—changeability over time, end-  Database tools and interfaces point seldom same as departure point  User interface standards  Create autonomy—Provide space for unpredict-  Virtual reality, user-configurable able action by user environments  Created to extend human action and amplify  Collaborative workspaces (Google user’s mind Docs, Wikis)  No “correct” usage patterns  Possible qualities: understandability, user- friendliness, transparently, reconfigurability, adaptability, intelligence8 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 10. TABLE 1 DEFINITIONS OF KRIPPENDORFF’S ARTIFACT CATEGORIES (Continued) (from Gibbons & Griffiths, 2010) KRIPPENDORFF KRIPPENDORFF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ARTIFACT DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES CATEGORYMultiuser systems/  Coordinate human activities across space and time  Educational systems (mentoring,Networks (traffic lights, wayfinding systems, signage sys- some courses, graduate degree pro- tems, information systems, accounting systems, grams) communication systems, telephones, computer  The Internet networks)  Social software (Facebook, Twitter)  Provide a place where people connect, form, and coordinate the activities of their own communities of interest or practice  Designers cannot control how the system is used  Provides facilities that allow users to organize themselves  Possible qualities: informaticity, accessibility, con- nectivityProjects  Form around a desire to change something  Open learning  Usually a knowledge goal or a cause involved  Charter schools  Require coordination of many people united in  Reusable learning resources move- purpose (campaign, research, charitable action) ment  Purpose or goal may be mutable, may evolve  Participatory design  Require designer to address how to achieve coop- eration among people  “Attracts” people  Involves language and a narrative (how, what, and when to change)  Must motivate commitment, coordinate contribu- tions, direct activities  Designed by a group or by “the” group (not single designer)  Not controlled by the designer, controlled by stakeholder group  Designer suggests direction, provides space, shows possibilities, attracts resourcesDiscourses  Organized ways of talking, writing, and acting  Behaviorism, cognitivism, construc-  Resides in community tivism, all future –isms  Directs attention of community members  The current movement to reconcep-  Defines “what matters” tualize instructional design  Entails tension between reusing established forms  All of the discourse communities in and innovating any professional field, but especially  Place where new metaphors, vocabularies, dis- (for this paper) in instructional tech- courses arise nology: threads defined as optional interests at professional conferences  Involves new ways of conceptualizing the world (gaming, reform, design, etc.)  Designers derive their identity from community  Possible qualities: solidarity, generativity, rearticu- lable The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 9
  • 11. Krippendorff’s categories of design problem these levels by describing the first as design (of prod-are cumulative. Each new problem upward on the tra- uct) within a context, the second as designing contextjectory pre-supposes and includes within its scope the (the project), and the third as design the design of con-previous type of problem. This is best seen by working text (within which the project takes place). These lev-backwards from the most inclusive category at the far els, according to Young, allow the designer to decideend of the trajectory. Discourses—the most inclusive whether to design within an existing set of resourcesof the problem types—are carried out through the de- and constraints or to attempt to modify them by eithervice of individual projects. Projects operate using the changing the project definition or by helping to changemechanisms of multiuser systems/networks, which in the context of policy, assumptions, expectations, and/turn require interfaces, which provide goods, services, or the goals of the larger social/political/economic set-and identities, that involve the use of products. A de- ting that has vested interested (and perhaps sponsor-signer’s job does not involve choosing one design ship) in the solution of the problem.problem to the exclusion of the others as much as it Young describes the manner in which levelsinvolves climbing upward using the continuum of have been used to map design issues to their appropri-problems to reach the level of problem that leads to the ate levels, making it possible for the proper designmost powerful and innovative design solutions for a authority to deal with them. This allows the complexi-given context and purpose. Designers who think they ties of a given design project to be sorted in a moreare designing ―a product for distance education‖ will organized manner to the level of decision-making besttend to use the structural constructs that already popu- equipped and empowered to deal with them:late thinking about such designs. Designers who think The model demonstrates that the bestthey are designing Krippendorff’s ―goods, services, designs do and always have begun at the D3and identities‖ will find that they need a different set of [policy] level in order to have a meaningfulconceptual tools with which to attack the problem. A affect [sic] on issues at policy and strategysimilar effect is produced at each step of escalation up forming levels of decision-making, despite thethe continuum. fact that clients, commissioners, and custom- ers or users of designs are seldom preparedYOUNG’S LEVELS OF DESIGN to give permission to the designer or design team to operate at a level other than D1, i.e. Young (2008) describes a set of "levels" of the level of product detail and configurationdesign "in order to improve the design practitioner’s (p. 572).ability to navigate the decision-making complexities of The effect of applying Youngs context shoulddesign projects" (p. 562). Young notes that complex be that "the sphere of concern of the designer isproblems stall because in reality the decision making enlarged; consequently D3 thinking around policy is-required transcends the authority and competence of sues will become increasingly permissible for design-the design team. His design context defines levels of ers and design teams, enabling them to act beyonddecision-making, implying that decisions pertaining to their existing sphere of influence" (p. 572). Youngeach level require a different expertise, authority, and speaks of the "hierarchy to the structure of designforum of decision makers. At the same time, it also problems" (p. 569), observing that cases have beenimplies continuity among the levels supplied by the studied where:designer, who Young shows as the constant and unify-ing dimension among the levels. Decisions had to be taken at different Youngs levels are based on the premise that levels in the hierarchy at different times to progress the project and some important de-"models of the design process should be more attentive sign failings were found to have been causedto design content and context rather than just the proc- by difficulties in communicating informationess being followed" (p. 567). It is from Youngs de- about the design problems and recognizingscription that the term design context is borrowed. their true position in the hierarchy" (p. 569).Young describes three levels: (1) "design at the level ofproduct configuration and detail", (2) "design at the Young refers to a design context proposed bylevel of systems thinking", and (3) "design at the level Archer (1987) which consists of levels of design deci-of policy formation and ideology" (p. 570). He relates sions which include: (1) design at the level of decision, (2) design at the level of the product, and (3) design at10 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 12. the level of the project. By joining Archer’s and sions that are appropriate for design proc-Youngs design contexts together an even more com- esses to address them. The model is, there-prehensive design context is obtained which describes fore, a tool for facilitating design beyond theadditional levels of decision making that must be allo- level of product, into the more complex levelcated to a decision maker working at some scope of of systems and even more complex level of policy formation with its attendant dynamicsresponsibility and authority constraints. of social, economic, environmental, technical Young has created a thought tool for deter- and political concern (p. 571).mining the seat of decision-making for different levelsof design decision and for determining those decisions CONCLUSIONwhich must be pushed to a higher level. This consti-tutes a valuable continuum of design considerations— These examples of design contexts share im-one that in the past has created frustrations and lost portant similarities: (1) each begins to direct the atten-time for designers attempting to firm up the bounds of tion of the designer away from a strictly product ora project so that productive work can move forward. process focus and toward a broader consideration ofUse of this design context allows designers to deter- the designer’s role and the nature of the thing beingmine expeditiously the problems they can and cant designed, (2) each describes a trajectory of escalatingsolve and whether to escalate certain decisions or to qualities along a consistent dimension, (3) each broad-work within the given project goals and constraints. At ens the scope of what the designer consciously under-the very least, Young’s design context makes designers takes to design, making it a thoughtful choice ratherconscious of potential barriers in moving projects than a default choice, and (4) each leads to a set ofahead and provides a tool for dealing proactively with useful abstractions about the nature of design or ofthem. At its best, however, Young’s design context designed things and relates them together in a way thatcreates for the designer a vision of a somewhat larger rationalizes decisions about them. At the same time,role which places the designer at the table where deci- the two examples are quite dissimilar. Krippendorff’ssions are being made that influence the project, giving trajectory escalates along the dimension of social in-voice to the factors that will condition its environment. volvement, participation, and commitment as aspects Young points this out, saying: of a designed artifact. Young’s escalates along the di- mension of design process, placing into proportion the …This model creates the potential to kinds of decisions that are addressed, or that might be attend to the future better than the traditional addressed, by a designer. concerns with products and artifacts. That is, it allows us to design the context rather than What is important in the two examples pre- design within the context. This is of course a sented is not whether they are agreeable to the judg- highly desirable state to achieve when deal- ment of the reader but the notion of design context of ing with complex and emergent social and which they are examples. The importance of design business contexts, where existing professional contexts begins with the assumption that what design- thinking and practice struggles to understand ers think they are designing guides their choice of the the dimensions of complexity that are likely to design architecture and of the building-blocks they use present themselves in a future, real world in their designs. Not only do design contexts help to context (p. 571). partition the design space so that design activities be- Young describes how this brings design into a come more focused, but as designers think in terms ofcloser relationship with the larger concerns of soci- categories of designed artifact or categories of decisionety—one that reverses the historical isolation of design -making scope arranged along coherent dimensions,concerns of the past: new design abstractions and structures suggest them- selves, and innovation in design is a natural result. The It lends itself to the this new opportunity broader vision of what is designed at a deep level leads for designing because it generates a new to revising traditional surface categories, which in turn model of meaning and form that enables the design and the stakeholders involved in social leads designers to ask and answer new design ques- contexts of complex change complex change tions. These continua therefore represent bases for to better comprehend and debate the levels of grounding not only the design rationale but the direc- complexity and the relative levels of permis- tion of design research as well. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 11
  • 13. ReferencesArcher, B. L. (1987). How designers design. Internalpaper, Department of Design Research, Royal Collegeof Art, London, 1984. Described in K. Magee (Ed.),The elicitation of knowledge from designers. Designstudies, 8(2), 62-69.Gibbons, A. S. & Griffiths, M. (2010). Rethinkingdesign and learning processes in distance education.Presented at the Summer Research Symposium of theAssociation for Educational Communications andTechnology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indi-ana, July 21-23, 2010.Kridel, C. & Bullough, R. V. (2007). Stories of theeight-year study: Reexamining secondary education inamerica. Albany: State University of New York Press.Krippendorf, K. (2006). The semantic turn: A newfoundation for design. Boca Raton, FL: CRC–TaylorFrancis.Schrock, S. (1995). A brief history of instructionaldevelopment. In G. Anglin (Ed.), Educational technol-ogy: Past, present, and future (2nd ed.). Englewood,CO: Libraries Unlimited, pp. 11-19.Young, R. A. (2008). An integrated model of design-ing to aid understanding of the complexity paradigm indesign practice. Futures, 40,(6), 561-576. (Availableonline at doi:10.1016/j.futures.2007.11.005.)12 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 14. FORMATIVE RESEARCH ON THE GOAL-BASEDSCENARIO MODEL APPLIED TO COMPUTERDELIVERY AND SIMULATION Chung-Yuan Hsu, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology David Richard Moore, Ohio University Abstract: For this research, we created an instance of the Goal-based Scenario (GBS) model called Statistics Specialist. The Statistics Specialist application was designed to attempt to implement the parameters and rec- ommended attributes of a GBS. Formative research (Reigeluth, 1999) was employed to investigate the de- signed instance by using think aloud interview, debrief (semi-structured) interview, and a focus group inter- view. The result showed that a GBS might become a better instructional design model if improvements are made in these aspects: 1) provide worked examples, 2) employ small group work using open-ended questions, 3) provide detailed positive and negative feedback. Authors may be contacted at INTRODUCTION The instructional problem of a superficial un- derstanding still prevails in current education. Take Over the past few decades there has been a statistics education for example. Many teachers and strong movement towards education that moves beyond researchers perceive that students who pass a statistics the simple rote learning common to the industrial age, class have a shallow and isolated understanding of toward meaningful learning suited for the information foundational concepts and have difficulty applying age (Reigeluth, 1999). According to Ausubel (2000), these concepts to reasoning (Chance, delMas, & Gar- meaningful learning refers to learned knowledge that is field, 2004; delMas, Garfield, & Chance, 1999). These fully understood by the individual and that the individ- students may be able to do the necessary calculations ual knows how that specific fact relates to other stored but unable to comprehend the underlying process. facts. Consistent with meaningful learning is the con- Without deep comprehension, students in later classes structivists‟ paradigm wherein individuals seek to make tended to use a rote manipulation approach for statisti- sense of their experiences from their own unique cogni- cal inference and were unable to interpret research tive perspective (Ausubel, 2000; Duffy & Jonassen, studies accurately (Chance et al, 2004). This superficial 1992; Gredler, 2009; Mayer, 1999; von Glasersfeld, or isolated understanding of foundational concepts is 1987). also known as “shadow learning”. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 13
