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    21st Century Coal Power Plants 21st Century Coal Power Plants Presentation Transcript

    • Coal Power Generation for the 21st Century: This is Not Your Fathers Coal Power Plant Dr. Jeffrey N. Phillips Sr. Program Manager Bismarck Energy Conference January 2012
    • Who is this guy? • Jeff Phillips – Senior Program Manager in Advanced Coal Group – Employed by EPRI since 2004 – Previously worked for Fern Engineering (gas turbine consultants), Molten Metal Technology (waste gasification), and Shell Oil Co. – Participated in operation of Shell’s coal gasification demo plant and in the start-up of Buggenum IGCC – PhD research at Stanford focused on computer simulations of performance of IGCCs© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
    • Why Are You Here? During this workshop, I would like to learn about the following: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ____________ 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ____________ 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ____________© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
    • Presentation Outline • Some Coal Power Plant Basics • A Brief History of Coal Power • 21st Century Coal Power Plants (two different kinds) • CO2 Capture & Storage© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
    • Carbon Ash (rock) Sulfur Nitrogen Hydrogen Mercury Water© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
    • What happens when coal burns? • Carbon => CO2 (carbon dioxide) • Ash => flyash • Sulfur => SO2, SO3 (SOx) • Nitrogen => N2 and NOx • Hydrogen => H2O • Mercury => Hg, HgCl2 • Water => water vapor (H2O) • And you release a lot of heat!© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
    • Conventional Coal Plant 12 MW 39 % Efficiency (HHV basis) 88 MW 2.5 MW own use 100 MW 39 MW 41.5 MW 46.5 MW© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
    • Efficiency History of US Rankine Cycle Power Plants© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
    • Emissions History (& Projection) of US Coal Power Plants (Dates represent year plant began operating) 90 3000 80 2500 70 60 2000 50 SO2 1500 40 NOx CO2 30 1000 20 500 10 0 0 1921 1960 2008 2025© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
    • US Generation Capacity (Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860 Annual Electric Generator Report )© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
    • 21st Century Power Plants Advanced Ultra-supercritical Technology© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
    • Definition Net Plant Net Plant Heat Nomenclature Conditions Efficiency Rate (HHV) 2400psig (16.5MPa) Subcritical 35% 9751 Btu/kWh 1050ºF/1050ºF (565ºC/565ºC) Supercritical >3600psig 38% 8981 Btu/kWh (SC) 1050ºF/1075ºF (565ºC/585ºC) >3600 psig (24.8MPa) Ultrasupercritical 1100ºF/1150ºF (593ºC/621ºC) >42% 8126 Btu/kWh (USC) and above “Advanced” 5000psig (34.5MPa) UltraSupercritical 1250ºF (677ºC) >45% 7757 Btu/kWh (A-USC) and above© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
    • Increasing Steam Temperature and Pressure Increases Thermal Efficiency and Decreases Emissions 2 Percentage Point Efficiency Gain = 5% CO2 Reduction Subcritical Plant Range Supercritical Plant Range Commercial Advanced Ultra- Supercritical Plant Range 1000 F 1400 F Note: HHV Basis “Least Regret” Strategy for CO2 Reduction?© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
    • Materials for A-USC Coal Power Plants – U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Ohio Funded Project 1500 1400 DOE Goal 750 • During 1st 60 years of the 1300 Eddystone 1 700 20th century, steam turbine 1200 650 temperatures rose from Temperature, Degrees F Temperature, Degrees C 1100 Philo 6 600 250 C to 650 C 1000 550 900 500 – Thermal efficiency rose 800 450 from 4% to 40% (HHV) 400 700 350 • Eddystone experienced 600 300 several materials issues 500 250 200 – Derated from 650 C to 400 1900 ’10 ’20 ’30 ’40 ’50 ’60 ’70 ’80 ’90 2000 ’10 615 C Year Maximum Steam Turbine Inlet • No improvements for 50 Temperature History years!© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
    • Acknowledgements: U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) / Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) A-USC Steam Boiler and Turbine Consortia Federal – State – National Laboratory Non Profit – For Profit Cost Sharing Consortium© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
