Geographical information system : GIS and Social Media

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How social media is helpful in understanding the human behaviour and how it support the GIS

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Geographical information system : GIS and Social Media

  1. 1. Geographical Information System The concept By Imran Ghaznavi By PresenterMedia.com
  2. 2. Presentation Flow Need The Concept GIS and Social Media References A B E C D Applications
  3. 3. • Executives often need to answer questions as; • Where should a new store be located to attract the more customers? • Where should be a new airport located to keep environmental impact to a minimum ? • What will be the future energy/housing/transport need of a particular city? • How should the law enforcement resources be allocated? GIS – Need
  4. 4. • Geographic information is the key to better decision-making; • Just about everything a community, business, or public agency does, whether in a day -to-day operations or long-term planning, is related to its geography. • We can take the example of education. The primary purpose of schools, of course, is to teach however school management also have to worry about maintaining an efficient and safe transportation system for their students, whether the school building will have to expand if the population keeps growing, and whether the building’s septic system will be adequate in years to come. • Commercial site evaluation is another example; zoning regulations, utility availability, traffic access and proximity to consumers are all important considerations for retail businesses choosing building sites •Need
  5. 5. • What is GIS • A Geographical Information System (GIS) captures, stores, processes and displays geographic information or information in a geographical context, such as showing the location of all city streetlights/road network/points of interest etc., on the map. • By Hossein Bidgoli • California State University, Bakersfield The Concept - GIS
  6. 6. • A GIS is a particular form of Information System applied to geographical data. • An Information System is a set of processes, executed on raw data to produce information which will be useful when making decisions. This discussion is derived from a seminar by Dr. David Waits The Concept : GIS
  7. 7. • An information system has a full range of functions to : • process observations • process measurements • provide descriptions • explain data • make forecasts • make decisions The system
  8. 8. • In a well-designed geographic information system, information is characterized spatially. • The common purpose of the GIS is decision making to manage: • people • land • resources • transportation • retailing • OR any other spatially distributed activity Geographical Information System
  9. 9. • A GIS is an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information. • A GIS integrates spatial and other kinds of information within a single system to provide a consistent framework for analyzing geographic (spatial) data. GIS : Understanding the concept
  10. 10. GIS can also be defined as - An internally referenced, automated, spatial information system for data mapping, management, and analysis GIS: defined
  11. 11. GIS: The Process Convert Data to Digital Format Capture Data Register Map Base Interpret DataStore Data in Computer Process Data Display Results
  12. 12. GIS - System Spatial Data Base Attribute Data Base Cartographic Display System Geographic Analysis System Map Digitizing System Image Processing System Statistical Analysis System Database Management System Images Maps Maps Statistical Reports Statistics Tabular Data
  13. 13. • GIS integrate and analyze spatial data from variety of sources, mainly in government utility companies. • However businesses are using them specially in marketing, manufacturing, insurance and real estate. GIS: Applications
  14. 14. • GIS applications can be classified in the following categories: • Education Planning • Urban Planning • Government • Insurance • Marketing • Real estate • Transportation and logistics • Human behavior : through social media applications GIS - Applications
  15. 15. GIS and the Social media
  16. 16. • The explosive growth of the Geo Web and geographic information contributed by users through various applications. • Programming interfaces has made GIS powerful media for the general public to communicate, but perhaps more importantly, GIS have also become media for constructive dialogs and interactions about social issues GIS and the Social media
  17. 17. • Birth of Social media brought a fundamental paradigm shift in GIS, from the old model of an intelligent assistant serving the needs of a single user seated at a desk, to a new mode in which GIS act as media for communicating and sharing knowledge about the planet’s surface with and among the masses. • Through this, GIS not only bring people together in cyberspace but also attract people to meet in person for the common good of their community GIS and the Social media
  18. 18. • During the last 20 years, media in general, and social media in particular, have become increasingly equipped with mapping and location-based features. In other words, media are increasingly becoming like GIS. • This new trend of media as GIS can be understood from two perspectives. GIS and the Social media
  19. 19. • First, the mainstream media (TV, newspapers, etc.) are increasingly relying on GIS and geospatial technologies to report news and to tell their stories to the general public. Google Earth or Bing Maps are almost an integral part of the TV broadcasting of everything from weather and traffic conditions to major stories GIS and the Social media
  20. 20. • Media as GIS can also be understood from a second growing perspective that • social media are increasingly location-based. Social media, led by MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and so on, have been described as one of the defining characteristics of Web technologies. • The phenomenon of social media is not only transforming the scene of computing but also stimulating social change of various kinds. GIS and the Social Media