  • 15. Many educators seek solutions from technol- sponsible for pursuing a goal by practicing skills orogy to remedy the “shadow learning” problem. Brans- gathering and applying relevant information to solveford (2000) indicated that the use of simulations may problems (Schank, Berman & Macpherson, 1999) .“engage learners as active participants in their learning These problems, selected by the designer to attractby focusing their attention on critical elements, encour- students interests, are moderately structured (Lohman,aging abstraction of common themes or procedures 2002); learners must work with the content and paths(principles), and evaluating their own progress toward that are specified by the simulation, even though theyunderstanding” (p. 68). Simulations not only quicken are allowed to take a variety of paths to gather infor-the random and complex learning processes that may mation and achieve their goal. During the simulation,take a long time to display in the real world, but also instruction, worked examples, well-told stories by ex-provide opportunities to conceptualize and test ideas perts, or other resources are given to learners to assistby experimenting parameters (Mills, 2004; Windschitl them in completing the task (Schank et al., 1993/1994).& Andre, 1998; Yu & Behrens, 1995). A GBS ends when a learner completes the task speci- In this study we have explored an instruc- fied by the simulation.tional design model, Goal-Based Scenarios (GBSs)Schank, Fano, Bell, and Jona (1993/1994). GBS is alearning-by-doing model for using simulations to gen-erate meaningful learning. In a GBS, students are re- TABLE 1 COMPONENTS OF GBS MODELLearning Goals Learning goals are target skills that a course designer or instructional designer wants students to learn. They have two different categories: process knowledge and content knowledge.Mission The mission is an interesting, realistic, and motivational task for the students to pursue.Cover Story The cover story is rationale that creates the need for the mission to be completed and offers learners sufficient opportunities to search information or practice skills.Role The role is the character the user plays in the cover story. It should be a role that is appropriate to practice the necessary skills or use the knowledge in the scenario.Scenario Operations The scenario operations are all the activities that students do in the GBS in order to complete the mission. They can be anything that the designers think will promotes students‟ comprehension. The scenario operations also include decision points together with positive or negative consequences as reinforcement.Resources Resources provide information that students need in order to acquire the target skills or content knowledge to complete the mission successfully. Resources in a GBS have two types. The first type is well-organized information such as text, video clips, narration, graphics, or other materials that are accessible to students. The second type of resource is stories that are embedded with lessons.Feedback Feedback as a consequence of action and delivered primarily through expert‟s sto- ries.14 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 16. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOAL-BASED SCENARIOS Schoenfeld-Tacher, Jones, & Persichitte, 2001), no empirical studies have investigated strengths, weak- The purpose of a GBS is to teach skills in a nesses, or possible improvement of the GBS model.context that is simulated to present a real-life environ- Thus, our purpose was to evaluate the GBS model byment in order to help students index relevant informa- answering following questions:tion, make predictions, and create explanations for thevarious phenomena taking place around them (Brown, 1. What are the strengths and weaknesses ofCollins & Duguid, 1989; Schank et al., 1999). A GBS the GBS model?model consists of seven components: learning goals, 2. What improvements can be made?mission, cover story, role, scenario operations, re-sources, and feedback (Schank et al., 1999). Table 1 To answer these questions we used formativereviews these elements. research. Formative research is a qualitative methodol- ogy designed to improve instructional design models Despite evidence that supports the effective- (Reigeluth & Frick, 1999) by creating an instance de-ness of using the GBS model (Bell, Bareiss, & signed by following theory. Our instance was designedBeckwith, 1993/1994; Campbell & Monson, 1994; according to the GBS model and modified based on aIverson & Colky, 2007; Naidu, Ip, & Linser, 2000. series of user trials.Schank et al., 1993/1994; Schank et al., 1999; TABLE 2 FRAMEWORK OF STATISTICS SPECIALISTFEATURES OF GBS STATISTICS SPECIALISTMission Teaching students the concept of sampling distributions.Cover Story Accurately advising the client.Role Client is a new employee working on a shrimp farm. His boss is currently trying a food supplement to accelerate the growth of the shrimp. In order to see how this supplement works, the boss wants him to monitor the growth of the shrimp, par- ticularly, measuring the average weight of shrimp weekly.Scenario Operations Serving as a statistics specialist to client.Resources Asking the expert for relevant information, running simulations or watching worked examples to verify the ideas.Feedback Experts‟ explanation about the relevant concepts and prerequisite knowledge, worked example, and simulations. Receiving positive or negative feedback after advising client. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 15
  • 17. Table 3 demonstrates the look and feel of the Statistics Specialist GBS instance. TABLE 3 STATISTICS SPECIALISTS SCREEN SHOTS INTRODUCTION PAGE ASK THE EXPERT REPORT FINDINGSDESIGNING THE INSTANCE pository and discovery. The former refers to the func- We created Statistics Specialist to teach stu- tion of asking the expert; the learner asks the expertdents sampling distributions and evaluate the applica- questions and the expert offers explanation. The lattertion of the GBS model. Reigeluth and Frick (1999) refers to running the simulation; the learner follows theemphasized that “the design instance should be as pure guideline to perform a simulation so that they can fig-an instance of the design model as possible” (p. 639). ure out how the target ideas develop.They suggested that researchers include components of We began by interviewing subject-matter ex-the model and avoid those that are not called for by the perts to gain an understanding about issues related tomodel. This is related to construct validity. Table 2 learning sampling distributions. Interview results wereindicates how Statistics Specialist was designed based analyzed and provided valuable ideas and suggestionson the framework of the GBSs model. As seen in Table for design of the instructional program. Additionally,2, scenario operations consist of two approaches: ex- we consulted the literature on statistics instruction to16 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 18. FIGURE 1. THE LEARNING PATH OF GOAL-BASED SCENARIOS COMPUTER SIMULATIONidentify commonly misunderstood concepts and princi- could either choose to “Run the simulation” or “Askples. the expert” (Figure 1). In the “Ask the expert” section, Based on the suggestions from statistics ex- users could choose questions to ask an expert and,perts and the review of relevant studies, the instruction once clicked, a video clip would play to deliver thewas divided into six questions, ranging from funda- instruction. In the “Run the simulation” area, learnersmental to more complicated. Each question was em- could decide either to watch a worked example first orbedded into the actor-narrated scenarios, which de- to try the simulation.scribed the scenario‟s problem (managing a shrimp We revised the design problems based onfarm). The actor, playing the client presented questions participant suggestions from two pilots and then sentto the learner through short video clips. If the learners the introduction of Statistics Specialist to Rogerdid not feel confident in giving client advice, they Schank (personal communication, February 23, 2009), The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 17
  • 19. who proposed the GBSs model. His reply messageindicated that, while small in scope (time on task), Sta- Missiontistics Specialist generally addressed the fundamental The learners identified the mission as a sourcespecifications of the GBSs model. of motivation that gave them a sense of investment necessitating that they acquire requisite knowledgeCollecting evidence before advising the client. This finding is in agreement Once we had a working prototype of the in- with the perspective of Schank et al. (1993/1994) pro-stance we recruited participants (ten college students posing that the main responsibility of the mission is towith a little or no prior statistical knowledge). They encourage a sense of investment in the GBS. It appearswere recruited through poster advertisements. Partici- that when learners have ownership over some aspect ofpants were between 18 and 40 years old came from their GBS experience, they are engaged and driven tofive different majors across the university. complete the mission. During the treatment, we employed thinkaloud and observation methods gather data. Two com- Cover Storyputers were set up for observation. The first one was Participants felt that the cover story providedinstalled with Statistics Specialist and screen capture a story line that connected the mission and other com-software to record the screen while participants used ponents as a whole. Furthermore, offering a story thatthe program. In addition, an unobtrusive video camera included prompts for user questions provided variedwas set up to allow observation of participant‟s facial opportunities to learn target skills and knowledge.expressions without intruding. We recorded all spoken Some participants indicated that the cover storycomments to insure thoroughness of data collection. (shrimp farming) made the conceptual application ofAfter treatment, participants took a posttest and then sampling distributions more concrete and applicable,we asked additional interview questions. A second data demonstrating how they could actually apply the infor-collection session was conducted with all of the par- mation in real-life.ticipants in a focus group. In addition, participants identified the ques- tions asked by the client as a motivational way to gen- FINDINGS erate inquiries and drive them to seek relevant informa- tion. This finding supports Jonassen‟s (1999) claimSTRENGTHS OF GBS that in any constructivist learning environment, ques- tions that students attempt to solve will drive learning.Learning Goals Meaningful learning begins when one generates inquir- The statement of learning goals was identified ies and tries to make sense out of learning materialsas a strength. Participants indicated that they wanted to (Mayer, 2002). Further, learners are more motivated tolearn statistics in order to conduct research or read re- learn when the problems prompted are situated in natu-search papers. They seemed to be motivated in Statistic ral context (Brown, Collins and Duguid, 1989).Specialist when the learning goal resonated with theirneed to learn. This finding supports Knowles, Holton, Roleand Swanson‟s (2005) adult learning theory proposing Participants expressed the view that helpingthat “adults need to know why they need to learn the client was a good source of motivation thatsomething before undertaking to learn it” (p. 64). They prompted them to give the client the most accurateare more motivated to learn if they perceive that learn- answers they could. Still others indicated that assum-ing will help them perform tasks or solve problems that ing the role of the specialist seemed to set up a stan-they may encounter in life situations (Knowles et al., dard for them to meet. These findings support theoreti-2005). In fact, goals influence performance through cal claims that role-play allows the development offour mechanisms (Locke & Latham, 2002): 1) direct- role expectation and promotes engagement in learninging attention and effort to goal-relevant activities, 2) activities (Nikendei, Zeuch, Dieckmann, Roth, Schäfer,having an energizing function, 3) affecting persistence, Völkl, Schellberg, Herzog, & Jünger, 2005; Vanand 4) indirectly affecting action by leading to arousal, Ments, 1999). As indicated by Resnick (1998), partici-exploration, and strategies. From this perspective, the pation of role-playing activities enables students tostatement of learning goals in Statistics Specialist „dive in‟ mathematical and scientific phenomena andseemed to be effective.18 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 20. to develop relations