    • Primary Technical Goals of US A-USC Materials Programs • Materials Technology Evaluation • Focus on nickel-based alloys • Development of fabrication and joining technology for new alloys • Unique Conditions for US Program Considerations • Higher-temperatures than European Program (760 C versus 700 C) means additional alloys are being evaluated • Corrosion resistance for US coals • Data for ASME code acceptance of new materials • Phase II Boiler work includes Oxycombustion© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
    • Materials Limit the Current Technology o Average Temperature for Rupture in 100,000 hours ( F) 1100 1200 1300 1400 500 70 Inconel 740 Nickel-Based Alloys 50 300 Haynes 282 CCA617 Std. 617 Age Hardenable = A-USC 30 760 C (1400°F) ° Stress (MPa) Stress (ksi) 100 80 10 60 9-12Cr Creep-Strength 8 Steels = USC Solid Soln’ = A-USC Enhanced FerriticC (1150°F) Advanced Austenitic Minimum 620 Steels ~700 C (1300°F) 40 (Gr. 91, 92, 122) Alloys (Super 304H, 6 Desired 347HFG, NF709, etc.) Haynes 230 Strength at Application 550 600 650 700 750 800 Average Temperature for Rupture in 100,000 hours ( C) o Temperature© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
    • US Dept of Energy – Ohio Coal Development Office Advanced USC ProjectAccomplishments over the past 10 years Fabrication ProcessesGeneral design studies show favorable economics Welding Technology DevelopmentsSteam-Side Oxidation HP Turbine Concept Fireside Corrosion (High Sulfur Coal & In-Plant Testing) © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
    • Successes: Air-cooled probesCleaned surface of an air-cooled probe exposed for 2 years in a coal-fired boiler at A-USC temperatures Inconel 740 shows lower wastage than a high chromium cladding (50/50), a 23% Cr wrought alloy (HR6W), and weld overlays (WO)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
    • Successes: Welding Technology Today: Repeatable 3” (75mm) thick Inconel 740 welds without cracking Original Inconel 740 weld trials(Liquation cracking in heat affected zone)Consortium Research Consortium research has demonstrated revolutionary progress in nickel-based alloy welding © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
    • Major Conclusions from the DOE/OCDO Materials Project • Boiler and steam turbine materials have been identified for use in a760 C 1400°F A-USC power plant – They can be welded, forged, bent, fabricated and have excellent fire-side and steam side corrosion resistance. – Welded rotors with no evidence of strain-age cracking – Investigating non-welded super-alloy rotors. • The designs of boiler and steam turbine are similar to those of modern SC power plants. • Operation is similar to SC PC plants – Maintenance is more exacting and staff training is required. • Most of work is done but some tasks still to be completed – All will be ready for a demonstration project to be initiated in 2015/16 period.© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
    • Cost of Electricity and CO2 Avoid Costs for US- based Coal Power Plants 70 Cost of Electricity ($/MWhr) or CO2 Avoided Cost ($/metric ton) 60 50 40 600degC $/MWhr 760degC $/MWhr 30 CO2 avoided cost 20 10 0 EPRI NETL (NETL electricity costs are higher due to smaller plant size)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
    • A Low Cost Option for CO2 Emissions Reductions from New Coal Plants? • The EPRI and NETL studies calculated costs of $12- $15/metric ton of avoided CO2 emissions from using 760 C technology instead of 600 C designs • This is far lower than the cost estimates of both organizations for avoiding CO2 emissions with the use of CO2 capture and geologic storage – Those cost estimates range from circa $50 to $90/metric ton • The cost of building 760 C plants is expected to come down over time as more experience is gained© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
    • For More Information • Results from the DOE/OCDO A-USC materials project are summarized in EPRI report 1022770 (available for free at epri.com) • EPRI’s economic analysis of A-USC power plants is described in EPRI report 1015699 (also available at no cost at www.epri.com) • NETL’s economic analysis of A-USC power plants with and without CCS is available at www.netl.doe.gov© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