  21. 21. • The new technological advances have made the first part of Tobler’s first law of geography literally true – everything is connected to everything else. • We now have technologies that can not only monitor individual movement in intimate spatial and temporal detail but also track a particular product for its entire life cycle from cradle to grave. GIS and the Social media
  22. 22. GIS applications in the social and behavioral sciences have been confined in the past to what Manovich (2011) has called ‘surface data’ about the many (sociology, economics, political science, geography) and ‘deep data’ about the few (psychology, psychoanalysis, anthropology, ethnography, art history; methods such as ‘thick description’ and ‘close reading’). With the growing popularity of social media, we no longer have to choose between data volume and data depth. We may now have deep data about many. GIS and the Social media
  23. 23. • The convergence of GIS and social media is also subtly shifting GIS from the relatively leisurely process of analyzing static data to a far more dynamic process of time-critical or real-time monitoring and decision-making. • In the context of location-based social networking and media, GIS will involve much more real-time situation monitoring and assessment and will need new kinds of tools that treat information as continually changing (Goodchild 2010). • The fusion of GIS with social media has also made it possible for the first time to operationalize what Miller (2003) envisioned as people-based GIS in real time. Spatial dynamics: Synthesis and visualization GIS and the Social media
  24. 24. • Until recently, data models and representation frameworks have focused exclusively on unary spatial knowledge – knowledge about properties z present at locations x in space-time, often expressed as maps. • The convergence of GIS and social media has resulted in more data about the properties z of pairs of places in space-time x1,x2 (binary spatial knowledge), such as who is following whom on Twitter, social affinity and interaction as demonstrated through Facebook links, or Internet information flows among major cities. GIS and the Social media
  25. 25. • These binary properties involving pairs of locations are not ideally suited to mapping using conventional mapping and cartographic techniques. • Network based representation models have been developed for environmental and disease modeling (Bian and Liebner 2007, Mao and Bian 2010), but representation of complex multilevel social networks remains a major challenge. • Is there a way of using spatial information to generalize large complex social networks effectively ? GIS and the Social Media
  26. 26. • The technological advancements and the growing need for the global harmony and human care, GIS can help in creating wonders; i.e. • From the cure of diseases to the community service. • From the thinking of individuals, groups and communities to their issue resolution. • From future needs to appropriate planning • GIS can play vital role in shaping up the new and happy world. Conclusion
  27. 27. Thank you
  28. 28. References: Daniel Sui & Michael Goodchild (2011): The convergence of GIS and social media: challenges for GIScience, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 25:11, 1737-1748 Adams, P.C. 2009. Geographies of media and communication. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. Agnew, J., 2005. Space: place. In: P. Cloke and R. Johnston, eds. Spaces of geographical thought. London: Sage, 81–96. Backstrom, L., Huttenlocher, D., and Kleinberg, J., 2006. Group formation in large social networks: membership, growth, and evolution. Proceedings of the 12th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 15, 44–54. Ball, M., 2005. Google verifies that GIS is media. GeoWorld, (12), 5. Bian, L. and Liebner, D., 2007. A network model for dispersion of communicable diseases. Transactions in GIS, 11 (2), 155–173. Carroll, A., 2006. A case-study-in-progress: How a media organization tackles the georeferencing challenge/opportunity [online]. Position paper presented at the International Workshop on Digital Gazetteer Research & Practice. Available from: http://ncgia.ucsb.edu/projects/nga/docs/ carroll-paper.pdf [Accessed 18 May 2011]. Casey, E., 1997. The fate of place: a philosophical history. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Castree, N., et al., 2010. The point is to change it: geographies of hope and survival in an age of crisis. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Caverlee, J., 2010. A few thoughts on the computational perspective [online]. Paper presented during the Specialist Meeting on Spatio-Temporal Constraints on Social Networks, 13–14 December 2010, Santa Barbara, CA. Available from: http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/projects/spatio-temporal/ docs/Caverlee-presentation.pdf [Accessed 18 May 2011]. Clark, K., 2011, Stories everywhere [online]. Available from: http://jakesutera.wordpress.com/2011/ 03/24/maps-as-journalism [Accessed 18 May 2011]. Couclelis, H., 2003. The certainty of uncertainty. Transactions in GIS, 7 (2), 165–175. [Accessed 3 May 2011]. Döring, J. and Thielmann, T., eds., 2009. Mediengeographie: theorie – analyse – diskussion. Bielefeld: transcript. Goodchild, M.F., 2007. Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography. GeoJournal, 69 (4), 211–221. Goodchild, M.F., 2010. Twenty years of progress: GIScience in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 1, 3–20. Goodchild, M.F., 2011a. Challenges in geographical information science. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Available from: http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2011/04/16/rspa. 2011.0114 [Accessed 15 May 2011]. Goodchild, M.F., 2011b. Formalizing place in geographic information systems. In: L.M.Burton, et al., eds. Communities, neighborhoods, and health: expanding the boundaries of place. New York: Springer, 21–35.

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