with the knowledge underlying the Feedbackphenomena. After providing accurate advice to the client and receiving feedback, some participants gained aScenario Operations certain degree of encouragement and confidence. Even Participants mentioned that it was practical the feedback they received while offering wrong ad-and helpful to run scenario operations together with vice still influenced participants‟ emotions and moti-questions prompted in the cover story, and that it vated them to review the relevant information. Theseemed a natural approach to deal with daily problems. combination of learning goal with timely feedbackThis finding supports Schank and Cleary‟s (1995) seems to produce an emotional engagement that en-natural learning theory in which learning is achieved hances the learning activity.through a process of adopting a goal, generating aquestion, and developing an answer. Achievement Confirmation Additionally, results showed that learner con- A good way to investigate the effectiveness oftrol was helpful in terms of allowing them to select a GBS model as a whole is through an evaluation oftheir preferred resources, keep their own pace, and participants‟ understanding. Posttest results showedrepeat sections where they felt unclear. Some partici- that participants‟ performance and confidence levelspants reported that learner control satisfied different increased. In addition, most participants could offer anlearning styles. When asked about their own learning explanation with only slight errors when given an openstyles (self identified independent learners tend to ex- -ended question during a debriefing interview. Theseplore information first by themselves while learning results provided additional support that the GBS modelsomething new, whereas self identified dependent worked well.learners are inclined to receive instruction first), thosewho claimed dependent learning styles tended to prefer Improvements in GBS: Changesusing “Ask the expert”; the only one considering her- Based on data analysis results and reportedself an independent learner liked to use “Run simula- weaknesses and suggestions, we decided that eachtion.” The dependent learners revealed that they se- component in GBS, except learning goals, needed tolected “Ask the expert” since the video clips could be modified, as follows, in order to improve thewalk them through the concept, instead of trying to model.figure out by themselves. The ability to control learning not only en- Missionabled the instructional system to be adapted to the us- The data revealed that participants experi-ers‟ preferences and cognitive levels (Merrill, 1980), enced stress while performing the mission in the begin-but also facilitated students‟ knowledge construction ning of Statistics Specialist since they did not knowand development of self-regulatory skills (Scheiter & much about the concepts yet. This finding is related toGerjets, 2007). Bandura‟s (1986) claim about self-efficacy. He de- scribed that people tend to spend time thinking aboutResources how they perform while starting a task. Those with a Nine out of ten participants identified re- strong sense of efficacy attend to task challenges andsources as the most helpful component to promote generate a competent attitude toward incoming scenar-their understanding of sampling distributions. They ios, whereas those with a weak sense of efficacy focusagreed that the resources were concise, clear, and ac- on personal deficiency and generate negative attitudescomplishable with reasonable effort and felt that the toward any challenge.content was broken down in a simple-to-complex se- According to Reeve (2005), a possible way toquence, which played an important role in the quality increase self-efficacy is to empower people throughof the simulation (Reigeluth & Schwartz, 1989). Some self-efficacy training that employs a mastery modelingparticipants felt that with support from the resources, program in which an expert shows learners how to dealthey gained more confidence in answering the client‟s with the problems that lowers their self-efficacy. Wequestions. This finding supports the theoretical claim found that adding worked examples to the Statisticsthat scaffolding can promote cognitive self-efficacy Specialist improved self-efficacy among our partici-(Van Eck, 2007). pants. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 19
  • 21. Role questions were uncomplicated. However, although The role was the least helpful component in participants performed well when answering questionsGBS according to three participants during the debrief- within the GBS program and during the posttest, moreing interview and five during the focus group inter- than half were unable to offer an accurate explanationview. Many of whom reported that they did not take on when answering an open-ended question during thethe role while using Statistics Specialist. Research interview. Similarly, they could correctly answer the(Aldrich, 2005; Rollnick, Kinnersley, & Butler, 2002; questions in the multiple-choice retention examination,Swink, 1993) has shown that role-playing activity may but failed to offer a sound reason for the options theyform barriers for some students, especially adults, who chose when asked to write a justification.for various reasons may be unfamiliar or unwilling to The usage of a multiple-choice examination inbuy into the experience. In this study, the reasons for Statistics Specialist may have promoted shadow learn-not assuming the role could be attributed to two fac- ing. For example, when we asked a participant why hetors: overlook and refusal. The former described par- did not run the simulation, he replied that “I retainedticipants who paid more attention to the acquisition of that information well, so I didn‟t see the need to try itknowledge and little to assuming the role. The latter on my own.” Similarly, when another participant wasdescribed participants who felt that they knew nothing asked to predict the shape of the sampling distributionabout the concept yet, so did not consider themselves for a given sample size and population, we found thatto be a specialist. he could only recite the rule, stating “More than thirty Both issues are probably due to inadequate it would be normal is what I‟m retaining” but he stillintroduction. In Statistics Specialist, we merely dis- couldn‟t explain the reason. The finding supportsplayed a short description and then played the video Scouller‟s (1998) study in which students were in-clip of the cover story, hoping that the participants clined to employ surface learning strategies and mo-could „dive in‟. Apparently, this was an insufficient tives in the multiple-choice examination context and tostimulation for participants‟ involvement in the role perceive this type of examinations as assessing factualplay. Researchers (Vallius, Kujanpää, & Manninen, information (lower levels of cognitive processing).2006) have pointed out that playing a role could be a Students who used superficial learning ap-learning process and through these experiences, role- proaches tended not to perform well on the retentionplaying ability might be improved. test. According to Ausubel (2000), rote learning may A solution for these two problems was to pro- not result in the acquisition of any meaning and itsvide a video clip modeling the role-playing behavior as retention may not last long. Possible remediation in-well as instruction that introduces the ideas for which cluded adopting small group usage and promoting re-the role play was designed to support. This may allow flection with open-ended questions. There is no spe-users to be acquainted with the operation of the tutorial cific prescription for assessment in GBS, though mostin the beginning of usage. GBS studies employed multiple-choice examinations. Given the lack of definitive assessment protocols, weScenario Operations suggest two ways to facilitate students‟ engagement in No participants pointed out any weakness in a GBS:the scenario operations. Although while examining the 1. Have two students work in a group and encourageparticipants‟ test results, we found that the use of mul- discussion. This idea is based on social construc-tiple-choice questions in “Advising the Client” seemed tivism that encourages learners to not only col-less challenging for the participants and promoted rote laboratively construct knowledge but also to sup-learning (Ausubel, 2000). port each other (Jonassen, 1999). Scenario operations, according to Schank et 2. Design a field below each question and requireal. (1999), should be constructed with decision points learners to write an explanation. The purpose herethat either signify successful completion of the mission is not to evaluate the correction of answer, whichor failure. Learners acquire targeted knowledge when is still a challenge for instructional designers to dothe mission is achieved. An investigation of test results through computer-based instruction, but to allowshowed that on average, participants correctly an- them opportunities to reflect on what they haveswered 90% of questions in Statistics Specialist. Dur- acquired. It is possible that students may provideing the interview, some participants said that those unrelated or inaccurate answers, but at least they20 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 22. are prompted to retrieve information, organize it, time spent on Statistics Specialist, participants tended and interact with activities. to use “Ask the expert” more than “Run simulation.” We designed the simulation because of evidence fromResources numerous studies supporting the usage of simulations While the data did identify resources as the in statistics learning (Chance, Ben-Zvi, Garfieldmost helpful element, the results also suggested &Medina, 2007); Chance & Rossman, 2006; delMas etchanges that consisted of reducing information over- al., 1999; Garfield & Ben-Zvi, 2007; Mills, 2004).load and supporting doing. First, participants expressed However, the participants‟ preference to “Ask the ex-confusion about the terms they learned in the tutorial; pert” seemed to work against the intent of a GBS.some were newly acquired and some they learned pre- Schank (2002) stressed, “In any case, listen-viously, but had forgotten. Collectively, the terms im- ing should come after difficulties in doing rather thanposed a large information burden. Offering a glossary in preparation for doing” (p. 229). The usage of simu-or hot linked terms in the application to remediate this lation in teaching sampling distribution underlies theproblem may be an appropriate approach since it not idea of learning by doing.only allows learners to alleviate ignorance about a con- A possible approach to remediate this prob-cept, but also quickly review the concepts already lem is redesigning other GBS components, such as thetaught (Murray, Piemonte, Khan, Shen, & Condit, cover story, role, or scenario operations, that intention-2000). ally limit usage in order to support doing-related ac- Another information overload issue was dem- tivities that the subject experts consider critical, foronstrated by one participant who felt distracted while example, within Statistics Specialist, when a user se-reading text instruction and performing the simulation lects “Ask the expert”, the expert could direct explana-in “Run simulation.” A possible solution would be to tion to the usage of simulation and provide narrationreplace text instruction with narration and allowing with step-by-step guidance.users to control each step they read. This suggestion isrelated to a modality effect that students understand Feedbacknarrated explanations and pictures more effectively The results showed that some participantsthan on-screen text explanations (Mayer & Moreno, identified feedback as the least helpful element in2003). Another participant recommended offering a GBS, since it merely told the consequence of actionssummary in each video clip in “Ask the expert” sec- without offering any informative information. Thetion. Summary information was included for some feedback in GBS can be given in any of three waysclips, but not in the first two of the client‟s questions, (Schank et al., 1999): through the consequence of ac-which were two that the participant watched. She fur- tions, through online coaching with just-in-time sup-ther indicated that a summary would be helpful to re- port, and through video clips in which domain expertsduce information overload. This finding supports the tell stories of similar experiences. Because of limitedtheoretical claim that providing a summary encourages resources, feedback was provided by displaying conse-learners to focus on relevant information (Mayer, quences of actions in our GBS. The purpose of show-1999). GBS, when implemented with computer simu- ing learners the consequence of their choices, espe-lations, should follow Mayer‟s recommendation. cially negative consequences, was to give them oppor- Second, resources need to support doing. Par- tunities to reflect on their experiences and constructticipants in Statistics Specialist were provided with their own knowledge. Schank et al. (1999) explainedcontrol over resources, which fulfills the constructivist that:ideal of individual knowledge construction (Duffy & Once you experience an expectationJonassen, 1992; Jonassen, 1999). The problem with failure, explanations become important.this approach is the variability of how learners utilize They form the lesson that you learn fromspecific resources, which may not be the way designers the expectation failure. When somethingwould like them to be used. does not happen the way you planned, you need to figure out why that is. The Despite the simulation‟s capability to provide reason will help you to abstract a lessonan excellent visualization of the abstract process of that you can apply to your expectationsgenerating sampling distributions, most students still in the future (p. 171).refused to use it. According to an investigation of the The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 21