    • State-of-the-Art Emissions Control© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
    • J-Power Isogo Coal Power Plant Old New Unit New Unit #1 New Unit #2 Units #1 Permit Actual Permit NOx, ppm 159 20 14 max, 9-10 13 typical NOx, 0.03 0.02 lb/MMBtu SOx, ppm 60 20 5 ppm max, 2-3 10 typical SOx, 0.05 0.025 lb/MMBtu PM, mg/Nm3 50 10 3 max, <1 typical 5 PM, 0.01 0.005 lb/MMBtu© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
    • Isogo Coal and Flyash Storage & Stack© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 27
    • Isogo Low Nox Burners© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
    • Isogo “ReAct” Process for SOx, NOx, and Hg Control – Based on Activated Carbon© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
    • Isogo Sulfuric Acid Plant for control of SOx emissions© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
    • 21st Century Power Plants IGCCs© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
    • What is gasification? • Similar to combustion (burning) but with less than half the amount of oxygen needed to fully burn the coal • Combustion: excess air • Gasification: excess fuel (by a lot!!)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 32
    • Combustion & Gasification Products (MAF = Moisture & Ash Free Basis)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 33
    • 1000ºC© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 34
    • 1000ºC© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 35
    • 1400ºC© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 36
    • © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 37
    • Gas Turbine “simple cycle” 100 MW 65 MW 35 MW 35% Efficiency (HHV basis)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 38
    • Combined Cycle 27 MW 100 MW Fuel 38 MW 65 MW 17 MW 35 MW 17 + 35 = 52 MW 21 MW to 52% Efficiency! condenser (HHV basis)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 39
    • 100MW Net Coal to Power: 28 + 20 – 9 = 39% (HHV basis) 19MW 9MW 15MW 79MW 51MW 20MW 28MW 47MW IGCC schematic from US DOE 27 MW© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 40
    • Existing Coal-based IGCCs Nakoso (Japan) Puertollano (Spain) Wabash (Indiana) Polk (Florida) Buggenum (Netherlands)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 41
    • Other Solid Fuel IGCCs • The first IGCC was built in Lunen, Germany in 1972 – 170 MW (no longer in service) • EPRI helped fund the 125 MW Cool Water project in the 1980s – moved to Kansas in 1990s for pet coke-to-fertilizer project • Dow built a 165 MW demo unit in the 1980s – Plaquemine, LA (no longer in service) • Texaco built two small IGCCs at refineries in the 1990s • The largest coal-based IGCC was built in the Czech Republic in the 1990s - Vresova© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 42
    • Vresova IGCC: 26 Lurgi Gasifiers, 2 GE 9E gas turbines = 398 MW net output Photo copyright by Sokolovska uhelna, used with permission© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 43
    • Under Construction • Duke Energy is building a 618 MW IGCC in Indiana (Edwardsport) • A Chinese consortium is building a 250 MW IGCC (GreenGen project) • Dongguan Tianming Electric Power Co. is building a coal gasifier in China that will supply syngas to an existing 120 MW combined cycle • Korean Western started construction last year on a 300 MW IGCC (2016 start-up) • And one more (stay tuned)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 44
    • CO2 Capture & Storage© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 45
    • Latest CoalFleet Levelized Cost of Electricity Estimates ($/MWhr) for New 600-700 MW Plants Based on Powder River Basin Coal, Midwest US site and $10/ton cost for storing CO2 140 120 100 80 No CCS 60 CCS 40 20 0 Post-Combustion Oxy-Combustion Pre-Combustion Results Would Be Different for Bituminous or Lignite Coals© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 46
    • The Challenges for Post-combustion CO2 Capture • What to do with CO2? – SO2: ~ 1,400 ppmv in flue gas Can’t use consumable sorbents for CO2 capture (like those used for – CO2: ~140,000 ppmv in flue gas SO2 Capture). • Current option – Scrub the flue gas with solutions which react with and can then be stripped of the CO2 • Putting the CO2 in the ground (100-175 bar/1500-2500 psi) • Even with state-of-the-art amine solvents the energy penalty is large 750 MW plant without CCS nets 541 MW with CCS (28% loss)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 47
