Applications Of Augmented Reality Systems In Education


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Applications Of Augmented Reality Systems In Education

  1. 1. Applications of Augmented Reality Systems in Education George Chang Department of Computer Science Kean University United States Patricia Morreale Department of Computer Science Kean University United States Padmavathi S Medicherla Department of Computer Science Kean University United States Abstract: This paper examines the varying applications of Augmented Reality (AR) systems in different fields of education. AR is a technology that allows the superimposing of computer- generated virtual 3D objects over real environment in real time. In recent years, there has been a surge in AR systems in all sectors of information technology. Specifically, this paper describes the characteristics of AR systems and its current applications in different areas of education and training, such as mathematics, sciences, and medical. This discussion serves as a starting point for further dialogues among researchers and educators interested in researching and building future AR systems. Educational implications and future research directions for improving teaching and learning 21st century skills are discussed. Introduction Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that allows computer generated virtual imagery to overlay a live direct or indirect real-world environment in real time (Azuma, 1997; Zhou, Duh, & Billinghurst, 2008). AR is a variation of Virtual Reality (VR) that also uses virtual objects. However, AR differs from VR in that AR is a mixed reality that combines the real and virtual imagery, while VR immerses the user inside a computer generated virtual environment. Hence, AR supplements reality rather than supplanting it. It bridges the gap between the real and virtual world in a seamless way. Several researchers (e.g., Pantelidis, 1995; Roussos, et al., 1999; William, 1993) have suggested that virtual reality increases motivation, contributes to better learning, and enhances the educational experience for students. Although AR’s applications for education have been implemented, its potential has only just now begun to be explored. Specifically, AR has the potential to engage and motivate learners in exploring material from a variety of different perspectives that would have otherwise not been possible in the real world (Kerawalla, Luckin, Seljeflot, & Woolard, 2006). This paper discusses the applications of AR in different fields of education. AR in Chemistry Education AR’s applications for educational purposes have been developed and researched. A recent AR study investigated how chemistry students interacted with AR-based models versus the physical models and evaluated - 1380 -
  2. 2. their perceptions regarding these two representations in learning about amino acids (Chen, 2006). Figure 1 illustrates both an AR-based and a physical model side by side. Although there were students who liked using AR to learn about the amino acids because it was portable and easy to use as well as allowed more detail views (zoom in/out); others felt uncomfortable using the AR marker because it wouldn’t work if the student flipped the marker since it works on marker recognition and some actually preferred the real physical model because of its tactual quality. The study suggests that using a cube to covey the AR recognition pattern might be a solution to addressing the issue associated with flipping the marker. Chen’s (2006) research provides guidelines concerning designing the AR environment for classroom setting. AR Marker Physical Model Figure 1. An AR system and the physical model (Chen, 2006) AR in Mathematical Education Construct3D, an AR application, is a three-dimensional geometric construction tool specifically designed for mathematics and geometry education (Kaufmann, 2006; Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2002; Kaufmann, Schmalstieg, & Wagner, 2000). This application allows multiple users to share a virtual space. Students wear head mounted displays capable of overlaying computer-generated images onto the real world. The results showed that the AR application tool is easy to learn, encourages experimentation with geometric constructions, and improves spatial skills. Their setup uses a stereoscopic head mounted display (HMD) and the Personal Interaction Panel (PIP) for allowing two-handed 3D interaction with virtual 3D models as illustrated in Figure 2. More recently, (Kaufmann, 2009) has introduced AR in dynamic differential geometry education in a wide range of ways. For instance, using the AR tool, teacher and students can intuitively explore properties of interesting curves, surfaces, and others. AR in Spatial Ability Training Spatial ability training using AR was explored by Dünser, et al. (2006). This is one of the first large-scale studies that involved 215 students in investigating human behavior and cognitive processes. The main research questions addressed by this study were whether spatial ability can be trained/improved using an AR-based application; and if there were any gender-specific training differences. Similar to geometry education AR in pervious section, Construct3D was also used to design and conduct the research. The study followed a pre- test/training/post-test deign. The effectiveness of an AR-based training versus the VR CAD3D-based training program results was analyzed. The study did not find clear evidence on the effectiveness of using an AR-based training tool over the VR tool. - 1381 -