  • 23. The participants in this study seemed to prefer guidelines designing a simulated context that helpsdirect guidance telling them what went wrong and students take advantage of the software features andwhat information to look at, which may hinder oppor- promote conceptual understanding. Although sometunities to reflect on their experiences and interact with weaknesses were identified in this study, these tenta-learning materials. Further, it may merely promote the tive recommendations were limited to the subject do-memorization of key facts rather than reviewing the main. More studies with other instances of GBS needmaterial to gain a sound comprehension. Conversely, it to be conducted in order to confirm and refine the find-is possible that brief feedback telling them that they are ings of this study.wrong may frustrate learners. As recommended by aparticipant, a possible solution for this dilemma is to Recommendation for Practitionersdisplay a hint describing which concepts to focus on. One strong recommendation emerging fromAnother participant pointed out that positive feedback this study is to spend more time identifying methodswould be more helpful if it could recapitulate the criti- that support and engage learners in doing-related ac-cal concept in the question. This suggestion supports tivities. Learning by doing, the core tenet of a GBS,the theoretical claim that students can concentrate on works “because it strikes at the heart of basic memorythe relevant information if summary is provided processes that humans rely on” (Schank, 2002, p. 5).(Mayer, 1999). However, evidence both from the literature and this study showed that it is challenging to involve adult CONCLUSIONS learners in simulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Although role playing in a GBS allows usersGBS instructional design model by examining its de- to learn by participating, making mistakes, and chal-signed instance, Statistics Specialist. We were able to lenging themselves, practitioners should provide ap-confirm many of the strengths and identify areas for propriate guidance to facilitate students‟ engagement.improvement. Evaluation plays an important role in a GBS and The strengths of a GBS included: 1) learning should be provided with some way to allow learners togoals that enabled learners to see their learning needs, generate cognitive dissonance so that they can retrieve,2) a sense of investment due to a mission that engaged organize, and construct knowledge. Finally, since astudents in the learning activity, 3) a cover story that GBS instructional system begins with teaching a smallprovided a context and problems to enhance students‟ concept that learners have difficulty conceptualizing, itengagement in the program, 4) a role that increased is essential to select a reusable concept for softwareusers‟ motivation through a title that the role inherits design. By doing this, future tutorials may be linked toand through the aid of the client, 5) scenario operations previous ones, which saves time and effort.that satisfied learning control and different learningstyles, 6) resources, indicated as the most helpful ele- Recommendations for Future Researchment, that promoted understanding, and 7) feedback 1. Additional research should investigate how stu-that gave learners confidence and the perception of dents‟ learning styles influence their usage of annegative discrepancy that triggered further learning. instructional instance. What kinds of learning A GBS might become a better instructional styles tend to engage in the tutorial? And how candesign model if the following improvements are made: a GBS be modified to satisfy learners with differ-1) provide a worked example or instruction that dem- ent learning styles?onstrates the behaviors of using the program and seek- 2. Pretests should include items that assess students‟ing supports in order to increase the user‟s sense of self prerequisite knowledge to learn whether this-efficacy while pursuing the mission or assuming the knowledge influences their learning activity. Inrole, 2) employ small group usage and open-ended this study, although fundamental informationquestion approaches to promote learners‟ engagement about sampling distributions was offered in theand interaction in scenario operations, 3) carefully inte- program, some participants still expressed confu-grate other components in GBS to support hands-on sion and overload among these concepts, whichactivity, 4) display a hint with negative feedback and may affect their usage.recapitulate the concept in positive feedback. 3. Future studies should examine different usage of a The ultimate goal of a GBS is to provide GBS instance, such as working in pairs. The intent22 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 24. is to observe whether the strengths of social con- delMas, R. C., Garfield, J., & Chance, B. L. (1999, structivism can be gained through collaborative November). A model of classroom research in action: simulation performance. Developing simulation activities to improve students4. Since participants in this study were graduate level statistical reasoning. Journal of Statistics Education, 7 students, additional case studies should design and (3), 1-18. test an instructional instance using GBS with simi- Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. H. (1992). Constructiv- lar content and difficulty, but with undergraduate ism: New implications for instructional technology. In T. M. Duffy & D. H. Jonassen (Eds.), ConstructivismReferences and the technology of instruction: A conversation (pp. 1-16). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesAldrich, C. (2005). Learning by doing: A comprehen- Publishers.sive guide to simulations, computer games, and peda-gogy in e-learning and other educational experiences. Garfield, J., & Ben-Zvi, D. (2007). How students learnSan Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. statistics revisited: A current review research on teach- ing and learning statistics. International StatisticalAusubel, D. P. (2000). The acquisition and retention of Review, 75(3), 372-396.knowledge: A cognitive view. Boston: Kluwer Aca-demic Publishers. Gredler, M. E. (2009). Learning and instruction: The- ory into practice (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and Merrill Pearson.action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Prentice-Hall. Iverson, K., & Colky, D. (2007). Scenario-based E- learning design. Performance Improvement Quarterly,Bell, B., Bareiss, R., & Beckwith, R. (1993/1994). 43(1), 16-22.Sickle cell counselor: A prototype goal-based scenariofor instruction in a museum environment. The Journal Jonassen, D. H. (1999). Design constructivist learningof the Learning Sciences, 3(4), 347-386. environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional- design theories and models: Vol. 2, a new paradigm ofBransford, J. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, instructional theory (2nd ed., pp. 215-239). Mahwah,experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.D.C.: National Academy Press. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a prac-Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situ- tically useful theory of goal setting and task motiva-ated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational tion: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57Researchers, 18(1), 32-42. (9), 705-717.Campbell, R., & Monson, D. (1994). Building a goal- Lohman, M. C. (2002). Cultivating problem-solvingbased scenario learning environment. Educational skills through problem-based approaches to profes-Technology, 34(9), 9-14. sional development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(3), 243-261.Chance, B., & Rossman, A. (2006). Using simulationto teach and learn statistics. Paper presented at the Mayer, R. E. (1999). Design instruction for construc-Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference tivist learning. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-on Teaching Statistics. Voorburg, Netherlands: Inter- design theories and models: Vol. 2, a new paradigm ofnational Statistical Institute. instructional theory (2nd ed., pp. 141-159). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Chance, B., Ben-Zvi, D., Garfield, J., & Medina, E.(2007). The role of technology in improving student Mayer, R. E. (2002). Rote versus meaningful learning.learning of statistics. Technology Innovations in Statis- Theory into Practice, 41(4), 226-232.tics Education, 1(1), 1-26. Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to re-Chance, B., delMas, R., & Garfield, J. (2004). Reason- duce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educa-ing about sampling distributions. In D. Ben-Zvi & J. B. tional Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52.Garfield (Eds.), The challenge of developing statistical Mills, J. D. (2004). Learning abstract statistics con-literacy, reasoning and thinking (pp. 295-323). Boston:Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 23
  • 25. cepts using simulation. Educational Research Quar- Schank, R. C., Fano, A., Bell, B., & Jona, M.terly, 28(4), 18-33. (1993/1994). The Design of Goal-Based Scenarios. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(4), 305-345.Naidu, S., Ip, A., & Linser, R. (2000). Dynamic goal-based role-play simulation on the web: A case study. Scheiter, K., & Gerjets, P. (2007). Learner control inJournal of Educational Technology & Society, 3(3), hypermedia environments. Educational Psychology190-202. Review, 19(3), 285-307.Nikendei, C., Zeuch, A., Dieckmann, P., Roth, C., Swink, D. (1993). Role-play your way to learning.Schäfer, S., Völkl, M., Schellberg, D., Herzog, W., Training and Development, 47(5), 91-97.Jünger, J. (2005). Role-playing for more realistic tech-nical skills training. Medical Teacher, 27(2), 122-126. Vallius, L., Kujanpää, T., & Manninen, T. (2006). Ex- periencing narrative elements through social communi-Reeve, J. (2005). Understanding motivation and emo- cation in computer based role-playing game – CASE:tion (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Castle of Oulu 1651. In S. Göbel, R.Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional-design Malkewitz & I. Iurgel (Eds.), Technologies for interac-theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth tive digital storytelling and entertainment: Third inter-(Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: Vol. 2, national conference, TIDSE 2006 (pp. 289-299).a new paradigm of instructional theory (pp. 5-29). Darmstadt, Germany: Springer.Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Van Ments, M. (1999). The effective use of role-play:Reigeluth, C. M., & Frick, T. W. (1999). Formative Practical techniques for improving learning (2nd. ed.).research: A methodology for creating and improving London: Kogan theories. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: Vol. 2, a new paradigm Wadsworth, B. J. (2004). Piagets theory of cognitiveof instructional theory (pp. 633-651). Mahwah, NJ: and affective development (Classic ed.). Boston: Pear-Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. son.Reigeluth, C. M., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instruc- Windschitl, M., & Andre, T. (1998). Using computertional theory for the design of computer-based simula- simulations to enhance conceptual change: The roles oftions. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1 constructivist instruction and student epistemological-10. beliefs. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35 (2).Rollnick, S., Kinnersley, P., & Butler, C. (2002). Con-text-bound communication skills training: Develop- Yu, C. H., & Behrens, J. T. (1995, April). Identifica-ment of a new method. Medical Education, 36(4), 377- tion of misconceptions concerning statistical power383. with dynamic graphics as a remedial tool. Paper pre- sented at the the Annual Meeting of American Educa-Schank, R. C. (2002). Designing world class e- tional Researchers Association, San Francisco, CA.learning: How IBM, GE, Harvard Business School,and Columbia University are succeeding at e-learning.New York: McGraw-Hill.Schank, R. C., & Cleary, C. (1995). Engines for educa-tion. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.Schank, R. C., Berman, T. R., & Macpherson, K. A.(1999). Learning by doing. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.),Instructional-design theories and models: Vol. 2, anew paradigm of instructional theory (pp. 161-181).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.24 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 26. USING CHAMBERS’ PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISALTO FOMENT SUSTAINABILITY IN TEACHER ENGAGEMENTWITH ONLINE LEARNING IN GUATEMALA Douglas Tedford, Fundación Rigoberta Menchú Tum, Walden University MaryFriend Shepard, Walden University Abstract: Chambers’ participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methodology was used to analyze the Internet usage and engagement of 34 teachers in western Guatemala, employing culturally sensitive teacher interviews and local educators to interpret findings and propose solutions to its use. The PRA methodology empowers rural sectors of developing nations for community-driven development, incorporating research methods of their choosing for resolution of locally identified practical challenges. Manageable steps for implementing the PRA are described. The use of PRA for successful instructional design and implementation in developing nations was discussed as a means to affect positive social change. Keywords: community-driven development, curricular design, design-based research, developing world, de- veloping nations, distance education, Guatemala, indigenous, instructional design, online learning, participa- tory rural appraisal, PRA, rural, social capital, teacher education In the town of San Lucas Toliman in rural, on interactivity with the target audience at all stages of western Guatemala, a series of free training workshops the research effort were used to discover why the in- were provided for 34 public and private school English structional design model used in the training modules teachers in collaboration with the Fundacion Rigoberta was not effective in engaging teachers. Menchu Tum (FRMT). Teachers were invited to par- Using Chambers‟ participatory rural appraisal ticipate in 10 months of Internet-based English curricu- (PRA) methodology (1998), the study‟s findings indi- lar training modules with free Internet services hosted cated steps for expanding and improving online curric- at the FRMT‟s secondary vocational school. Of the 34 ula to match local needs. This methodology is surpris- teachers, 19 initiated coursework, and only 5 completed ingly appropriate for encouraging community involve- it in spite of the training having no financial cost for the ment in the research process, yet is also appropriate for participants. To better understand this paradox from the the development of the teaching modules. The PRA perspective of potential learners and the constraints methodology relies fully on local input to identify re- they were facing, a study was undertaken integrating search and curricular needs to increase sustainability principles of the ADDIE instructional design model and sustained diffusion of technological innovations. with the participatory rural appraisal (PRA). A research The focus of this article is to provide an in-depth look based design and processes for derivation of findings at how the PRA methodology was employed to obtain The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 25