    • Largest CO2 Capture System Ever Built on a Coal Power Plant • 1150 STD CO2 from 100 MW Lubbock Power & Light unit • Operational 1983-1984 for EOR Floods • Dow Amine Technology© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 48
    • Major PC Post-Combustion Capture Projects in Development Worldwide – September 2011 Country Project Location MW Technology Notes US NRG Parish, Texas 60 Fluor MEA CCPI 3 EOR Canada SaskPower Boundary Dam 100 Cansolv In construction TransAlta Wabamun, Alberta 125 Chilled Ammonia EOR & Saline Germany Vattenfall Janeschwalde 125 Chilled Ammonia On shore Saline Netherlands E.ON et al. Maasvlakte 250 MW of new 1100 Amine. Offshore gas MW field Poland PGE Elektrownia Belchatow 250 MW of 858 MW Advanced Amine Saline reservoir Romania Turceni 330 TBD Saline UK Scottish Power Longannet 300 Aker North Sea storage Only 1 is under construction, will the others follow?© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 49
    • Minimum Energy versus State of the Art • 7.5% versus 28%! – There is clearly room for improvement! 20 18 16 % of Original MWe 14 12 10 Ideal 8 State-of-Art 6 4 2 0 Capture Compression© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 50
    • Capture Technologies Reviewed: (EPRI Reports 1016995, 1017644, 1019812) Adsorption (18)Absorption (56) CO2 N2 Binding site CO2 CO2 NH2-R CO2 NH2-R Substrate N2 NH2-R Membrane (17) CO2 N2 Other (17) Cryo, Mineralization © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 51
    • Historic and Anticipated Improvement in Post- Combustion Capture Energy Intensity Generation by a coal-fired power plant Dilute MEA Improved Amines Advanced Concepts – Advanced amines – Non-aqueous solvents – Phase separating solvents – Membranes – Solid sorbents Thermodynamic minimum energy for capture and compression Need to Continue Progress to Bring Down Cost of Capture© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 52
    • Oxy-Combustion Overview© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 53
    • Major Coal OxyCombustion projects in Development Worldwide – September 2011 Country Project Location MW Technology Notes US FutureGen 2 Meredosia, IL 200 B&W, Air FG Alliance for Liquide Storage. Est. S/U 2016 Germany Vattenfall Janeschwalde 250 MWe Alstom, Linde S/U 2015 Spain Endesa Compostella 300 MWe Foster In FEED. Est CFB Wheeler CFB S/U 2016 Australia CS Energy Callide 90 MWt IHI, Air S/U 2011 Liquide Korea KOSEP- Yongdong Power 125 MW TBD S/U 2017 KEPCO station Only 1 under construction. Will the others follow?© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 54
    • Meredosia Plant • Meredosia, IL: Owned/operated by AER • 5-coal fired units (4 not operating), 1-oil fired unit • 4- steam turbines (2 not operating) Providing $1.1 Billion • Unit 4, 200 MWe oil-fired built in 1975 Project Structure • Capture – Ameren Energy Resources (AER), teamed with B&W and Air Liquide • Transport & Storage – FutureGen Alliance • Repower Unit 4 steam turbine • Purpose-built Oxy-PC boiler • Illinois Coal, PRB blend possible Project Timeline • Project awarded Sept. 29, 2010 • FEED and NEPA complete June, 2012 • “Ready to test,” early 2016 Source: Babcock & Wilcox© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 55 55
    • Advanced-USC + Oxy-Combustion• 760°C/1400°F Steam Cycle Benefits Oxy – Higher Efficiency Means Less Coal and Less Oxygen Required – Less CO2 to Compress – Hotter Temperatures in Fire Box → Less Surface Area (below) • Recent Successes – ASME Boiler Code approval of Inconel 740 – Extrusion of Large Diameter Inconel 740 Pipe (above) Air , Low O2 , High O2© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 56
    • IGCC with CO2 CaptureProcess Flow Diagram Steam (Case Dependent) Air Sulfur Sulfur Recovery Water Gas Unit Shift Air Tail Acid Gas Gas Separation Unit Oxygen H2S CO2 Gasification COS Syngas Cooling Acid Gas Acid Gas Coal Island Hydrolysis & Hg Removal Removal Removal Unit Unit Slag CO2 To Pipeline CO2 Syngas Diluent (N2) Comp. Syngas Extraction Air Conditioning HRSG Air Gas Turbine Steam Turbine © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 57
    • Dakota Gasification Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) Production Facility Lignite CO2 to “Syngas” Enhanced Oil CO2 Pipeline Recovery ~3 million tons CO2/yr CO2 SNG to Production & Methanation pipeline Removal H2-rich syngas Gasification & Heat Recovery Supplies natural gas power Owned by Dakota plants (approx 1000 MW) Gasification connected to NG pipeline grid© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 58