  3. 3. Figure 2. Students working with construct3D inscribe a sphere in a cone (Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2002). AR in Surgical Training Minimally Invasive Therapy (MIT) is very important in modern medicine. It enabled faster recovery time, thereby reducing cost and hospitalization duration. However, the introduction of MIT has also poses surgical challenges due to small incision. AR systems were developed to provide training, planning and guiding surgical procedures (De Paolis, Pulimeno, & Aloisio, 2008; Shuhaiber, 2004) to address some of these challenges. ARIS*ER (Augmented Reality in Surgery – European Research network) project has brought together a multi-disciplinary science team consisting of scientists from the cognitive, engineering, applied mathematical, and medicinal sciences to develop AR image-guided therapy (Samseta, Schmalstiegb, Slotenc Vander, & Freudenthal, 2008). Liver surgery planning using AR has also been developed (Hansen, Wieferich, Ritter, Rieder, & Peitgen, 2009; Reitinger, Bornik, Beichel, & Schmalstieg, 2006). AR in Physics Education Physics, without exception, is another area where AR can also be used to demonstrate various kinematics properties. Duarte, Cardoso, and Lamounier Jr. (2005) used AR to dynamically present object that varies in time, such as velocity and acceleration. The real and estimated experimental results can be visualized using AR techniques which are more interesting, and thus improve learning. The research by Chae and Ko (2008) demonstrated that physics simulation is added to objects using open dynamics engine (ODE) library. AR in Geography Education The use of AR systems in educational settings includes a system that helps undergraduate geography students understand earth-sun relationships (Shelton & Hedley, 2002). More than 30 students participated in the project that provided exercises designed to teach concepts, such as rotation, revolution, solstice, equinox, light and temperature. Shelton and Hedley found a significant overall improvement in student understanding and reduction in student misunderstandings after the AR exercises. While the AR exercises used in the study did not change the delivery mechanism of lessons, they supplemented the way that core content was understood. AR in K-12 Education Smart (System of augmented reality for teaching) is an educational system which was developed by Freitas and Campos (2008). This system uses AR for teaching 2nd grade-level concepts, such as the means of transportation and types of animals. This system superimposes three dimensional models and prototypes, such as a car, track, and airplane, on the real time video feed shown to the whole class. Since most children spend a great deal of time - 1382 -
  4. 4. playing digital games, game based learning is one way to engage children in learning. Several experiments by Freitas and Campos were performed with 54 students in three different schools in Portugal. The results indicated that SMART helps increase motivation among students and it has a positive impact on the learning experiences of these students, especially among the less academically successful students. AR classroom (Liu, et al., 2007) and AR games (Schrier, 2006) have also been developed to teach 21st century skills. These systems were properly designed with K-12 pedagogy in mind. Results of these initial studies suggest that AR systems can provide motivating, entertaining, and engaging environments conducive for learning. However, more research is needed in this area to assess the effectiveness of incorporating AR games into a traditional pedagogical environment. Usability testing of the AR system in schools has been studied and evaluated by researchers (e.g., Balog, Pribeanu, & Dragos, 2007; Lamanauskas, et al., 2007), revealing that the educational value of an AR system is attractive, stimulating and exciting for students, and that both quantitative and qualitative data demonstrate that this system can provide cost-effective support for the users. Measurement scale was developed by Balog and Pribeanu (2009) for assessing three core features of an AR-based teaching platform: (1) usability, (2) pedagogical application, and (3) motivational value. Future Directions The AR systems have important implications for education. First and foremost, previous research has demonstrated that they hold potential for enhancing learning and teaching in the area of educational technology. However, despite the fact that many AR research learning systems have been developed, AR