  • 27. information from interviews of teacher participants that tan areas, or they will continue to fall behind with thewould not only inform improvements in curricular education of children to a greater degree. Isolatedplanning for the FRMT‟s online English program, but from the ICT culture of large cities, they need orienta-would successfully engage the participants‟ long-term tion from experts in order to feel comfortable with thecommitment to promote the program‟s success and to Internet. The provision of free Internet usage to theinform its curricular design, development, and dissemi- English teachers via the FRMT‟s community technol-nation. ogy center seemed to be a plausible solution because of The PRA facilitated local analysis of how to their remote location.define and approach the study´s central issue by select- Of 34 teacher participants in the face-to-faceing an audience with high stakes in its success, both at training sessions, 19 elected to register for the 10-the instructional and at the decision-making levels. month, free, online course for English Teachers. Half-This relied on the input of a culturally sensitive native way through the course, 11 teachers had continuedspeaker/ interviewer, whose participation was integral course involvement, but only 5 completed the selecting specific processes and settings for inter- Literature mirrored this reality. Foth attested that pro-viewing the teacher participants. The PRA also re- vision of “a community of place,” (2003, p. 14) suchquired local decision-making for setting up a safe and as a community technology center does not guaranteeproductive environment to evaluate interview data and usage [of the Internet]. Few research studies have ad-render findings. Joined by local educational leaders, dressed any aspect of Internet usage including onlineteacher interview participants were able to anony- education in developing nations. Creed and Joynesmously render interpretations of their collected input in (2005) attributed this to “poor dissemination, limiteda gathering known as the permanent group interview research skills and constrained resources.” This study(PGI). In this setting, the approach of the PRA to inte- addressed an unmet need, cited by Kowch, to applygrating the audience in the evaluation of the findings social capital theories for improving online teacherimproves the sustainability of the decision-making education in the developing world (Lorenzetti, 2004).process about instructional design and implementation. PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL (PRA)A COMMUNITYS SENSE OF URGENCY FOR PROBLEM The use of social relations in networks of trustRESOLUTION can generate willpower for local change in rural sectors While working with the teachers onsite and of the developing world. This was found to be the cen-online, the researcher‟s wife and daughters concur- tral, governing concept of community-driven develop-rently volunteered their time teaching English in group ment (CDD), a process which emphasized empower-classes for the community. With aid from the IT staff, ment of rural developing nation communities to syner-they also assisted in teaching basic Internet skills to the gize for the purpose of creating plans to resolve self-English teachers at the FRMT‟s Community Technol- acknowledged challenges. Principles of CDD haveogy Center, located on the school‟s campus. Learning been emphasized increasingly in rural developmentEnglish and computer technical skills are two major policies of the World Bank and other non-priorities for area teachers and students as prerequisites governmental organizations (NGOs) since the 1990‟s.for employment in many settings. Demonstrated mas- Principles of CDD were designed to build leadershiptery levels in English are a requirement for admission among those who were directly affected and to incul-to state and private institutions of higher education. cate lasting social changes by increasing ownership ofLike many of Latin America‟s underclass people, rural decision-making through deemphasizing traditionalGuatemalan English teachers face multiple barriers to authoritarian change structures or invasive researchengagement in online education resulting in continued practices (Dudwick, Kuehnast, Nyhan Jones, & Wool-and deepening inequities in educational opportunities cock, 2006; Woolcock, 2002). Concurrently, new ap-for teachers and students. Earning just $200 a month proaches to research interventions in developing na-on average, they lack personal resources to pay for tions have emphasized participation in communicatingInternet usage or teacher education. With scarce ac- about and controlling for change in ways which in-cess to telephone land lines, electricity, and satellite crease the potential for permanency and diffusiondish technology, teachers need connections to a tele- through social relations (Bessette, 2004; Gonsalves,communications infrastructure on par with metropoli- 2005; Grenier, 1998; Van Bavel, Punie, & Tuomi, 2007).26 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 28. Uniquely linked to social capital research was differences between developed and developing nationsthe recommendation by Woolcock (2006) for incorpo- (Laungani, 2005), and to support culturally-meaningfulration of Chambers‟ participatory rural appraisal styles of collecting and evaluating data. The PRA fo-(PRA) methodology (1998) to study how individuals in ments community-driven identification of problemsbonding (close associate), bridging (expert help), and and involves the community in devising methods, con-linking (extra-societal supports) relationships could ducting data collection, interpreting data and develop-support the resolution of problems identified by mem- ing solutions to be implemented locally (Gonsalves,bers of rural developing nation communities. Consid- 2005). PRA is also a strategy that would be effectiveerable research had been conducted using the PRA for in instructional design for Guatemalans as they gainresolution of environmental and agricultural issues in input and ownership into the proposed courses.rural communities of African nations (Bessette, 2004; Chambers presented the key values of utiliz-Gonsalves, 1998). Durston (2002) and Fazio (2007) ing the PRA:both pointed out, in descriptions generally similar to 1. Enable realities and priorities of poor andmany developing nation rural social systems, that rural marginalized people to be expressed and com-Guatemalans rely heavily on social ties for group municated to policy-makersagreement upon methods for resolving problems in 2. Enable trainers to facilitate attitude and be-rural communities. Woolcock directly advocated the havior changePRA, a methodology oriented to community-driven 3. Make normal bureaucracies more participa-development, for this same reason in rural Guatemala tory(Dudwick, et. al, 2006). 4. Build self-improvement into the spread of In order for the results of such a study to fo- participatory methodologiesment lasting change in practices tied to teacher Internet 5. Enable people with power to find fulfillmentusage in San Lucas Toliman, it was necessary to select in disempowering themselves. (1998, pp. 1-2)a research approach which validated the norms andvalues of community-driven development, making the Chambers attributed Brazilian educatorinput of local leadership endemic to the research plan Freire‟s Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1971) as the in-and its implementation (International Bank for Recon- spiration for the PRA, contributing to “the idea that itstruction & Development, 2007, para. 1). As suggested is right and possible for poor and marginalised peopleby multiple sources the study needed to deflect its fo- to conduct their own analysis and take ac-cus from issues of improving Internet access to ques- tion” (Chambers, 1998, p. 2). When this occurs fortions of how to improve Internet usage (Crump & instructional design, the final product is more likely toMcIlroy, 2003; Foth, 2003) and it needed to integrate be adopted by the people for whom the instruction islearning about the effect of social capital for enhancing intended.teacher involvement with ICT (International Bank for The Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) is a cultur-Reconstruction and Development, 2007a; Lorenzetti, ally-invasive, quick, and Western-biased assessment2004). Compatibility of such an approach was found in process also developed by Chambers (1990). In con-the PRA (Chambers, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1998) which trast to the RRA, its predecessor, the PRA places thehad been previously employed to study interactions power for identification of the study question, develop-between rural indigenous groups developing nations, ment of inquiry strategies, and synthesis of findingsincluding Guatemala (Dudwick et. al., 2006; Ibanez, directly under control of communities who have identi-Linder, & Woolcock, 2002) fied a problem to be resolved. As such, the PRA bears The PRA is known as “a growing family of a powerful transformative potential for improving ICTparticipatory approaches and methods that emphasize practices of rural communities. The PRA was em-local knowledge and enable local people to make their ployed to examine the influences of bonding, bridging,own appraisal, analysis, and plans... to enable (entities) and linking social capital upon decisions of rural Gua-to work together to plan context-appropriate pro- temalan English teachers to utilize the Internet for sus-grams” (International Bank for Reconstruction & De- tained online professional development. The researchvelopment, 2007c, para. 2) Use of the PRA was found questions were tied to interview questions designed byto eliminate distortions of data collection and findings the culturally-sensitive native interviewer and ad-(Chambers, 1998) which could result from cultural dressed teacher concerns about using the Internet, The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 27
  • 29. teacher satisfaction with Internet resources, and social sette (2002) pointed out that some individuals mightinfluences upon Internet usage. want to maintain complete anonymity about their opin- Grenier laid out 31 distinct processes which ions, and might not speak up in a group setting. Thiscould be employed under the umbrella of participatory might be due to gender, employment relationships, orrural appraisal. As the subject matter of much investi- other factors. Grenier preferred to recommend, in placegative work under PRA has been in the areas of agri- of focus groups, which might include participants pre-culture and the environment, some of these processes viously unknown to each other, the holding of perma-were not considered for this study. Those remaining nent-group interviews (PGIs) (1998). PGIs could formwere the following (sub-headings inserted by this re- the sole basis for implementation of the PRA or couldsearcher): be realized as complements to other PRA data gather- ing activities. It was also generally recommended thatRecording of Data by Participant, Delegate, or Re- PGI discussions should not precede other PRA proc-searcher: esses, to avoid group determinations of what other 1. Participatory diagramming community respondents could contribute in individual 2. Wealth and well-being matrices settings. This also meant that PGIs should not be al- 3. Daily activity profile lowed to become a brainstorming or complaint session, 4. Venn diagram but should be made as a culminating event for finding Interviews: patterns in the data obtained and interpreting implica- 1. Types, sequencing, and chain interviews tions of the same, with the focus of generating recom- 2. Permanent-group interviews mendations for improvement of a program or a proc- 3. Key probes ess. In the case of the proposed study, this would entail 4. Futures possible discussions of action steps for improving usage of the Analysis: Internet by teachers. 1. Shared presentation and analysis 2. Field report writing COMMUNITY-DEVELOPED FINDINGS 3. Self-correcting notes For implementation of the PRA methodology 4. Review of secondary data (Grenier, 1998) the researcher took the role of facilitator. A locallyFrom these processes, three activities were selected in culture-sensitive native speaker recast the intervieworder to triangulate measurement of teacher attitudes questions into comprehensible segments and tookand thereby minimize distortion of their input. charge of the interview style and process. Facilitated The PRA might be carried out over time or by the researcher, the culturally-sensitive nativeduring a short time frame. In PRA the researcher is speaker molded open-ended interview questions todesignated to oversee the investigative process but acts match Spanish proficiency levels of the indigenoussolely as a facilitator of data collection and data analy- teachers participating in the study. Two to three directsis, emphasizing the opinions and priorities of respon- questions, succinctly-phrased, fulfilled the intentionsdents. Semi-structured interview questions were found of each of the original interview questions. Followingto be a key characteristic of the PRA, which in contrast is a list of the original interview questions, which wereto open-ended questions, allowed input from respon- segmented by the culturally-sensitive native speakerdents to lead questioning in any direction of their into chains of shorter and simpler questions in Spanish:choosing (Chambers, 1998). Some researchers ques- Interview Question 1tioned this practice (Hirschmann, 2003; Kapoor, 2002), Tell me about the influences which causedbut proponents of the PRA recognized it as essential you to become a school teacher, and the concernsfor assuring that input of respondents is self-directed which you have experienced regarding use of the Inter-(Gonsalves, 2005; Grenier, 1998). With rural, indige- net for professional development.nous people, it is essential that their input is sought andincluded in planning, implementation, and evaluation Interview Question 2of the teacher education. Tell me about people who you turn to for While World Bank researchers cited focus help, skills, or guidance to persist and achieve yourgroup discussions as an ideal setting for discussing goals for teaching and for using the capital influences (Dudwick et al., 2006), Bes- 28 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 30. Interview Question 3 At the end of each series of interviews, usu- What grade levels and subjects do you teach ally each evening, the native-speaker interviewer col-and how necessary or useful do you perceive using the laborated with the researcher to transcribe the inter-Internet at the Pavarotti school for enhancing your views into written Spanish and reproduce significantschool teaching? How often do you use the Internet for responses onto cards which were color coded as atti-professional development and what are the fundamen- tudes, professional goals, and social influences. Thesetal reasons for this? themes aligned with the original research questions. After completion of the 20 interviews and preparationInterview Question 4 of the response cards, the synthesis of responses into Tell me who you turn to for help, skills, or study findings began. Led by a respected, local com-guidance to persist and achieve goals using the Internet munity administrator, 42 local educators met in a PGIfor professional development, or if you are more of an at the conference hall of the FRMT on the campus ofindependent learner. the Centro Escolar Luciano Pavarotti “Utzilal Tijoni- kel,” to derive findings by prioritizing the responseInterview Question 5 cards and defending their perspectives in small group How much of what you achieve in the class- discussions and whole group is due to using the Internet, and how prepared do No one in the PGI meeting revealed his or heryou feel to apply what you achieve in the classroom? identify as interview participants. This allowed all pre-How useful do you think the Internet will be in the sent to discuss the issues objectively and free of thefuture to you and to teachers like you in other loca- fear of sanction. Findings were synthesized uniquelytions? and wholly by the processes which the members of the PGI developed and implemented. Each of five ran- The interviewer used a digital recorder to domly assigned groups approached the objective ofelicit responses from 20 teachers in a purposive sam- prioritizing and synthesizing key interview responsesple. Interviews were held in a variety of locations, in very different ways. Some pasted all the responsesincluding the FRMT conference hall, cafeteria and on their poster. Others were selective, and some de-kitchen, local school classrooms, living rooms, and the rived and recorded their conclusions independently.interior of a van. In each case, the researcher sat close Although available for clarification upon request, theby, taking notes, being careful not to interact with the researcher never intervened in the organizational proc-teachers. The purposive sample was assembled ac- ess which was led and managed by the local commu-cording to four levels of online participation, from zero nity of full completion of coursework, as shown in Table 1: CHARACTERISTICS OF 34 TEACHERS INVITED TO ENROLL IN A 26-WEEK TABLE 1 ONLINE COURSESub-Group Size Course Completion Participation Level Sample 5 Yes Consistent 5 6 No Consistent, then dropped out 5 8 No Logged on once or twice only 5 15 No Never logged on 5 The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 29
  • 31. Findings indicated that interest in engaging 9. Researcher provides resources for celebrationthe Internet and receiving specialized introductory sup- to culminate the PGI.port (bridging social capital) in groups (bonding social 10. Community leader plans and manages follow-capital) was high. Salary level (linking social capital) up activities for conversion of PGI findingsand family time demands (bonding social capital) were into innovative, sustainable, and uniquelybarriers to attending a community technology center or effective social action to resolve an instruc-Internet café. Access to ICT experts (bridging social tional design and/or ICT and to ICT infrastructure (supported by linkingsocial capital) at the FRMT‟s community technology This study was the first of its kind to explorecenter significantly reinforced local educator support the influences of social capital upon teacher onlinefor the design of online coursework leading to salary learning in a developing nation setting (Lorenzetti,points and college credits. 2004). Providing educational opportunities for teachers in rural Guatemala via the Internet and digital learningAPPLYING THE PRA TO RESOLVE ISSUES OF ONLINE experiences or in a face-to-face setting requires thatENGAGEMENT IN A DEVELOPING WORLD teachers have ownership of the process. These com- Following is a review of key steps in planning munities lack the resources of metropolitan areas, andfor implementation of the PRA to resolve issues tied to attempts at utilizing the Internet for improving the edu-instructional design and/or ICT usage in a rural, devel- cational system have not been effective. The PRA pro-oping nation setting: vided an approach that brought the perceptions and 1. Community members identify an instructional insights of teachers to the awareness of community design and/or ICT issue to be resolved. leaders. As the members of the community forum ana- 2. Researcher agrees to collaborate with commu- lyzed the teacher input and developed a plan of action nity for design and implementation of a study, for the use of the Internet in teacher education, an un- and then using the PRA methodology devel- usual benefit was received by all parties. Instructional ops research and interview questions. design that builds on the values and beliefs of these 3. Researcher removes self from the traditional teachers may be the only way to effect social justice researcher role, becoming a facilitator, avail- and positive social change in these rural communities. able for questions and guidance upon request. PRA provides a framework that may ultimately lead to 4. Culturally-sensitive native speaker fashions education that can effect a lasting change because of segmented interview questions based on origi- the ownership it provides to its participants. nal, western-style interview questions. The PRA method was the ideal choice for 5. This native speaker conducts interviews in a involving a community in a developing-world setting style and format which is comfortable and in pinpointing the need to improve the ongoing in- appropriate to the participants. Participants volvement of its English teachers in an English teach- are drawn from a purposive sample. ing curriculum project. In interviewing teachers who 6. The culturally-sensitive native speaker tran- apparently resisted the program, and in deriving find- scribes interviews. The facilitator identified ings in an interactive community meeting (PGI), an key concepts and themes from the interviews effective methodology for effecting positive social for presentation to the community forum. The change regarding the diffusion of an instructional inter- native speaker and facilitator record the key vention was identified. In spite of the free online Eng- concepts on color-coded cards. Both repro- lish learning resources that were made available to the duce color-coded cards for small group use. group of 34 teachers, most rejected the offer due to 7. Both assemble small group reporting materi- cultural and temporal impediments. The use of PRA als. Both meet with community leader to set supported the improvement of the curricular program up process which will be followed during the and methods for delivering it with community support. PGI. Without the support factors necessary to get teachers to 8. Community leader gathers local educators. consistently attend online classes, the best curricular Community leader directs meeting, and proc- plan would be inadequate and not implemented. The ess of deriving and reporting findings and PRA findings integrated cultural factors for informing next steps. instructional expectations with social factors to en-30 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 32. hance the implementation and adoption of a new in- Referencesstructional design including online learning modulescustomized to their needs. Chambers, R. (1990). Rapid but relaxed and The PRA not only improved the quality of the participatory rural appraisal: Towards applications inresearch process from problem identification to find- health and nutrition. Retrieved at unupress/food2 /UIN08E/uin08e0u.htmings and conclusions, but for this instructional designproblem in rural Guatemala a momentum was created Chambers, R. (1992). Rural appraisal: Rapid, relaxed,for technological diffusion of teacher education mod- and participatory. Institute of Development Studiesules. In a region previously unaccustomed to free Discussion Paper 311. Sussex: HELP. [Electroniconline learning opportunities, the PRA created an ac- version] Retrieved April 16, 2006 at http://ceptance commonly only found among those with ade- buying power for acquisition of required ICThardware. Since the completion of the evaluation phase Chambers, R. (1994). Participatory rural appraisal:during the PRA, multiple recommended changes by Challenges, potential, paradigms. World Development,the community have been implemented. Among these 22(10). 1437-1454.are (a) uniting of the English teacher learning modules Chambers, R. (1998). Beyond “whose reality counts?”with other free instructional opportunities under the New methods we now need? Studies in Cultures,FRMT‟s Campus Virtual (current enrollment 105), (b) Organizations and Societies, 4, 279-301.the expressed support of the Guatemalan governmentfor expansion of the FRMT‟s online services, and (c) Creed, C. & Joynes, C. (2005). Education for allthe commitment of partial funding to develop the Uni- global monitoring report: Improving the quality ofversidad Maya en Linea (Mayan Online University) primary school through distance education. Studywith free offerings for teachers in rural areas of Latin undertaken by IRFOL: Distance Learning andAmerica. Improving the Quality of Education Report. The FRMT‟s English language training International Research Foundation for Open Learning for the EFA Monitoring Team. Paris: for rural Guatemalan teachers following theuse of the PRA to create an implementation plan was Crump, B. & McIlroy, A. (2003). The digital divide:successful. A sustained cycle of analysis and evalua- Why the don‟t-want-to‟s won‟t compute—Lessonstion of an instructional program by key members of the from a New Zealand ICT project. First Monday, Peeraudience, led to its adoption with expanded compo- Reviewed Journal on the Internet 8(12).nents. The PRA enabled community “buy-in” that re-sulted in additional communities being involved in the Dudwick, N., Kuehnast, K., Nyhan Jones, V., &teacher modules. Bringing online English teacher Woolcock, M. (2006). Analyzing social capital ineducation to a remote sector of the developing world context: A guide to using qualitative methods and data.has blossomed into a series of decisions and actions. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Institute. Retrieved at local educators made decisions that were im- Analyzing_Social_Capital_in_ Context-FINAL.pdfplemented, they now recognize the value and futurepotential of utilizing a new curricular model for free Durston, J. (2002). El capital social campesino en laonline teacher education. In a world where the concept gestión del desarrollo rural: Diadas, equipos, puentesof sustainability too often stops short at considerations y escaleras. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL: Comisiónfor developing financial, temporal, and human re- Económica para America Latina y el Caribe. Retrievedsources, the PRA methodology was shown as a dy- at publicaciones/xml/0/ 11700/namic force for sustaining human commitment at local Capitulo_ III.pdflevels, and for developing and using a new curricularmodel. Fazio, M. (2007). Economic opportunities for indigenous peoples in Latin America: Guatemala, Conference Edition, February 2007. Washington,D.C.: World Bank. Retrieved March 16, 2006 at The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 31
  • 33. Foth, M. (2003). Connectivity does not insure Laungani, P. (2005). Building multicultural counselingcommunity: On social capital, networks, and bridges: The Holy Grail or a poisoned chalice?communities of place. The International Conference on Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 18(4). 247-259.Information Technology in Regional Areas, December15-17, 2003. Caloundra, Queensland, Australia. Lorenzetti, J. (2004). Strategic planning and social capital in distance education: A conversation withFreire, P. (1971). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M.B. Eugene Kowch. Distance Education Report, 8(18). 5-7Ramos, Trans.). New York: Herder and Herder. Van Bavel, R., Punie, E. & Tuomi, I. (2007). IPTSICTGonsalves, J. (2005). Participatory research and -Enabled changes in social capital, in The IPTSdevelopment for sustainable agriculture and natural Report. Institute for Prospective Technological Studiesresource management: A sourcebook. Ottawa: (IPTS) of the European Commission, DirectorateInternational Development Research Centre. General, Joint Research Centre.Grenier, L. (1998). Working with indigenous Woolcock, M (2002). Social capital and development:knowledge: A guide for researchers. Ottawa: Concepts, evidence and applications. Power pointInternational Development Research Centre. presentation, Workshop on understanding and building social capital in Croatia, Zagreb, Yugoslavia. WorldHirschmann, D. (2003). Keeping „the last‟ in mind: Bank and Harvard University.Incorporating Chambers in consulting. Development inPractice. 13(5). 487-502.Ibañez, A., Linder, K., & Woolcock, M. (2002). Socialcapital in Guatemala: A mixed methods analysis.Guatemala Poverty Assessment Program, Technical The authors acknowledge the support ofPaper No. 12. Geneva: International Bank for the Fundación Rigoberta Menchú TumReconstruction and Development. ( based in Guatemala for the development of this researchInternational Bank for Reconstruction and project.Development (IBRD/World Bank) (2006). Socialcapital, empowerment, and community drivendevelopment, description.International Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopment (IBRD/World Bank) (2007a). Socialcapital and information technology. Retrieved May 16,2007 at Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopment (IBRD/World Bank) (2007b). WorldBank Participatory Sourcebook, Appendix 1: Methodsand Tools. Retrieved March 12, 2007 Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopment (IBRD/World Bank) (2008). PovertyNet:Information and Communication Technology.Retrieved September 17, 2007 at, I. (2002). The devil´s in the theory: A criticalassessment of Robert Chambers´s work onparticipatory development. Third World Quarterly, 23(1). 