learning in a real classroom setting is still at its infancy. The effectiveness of AR in enhancing teaching and learning still needs to be further researched by assessing students’ levels of involvement and motivation. The integration of AR systems with the traditional learning and teaching pedagogy needs to be carefully designed and evaluated. Lastly, the cost and other issues associated with mass deployment of AR systems still need to be addressed. References Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments , 6(4), 355-385. Balog, A., & Pribeanu, C. (2009). Developing a measurement scale for the evaluation of AR-based educational systems. Studies in Educational Systems. Informatics and Control , 18(2). Balog, A., Pribeanu, C., & Dragos, I. (2007). Augmented reality in schools: Preliminary evaluation results from a summer school. International Journal of Social Sciences , 2(3), 163-166. Chae, C., & Ko, K. (2008). Introduction of physics simulation in augmented reality. ISUVR 2008 International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality, 37-40. Chen, Y.-C. (2006). A study of comparing the use of augmented reality and physical models in chemistry education. Proceedings of the 2006 ACM international conference on Virtual reality continuum and its applications, (pp. 369- 372). Hong Kong, China. De Paolis, L. T., Pulimeno, M., & Aloisio, G. (2008). An augmented reality application for minimally invasive surgery. IFMBE Proceedings 14th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics (pp. 489-492). Riga, Latvia: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Duarte, M., Cardoso, A., & Lamounier Jr., E. (2005). Using augmented reality for teaching physics. WRA'2005 - II Workshop on Augmented Reality, 1-4. - 1383 -
  5. 5. Dünser, A., Steinbügl, K., Kaufmann, H., & Glück, J. (2006). Virtual and augmented reality as spatial ability training tools. Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCHI New Zealand chapter's international conference on Computer- human interaction: design centered HCI, (pp. 125-132). Christchurch, New Zealand . Freitas, R., & Campos, P. (2008). SMART: a SysteM of Augmented Reality for teaching 2nd grade students. Proceedings of the 22nd British Computer Society Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI 2008) (pp. 27- 30). Liverpool John Moores University, UK. Hansen, C., Wieferich, J., Ritter, F., Rieder, C., & Peitgen, H.-O. (2009). Illustrative visualization of 3D planning models for augmented reality in liver surgery. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (Online). Kaufmann, H. (2009). Dynamic differential geometry in education. Journal for Geometry and Graphics , 13(2), 131-144. Kaufmann, H. (2006). The potential of augmented reality in dynamic geomatry education. 12th International Conference on Geometry and Graphics. Salvador, Brazil. Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2002). Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM SIGGRAPH 2002) (pp. 37-41). San Antonio, Texas. Kaufmann, H., Schmalstieg, D., & Wagner, M. (2000). Construct3D: A virtual reality application for mathematics and geometry education. Education and Information Technologies , 5(4), 263-276. Kerawalla, L., Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S., & Woolard, A. (2006). “Making it real”: Exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality , 10(3-4), 163-174. Lamanauskas, V., Pribeanu, C., Vilkonis, R., Balog, A., Iordache, D. D., & Klangauskas, A. (2007). Evaluating the educational value and usability of an augmented reality platform for school environments: Some preliminary results. Proceedings of the 4th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Engineering Education (86-91). Crete Island, Greece. Liu, W., Cheok, A. D., Mei-Ling, C. L., & Theng, Y.-L. (2007). Mixed reality classroom - learning from entertainment. DIMEA '07: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Digital Interactive Media in Entertainment and Arts (pp. 65-72). Perth, Australia. Oda, O., Lister, L. J., White, S., & Feiner, S. (2008). Developing an Augmented Reality Racing Game. Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment. Cancun, Mexico. Pantelidis, V. S. (1995). Reasons to use virtual reality in education. VR in Schools, 1(1), 9. Reitinger, B., Bornik, A., Beichel, R., & Schmalstieg, D. (2006). Liver surgery planning using virtual reality. IEEE Computer Graphics Applications, 26(6), 36-47. Roussos, M., Johnson, A., Moher, T., Leigh, J., Vasilakis, C., & Barnes, C. (1999). Learning and building together in an immersive virtual world. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments , 8(3), 247-263. Samseta, E., Schmalstiegb, D., Slotenc Vander, J., & Freudenthal, A. (2008). Augmented Reality in Surgical Procedures. Procedings of SPIE and IS&T. Schrier, K. (2006). Using augmented reality games to teach 21st century skills. International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Educators program. Boston, Massachusetts. - 1384 -
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