101-117.32 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 34. Essay:IN SEARCH OF THE SECRET HANDSHAKESOF ID Ellen Wagner, Sage Road Solutions, LLC Practitioners and scholars working in the pro- Me: I create training for companies fessions clustered near the intersection of learning and thats delivered on the computer.... technology have struggled to clearly and precisely de- fine our practice for a long time - almost as long as Playground Mom: weak nod..."Oh, I technologies have been used to facilitate the creation, see." production, distribution, delivery and management of education and training experiences. I see that she really doesnt see and I As a professional group, instructional design- just dont have the energy to go fur- ers – IDs -- often bemoan the fact that it is hard to tell ther. Im sort of distracted by the na- “civilians” what it is that we actually do for a living. ked boy who just ran by (not Ironically this inability to clearly describe our work is mine). We move on. one of the “secret handshakes” that unites us in our quest to better define our professional identity. Is it me? Is it the rest of the world? you-do-instructional.html One of my favorite examples of this defini- tional challenge was described in a recent blog post by AECT has actively supported work on the Cammy Bean, vice-president of learning for Kineo, a definitions of big overarching constructs that offer peo- multinational elearning production company: ple working at the intersections of learning and tech- Youre at a playground and you start nology with a sense of identity, purpose and direction. talking to the mom sitting on the bench Lowenthal and Wilson (2007) have noted that AECT next to you. Eventually, she asks you has offered definitions in 1963, 1972, 1977, 1994, and what you do for work. What do you 2008 to serve as a conceptual foundation for theory and say? Are you met with comprehension practice guiding “The Field.” But they wryly observe or blank stares? This was me yesterday: that our definitional boundaries can be a bit fluid. For example, after years of describing what we do as Playground Mom: So, what do you do? “educational technology,” Seels and Richey (1994) made a case for using the term “instructional technol- Me: Im an instructional designer. I cre- ogy” as the foundational, definitional descriptor. ate eLearning. Januszewski and Molenda (2008) returned us to the term “educational technology” as being broader and Playground Mom: [blank stare] more inclusive. All seemed to agree that the terms educational technology and instructional technology Me: ...corporate training... are often used interchangeably. In discussing these im- plications for academic programs, Persichitte (2008) Playground Mom: [weak smile] suggested that labels - at least the label of educational technology or instructional technology - do not seem to The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 33
  • 35. matter very much. And yet, I wonder - without preci- Ten years later, Reiser & Dempsey (2007)sion – do we not contribute to the confusion about defined instructional design as a "systematic processwhat it is that people like us actually do?? that is employed to develop education and training And what about this thing we do called in- programs in a consistent and reliable fashion" (pg. 11).structional design? That seems to be an even harder They noted that instructional technology is creativedomain to adequately define and describe. A definition and active, a system of interrelated elements that de-of instructional design offered by the University of pend on one another to be most effective. They sug-Michigan (Berger and Kaw, 1996) named instructional gested that instructional design is dynamic and cyber-design as one of two components (the other being in- netic, meaning that the elements can be changed andstructional development) that together constitute the communicate or work together easily. They positeddomain of instructional technology. Instructional de- that characteristics of interdependent, synergistic, dy-sign was then further described in the following four namic, and cybernetic are needed in order to have anways: effective instructional design process. In their view, Instructional Design-as-Process: Instruc- instructional design is centered on the learned, is ori- tional Design is the systematic development ented on a central goal, includes meaningful perform- of instructional specifications using learning ance, includes a measurable outcome, is self-correcting and instructional theory to ensure the quality and empirical, and is a collaborative effort. They con- of instruction. It is the entire process of analy- cluded that instructional design includes the steps of sis of learning needs and goals and the devel- analysis, design, development, implementation, and opment of a delivery system to meet those evaluatio n o f the instructio nal design. needs. It includes development of instruc- During the years I worked as a tenured ID tional materials and activities; and tryout and professor, I was a true believer. I was proud to serve on evaluation of all instruction and learner activi- two AECT definitional committees. I strove to make ties. the linkages between theory and practice, process and product clear and easy to understand for my students Instructional Design-as-Discipline: Instruc- and in my work products. I ensured that my students tional Design is that branch of knowledge were exposed to the theoretical underpinnings of learn- concerned with research and theory about ing, cognition and instruction. I made sure they under- instructional strategies and the process for stood that media selection was contingent upon the developing and implementing those strategies. analysis of the learner, the learning, and the conditions of learning. I considered definitions as noted in the Instructional Design-as-Science: Instruc- previous paragraphs as robust, defensible, researchable tional design is the science of creating de- aspects of the discipline. And then I left the academy – tailed specifications for the development, im- I left my life as a tenured academic behind to pursue plementation, evaluation, and maintenance of commercial ID adventures at the time when the phe- situations that facilitate the learning of both nomenon known as the “” was starting to ex- large and small units of subject matter at all plode. levels of complexity. As a commercial instructional designer and supervisor of teams of instructional designers creating Instructional Design as Reality: Instruc- digital learning content and courses, I more often tional design can start at any point in the de- found myself driven to meet a timeline, stay within a sign process. Often a glimmer of an idea is budget, respond to the needs of a range of stake- developed to give the core of an instruction holders, making sure that the assets being produced situation. By the time the entire process is were attractive, compelling, standards-conforming, and done the designer looks back and she or he industry-relevant. Many of my sponsoring stake- checks to see that all parts of the "science" holders – that is, the people with the power to buy in- have been taken into account. Then the entire structional design services - wouldn’t have known a process is written up as if it occurred in a sys- learning solution if it bit them on the toe. Frankly, they tematic fashion. really didn’t care about learning. They really didn’t define.html want me to tell them about the gloriousness of ID. But34 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 36. they were all exceedingly aware of the consequences that they do not come to the practice from graduate IDfor not getting a workforce sufficiently trained to sup- programs. Instead, they come from creative professionsport a new product launch or to respond to a new regu- (e.g. artists, designers, producers). They became IDslatory requirement. Shockingly, the beat that drove so when assigned with learning and development respon-many to push technology mediated learning in amaz- sibilities. They are the IT professional who is put iningly innovative directions in those days had far less to charge of the enterprise LMS. They are the trainingdo with learning than it had to do with being able to manager who gets put in charge of the new elearning –bring “innovative technology solutions for learning” to mobile learning – game based learning – virtual worldmarket. In other words, it had a lot more to do with learning – initiatives that the enterprise wants to ex-code strings than constructs, more to do with products plore. Technical acumen – absolutely. Learning acu-rather than processes. These developments offered the men - not so much.object lesson that theoretical foundations guiding the Job descriptions for today’s IDs have a strongstudy of the evolution of a field can be awkwardly out expectation for people with good communication skillsof alignment with the evolution of a professional prac- and very strong technical skills. Today’s working IDstice, particularly one so directly affected by the speed are technical writers, screen writers, video producers,of technological change. project managers, budget manager, evaluators, graphic As we fast-forward to the current day, the artists, graphic designers, experience designers, inter-good news is that there has never been a time where face designers, web designer, content authors, scrip-demand for IDs has been so high. Sites such as Instruc- ters, coders, analysts. They develop Captivate andtional Design Central list job after job, noting that Camtasia movies. They know a .swf from an .flv, and“Instructional design jobs and eLearning jobs are abun- can produce a virtual webinar on any number of webdant. They are available in various government, higher platforms. They administer blogs and wikis. They can-education, K-12, non-profit, and business sectors. program in Actionscript 3. Administer an LMS or twoInstructional design jobs are in high demand as organi- or three. Metatag content so that everyone in your or-zations are turning towards instructional design profes- ganization can find it. Create videos. Develop apps.sionals to solve business performance problems and to Evaluate the impact of a performance support initiativeprovide rich in your workplace. Manage a project. Soothe a client’slearning opportunities.” ruffled feathers. Develop a bottom’s up budget and staffing plan. Trouble-shoot the network. It can be a IDC_instructionaldesignjobs.htm# scary place for people who have only cursory exposure The not so good news is that the alignment to the creative digital production skills required to ade-between preparation and practice has continued to bi- quately use the software tools du jour.furcate. Many of the things that academic instructional I expect that there are some faculty membersdesign programs prepare people to do are not necessar- among us who will look at these lists and examplesily the same set of skills that employers look for when somewhat dismissively. Yes, many of these are con-hiring an instructional designer. According to some crete operational tasks and production skills. There isobservers and industry analysts engaged in enterprise no emphasis on learning theory. There is no emphasislearning and talent management, a majority of today’s on instructional theory. There are no assessments.working IDs do not come to the practice with formal These are not the things that graduates of academic IDinstructional design education. Data tracked by the programs typically expect to do. IDs with graduateeLearning Guild, an international community of prac- degrees are prepared for different, higher level activi-tice of elearning designers and developers who claim ties: selecting heuristics from among a range of learn-ID as the foundation of much of their work, indicates ing and instructional theories to establish a foundationthat the more a learning intervention depends on tech- for designing an effective learning solution. Writingnology, the more likely it is that practitioners engaged measurable, observable instructional objectives, devel-in the work come from technological and design disci- oping valid and reliable assessments, conducting con-plines rather than from ID graduate programs of study. tent analyses and learner analyses based on empiricalMore than 2/3 of working IDs responding to the open evidence. Creating a shared collaborative experiencequestion asking ID practitioners how they came to the and documenting its impact. Conducting formative andpractice that appears on Cammy Bean’s blog site report summative evaluations. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 35
  • 37. I say what I am about to say as a reflection, promote and enable an improvement in learning andnot a criticism: I do wonder how many of us could performance - whether we use a constructivist ap-actually do the jobs that the people we purport to pre- proach, a social learning approach, a connectionistpare in our programs get hired to do. I wonder if we approach or a behavioral approach. Yes, it’s more thancontinue to serve “The Field” by not actively exploring ADDIE. And yes, IDs DO need to understand the tech-more and better ways to bridge the growing gap be- nology du jour, of that there is no doubt. But an ID istween our preparatory programs, our practice, and our not necessarily someone who identifies him or herselfpractitioners. by the technology tools that they use. We are so much As a case in point - how many of you actively more than the Apple iPad app or the Adobe Flash .swf.participate in events like SXSW? South-by Southwest that we a music, film, multimedia, video game, new media, Today, an ID produces value through the de-design, trend-setting, opinion-leading festival that is sign, development and distribution of learning solu-THE place to be if you have aspiration of “being some- tions. We used to look more like psychologists thanbody” in the design, media, and entertainment indus- artists, scripters or programmers, but that balance hastries. Im sure you have probably seen the news stories, shifted. ID must work with technology tools, becauseblog posts and many tweets from the technology, me- so much of todays learning and performance support isdia film, and music industry cogniscenti who descend enabled / managed / distributed via technology. Butupon the City of Austin, Texas during this two week IDs are not just elearning content authors, either. IDsspring gathering. Amazing energy; Lots of young de- are also engaged in supporting and enabling distancesigners, producers, entrepreneurs. Lots of digital media learnings web collaborations. IDs are starting to workexperiences. For better or worse, very little focus on more with mobile learnings apps and podcasts. IDs areeducational technology, instructional technology or learning first-hand that game design and instructionalinstructional design. design have a lot in common. Another case in point - how many instruc- For better or worse, we can’t think ID compe-tional designer programs participate in events like tencies simply as points in a taxonomic framework. It’sGDC, the Game Developers Conference? This is the time to think about ID more in terms of what it is go-influential, “see and be seen” gathering of the game ing to take to give our emerging professionals theindustry. From casual games to edutainment, Wii to strength, acumen and strategic awareness to take tech-3D, MMOGs to geo-games, the GDC is a meeting nology-mediated learning to the next level. I wouldground for developers, producers, distributors and pun- hate to lose the learning part of what we do –I have haddits. Lots of young designers, producers, entrepre- the up close and personal experience watching learningneurs. Lots of digital media experiences. Very little interactions reduced to a code string in Flash. Asfocus on educational technology, instructional technol- someone fighting the good fight inside the softwareogy or instructional design. company, trying to keep the focus on learning and These days, whether we like it or not, educa- NOT on the technology, I confess to being sorely dis-tional technologists and instructional designers need to appointed when I realized that not very many peopleunderstand that leveraging technology in our work is a from “The Field” seemed to notice or care that learningrequirement, not an option. And whether one is deal- lost that particular battle. Interaction? Forget teachering with representative media, digital media, ILT or and learner, learner with learner, learner with content.CBT, eLearning or mLearning, Web 1.0 or Web 2.0 In the land of software development, an interaction is asocial media, 3D and immersive media and beyond, “drag-and-drop” feature.IDs must be able to: Perhaps it is time to stop thinking about in- Analyze the learner, the context, the situation. structional design as a process and to think about what we do as product development. IDs produce engaging Design an intervention. digital learning experiences that engage and inspire. Develop and produce it. Real value can be realized from ID process models Implement it. when they are used to guide production - of solutions, Evaluate it. of interventions, of digital learning products. A focus IDs are responsible for managing the condi- on production suggests that something real is beingtions, inputs and outcomes of experiences that actively created. For better or worse, a "process model" sug-36 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 38. gests "that which someone should be able to do," with- and styles. This includes public speaking, conferenceout insisting that one can actually do that which is be- presentations, teaching, training, briefings. But itsing specified. We need to be more assertive, focused more about learning the psychology of persuasion,on the solutions and results engendered by our efforts. overcoming objections, inspiration, engagement andMaybe head in the clouds...but definitely feet on the motivation.ground. Third, one must develop a moderate level ofAs an ID stakeholder, I get a little cranky when indus- technological proficiency, and will need to be able totry pundits poke fun at us for being too theoretical. I demonstrate those proficiencies using a variety of soft-am equally impatient with those who dismiss ID as ware. Microsoft PowerPoint, Excel. Adobe Photoshop.being nothing more than an “engineering approach” Premiere Elements. Apple Garage Band. Adobe Illus-that “sucks all the fun out of learning” (Van Eck, trator, Fireworks. Web tools. SWF tools. Adobe Acro-2006). ( bat or some kind of PDF/ portfolio platform. Web con-AnInstructionalDesignerLooksat/156841 ) . I try not to be too ferencing platforms. Social media tools. Twitter. Loca-offended when I hear the cry of “ID is dead.” Yet I tion-based mobile services. User-generated mediaacknowledge that there is fun to be poked. To be fair, production. Yes, you really do.if all an ID does is to rote memorize the ADDIE model Fourth, one must have an appreciation forand then expect to be successful then perhaps he or she design. So many instructional designers jump into theDOES run the risk of becoming a “fun-sucker.” work of doing instructional design without givingSo I ask you this very pointed question - what do YOU much thought to design itself. Designers engage inthink and ID should be able to do? Are we technolo- process of determining the form, function, appearance,gists? Psychologists? Evaluators? Programmers? DO or application characteristics of something. There arewe need business skills? Theoretical cognitive skills? many categories of design, including graphic design,IT skills? Are we artists or engineers or a little of eve- industrial design, fashion design, interior design, ex-rything in-between? perience design, interface design, and information de- There are essential things that an aspiring ID - sign. For some, design is closely linked to art and canwell, an aspiring new media professional of any kind - be considered the expression of an artistic aesthetic inwill be well-served to know. Even before analyzing a practical environment. For others, design is a processaudience requirements, or producing a solution to a of specification, composition and construction. A largelearning or performance problem, or creatively ex- element of contemporary industrial design is web de-pressing ideas and information in digital form, or sign, which includes both the technical and aestheticmeasuring the impact of a lesson on knowledge or per- aspects of creating websites. Increasingly, rich internetformance. If an ID model can effectively guide produc- application design emphasizes user experience, de-tion, then all IDs must be able to produce. manding even more sophisticated design sensibilities.First, one must be able to express oneself effectively in For the good of our profession, those of us engaged inwriting, using a variety of forms and styles to achieve ID – regardless of our epistemological roots of profes-different effects. Of course this means emails, blogs, sional training or the places where we work – need toIMs and tweets. But it also means knowing how to find the common ground that unites and facilitates.write a variety of types of documents, including things Theoretical foundations matter, but so dolike a status report, a review of professional literature, digital creativity and the ability to clearly articulate anda market analysis, a course syllabus, a creative brief, a represent meaning, probably just as much as do thegrant proposal or two or three, project proposals, a skills to keep a project on budget and on time. Westatements of work, a bid for services, white papers, need to find our secret handshakes –the more that tech-press releases, website copy, research proposals, case nology solutions for learning dominate, the more criti-studies, a business case or two, a concept specification. cal is that that we, the ID faithful, know how to recog-If only Id known. nize each other. Second, one must know how to present ideas I expect that there are a few readers who haveto others in such a way as to inform, engage, persuade significant disagreements with some of the points Iand to get a response to a call for action. This means have raised in this essay. I hope so. JAID is aimed atexpressing oneself verbally, both with and without a helping the scholar practitioner raise the bar on thesevariety of presentation media, using a range of forms kinds of conversation. We can’t wait to hear what you have to say. Bring it. The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 37
  • 39. Book Review: THE FORMATION OF SCHOLARS: RETHINKING DOCTORAL EDUCATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY MaryFriend Shepard, Walden University The inaugural edition of The Journal of Ap- of academic fields. How best does the instructionalplied Instructional Design provides the opportunity to designer make decisions between “knowledge-reflect upon and rethink the purposes and role of in- absorption and knowledge creation” (2008, p. 53)?structional designers in education. The editor’s selec- What research questions should instructional designerstion of The Formation of Scholars: Rethinking Doc- be asking?toral Education for the Twenty-First Century seemed to Creating an intellectual community was thebe an unusual choice for the first book review since it is second theme in the formation of scholars, with a focusa reflection on doctoral education in the United States. on ways of building collaborative communities as newThe wisdom of the choice should not be overlooked. knowledge is generated and transformed into action.The authors argued that a community of scholars will The authors stressed partnerships between faculty andcontinually reflect upon its goals and purposes and use students with an exchange and respect for diversethem to drive all that it does. While the book was writ- ideas. A greater degree of accountability is expectedten as an analysis of doctoral programs in higher educa- between partners in the learning community, and in antion, many of the questions and conclusions are equally open community of scholars one should find a highappropriate to forming scholars who are instructional level of creativity and risk-taking. If facilitating learn-designers at any level. ing is the main purpose in instructional design, then the Forming scholars was the central thread emphasis should be on communication and collabora-woven throughout the book and was organized around tion among the various partners to achieve that end.three themes: scholarly integration, intellectual com- Many questions arise for the instructional designer:munity, and stewardship. In reflection, I wondered How do exciting partnerships grow among all thewhat it meant to form scholars who were effective in- stakeholders in every aspect of the process? How dostructional designers. The questions the Carnegie Ini- we create a lively exchange where new approaches andtiative on the Doctorate (CID) emphasized about those designs for ID may take place? How do we help learn-seeking a doctorate should be asked by instructional ers at all stages of development to generate new knowl-designers to deliberate their purposes. The authors edge and build skills and insights that transform theirstressed that scholarly integration requires that teaching society?be viewed through the “lens of research …and research Being a steward of the discipline is one of thethrough the lens of teaching”(2008, p. 10). Instruc- more compelling ideas posited by the Carnegie teamtional designers analyze learning goals and needs to and provides a challenge to instructional designers.systematically apply instructional and learning theories Stewards conserve the past as they reflect upon what isto the development of curriculum materials. The au- considered the most relevant and reliable knowledgethors argued that scholarly reflection and conversation and practices. From their understanding of an existingabout purpose grounded in research is essential if the body of knowledge, they generate new knowledgenew challenges of education are to be incorporated while assessing the knowledge being generated by oth-with new technologies, global issues, changes in stu- ers. Finally, the authors argued that stewards usedent demographics, and an emphasis on the integration The Journal of Applied Instructional Design ∙ Volume 1 ∙ Issue 1 38
  • 40. knowledge to transform society while they communi- Referencecate their ideas to others. Instructional designers needto be stewards of their disciplines as they collabora- Walker, G. E., Golde, C. M., Jones, L., Bueschel, A.C.,tively select the knowledge and skills they draw from & Hutchings, P. (2008). The formation of scholars:the past to engage the minds of learners. If instruc- Rethinking doctoral education for the twenty-first cen-tional designers viewed their role in ID as that of a tury. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, The Carnegiesteward of the discipline, how would what we do be Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.transformed? Finally, the authors shared three principlesthey believe guide student development in learning:progressive development in terms of self-initiative andresponsibility for learning, the ability to integrate andsynthesize knowledge, and collaborative learning(2008, p. 62). The authors provided insight into waysthat K12 instruction can help develop early research,collaboration, and critical thinking skills in learners.Multiple examples of strategies for accomplishingthese three goals are provided in the second half of thebook. The nature of decision-making about the com-plex issues and problems faced by learners at any levelP-16 is too complex to be left to students to figure outon their own. Perhaps for instructional designers the timehas arrived for us to reflect systematically upon thepurpose of learning and what those guiding principlesshould be for 21st century learners. If we accept theassumptions of CID that students can take initiativeand responsibility for learning; that they can analyze,synthesize, and evaluate knowledge for action; and thatthey can work in teams to accomplish a goal that isgreater than they could achieve individually, then thereare implications for our work. How do we help learn-ers move along the continuum to develop these skillssystematically? How do we help students assess howthey learn so they become life-long learners? How dowe develop instructional materials that help faculty andstudents engage in activities as co-learners in the proc-ess? The Formation of Scholars offers a fresh lookat learning and what it means to be a scholar. Manyrelevant questions are asked that can challenge an in-structional designer to go beyond the obvious goalsand outcomes of a specific group to designing excitingand challenging programs. I highly recommend thisbook to any instructional designer who wants to askquestions of purpose and go beyond the obvious.39 ∙ April 2011 ∙ ISSN: 2160-5289
  • 41. an Association for Educational Communications and Technology publication