    • Major IGCC + CCS Projects in Development Worldwide – September 2011 Country Project Location MW Gasification Gas Coal Notes Net Technology turbine US HECA California 250 GE Quench GE Western Bit In FEED. SCS & Pet coke EOR. Urea Southern Mississippi 524 KBR Air Siemens Lignite Under blown construction EOR Summit Texas 200 Siemens Siemens PRB In FEED. Power EOR. Urea Future Pennsylvania 250 TPRI (China) TBD Anthracite Permits Fuels obtained UK Don Yorkshire 800 Shell GE EU NER 300 Valley candidate Australia Wandoan Queensland 350 GE Radiant GE Queensland Pre FEED Only 1 under construction. Will the others follow?© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 59
    • The First IGCC with CO2 Capture • Mississippi Power Kemper County received approval last year to build a 582 MW IGCC • Will consume local lignite and capture 65% of coal’s carbon as CO2 • The CO2 will be sold for use in enhanced oil recovery • Receiving US Dept of Energy support© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 60
    • Ratcliffe (Kemper County, MS) IGCC Construction Update
    • Ratcliffe (Kemper County, MS) IGCC Construction Update
    • Two Additional IGCCs selected for Dept of Energy Funding Hydrogen Energy California Texas Clean Energy Project • San Joaquin Valley • West Texas • GE gasification • Siemens Gasification • Petroleum Coke and • Powder River Basin Coal Bituminous Coal • Products • Products – Power – Power – Ammonia/Urea – CO2 for Enhanced Oil – CO2 for Enhanced Oil Recovery Recovery© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 63
    • “It’s the Sink, Stupid!”© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 64
    • Phase III DOE Regional Partnership Update • Target >1MtCO2/yr • Includes Large-scale capture and/or geologic storage demonstration projects • Injection natural and man- made CO2 sources • 10 year program – 2 yr permitting – 4 yr injection – 4 yr monitoring/closure • DOE Funding up to $66M USD per project FY2008 – 2017 US Department of Energy Seven Regional Partnerships (NETL website, shows status as of 2010)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 65
    • Current Phase III Plans Partnership Lead Industry Site CO2 CO2 Organizations Partner Source Rate Big Sky Montana Various Toole County, Natural 250kt/yr State U. MT CO2 MGSC IL Geo. Surv. ADM Decatur, IL Ethanol 250kt/yr Schlumberger MRCSP Battelle Mem. Core Energy, Otsego County, Nat. Gas 250 kt/yr Institute DTE MI Processing PCOR U. North 1. Spectra E. Fort Nelson, BC Nat. Gas 2 Mt/yr Dakota 2. CoP. Bell Creek, MT Nat. Gas 1 Mt/yr SECARB SSEB, EPRI, 1. Denbury Cranfield, MS Natural CO2 1.5 Mt/yr TBEG 2. South. Co Plant Daniel, AL Elec.Power 150kt/yr SWP NM Tech. & Farnham Natural CO2 +1Mt/yr U. Utah Dome, UT WESTCARB Berkeley Lab Schlumberger Partnerships experiencing siting issues shown in red (see background slides)© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 66
    • CCS Projects Locations & Cost Share CCPI FutureGen 2.0 FutureGen 2.0 ICCS Area 1 Large-scale Testing of Oxy-Combustion w/ CO2 Capture and Sequestration in Saline Formation Archer Daniels Midland Plant: $737M – Total; $590M – DOE CO2 capture from Ethanol plant Trans. & Storage: $553M – Total; $459M– DOE CO2 stored in saline reservoir Project: ~$1.3B – Total; ~$1.0B – DOE $208M - Total $141M - DOE HECA Commercial Demo of Advanced IGCC w/ Full Carbon Capture ~$2.8B – Total $408M – DOE Air Products CO2 capture from Steam Methane Reformers EOR in eastern TX oilfields Southern Company Kemper County IGCC Project $431M - Total Summit TX Clean Energy IGCC-Transport Gasifier $284M - DOE w/Carbon Capture Commercial Demo of Advanced IGCC w/ Full Carbon Capture ~$2.67B – Total ~$1.7B – Total $270M – DOE $450M – DOE NRG W.A. Parish Generating Station Leucadia Energy Post Combustion CO2 Capture CO2 capture from Methanol plant $339M – Total EOR in eastern TX oilfields $167M – DOE $436M - Total $261M - DOE67
    • Important International Storage Projects Project Country Injection Amount Reservoir Storage Type Operator/Partner Cenovus, Apache, Weyburn- Oil Field Carbonate Canada 2.8 MMt CO2/yr Petroleum Technology Midale Project Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center Sleipner Norway (off- 1 MMt CO2/yr Saline Marine Sandstone StatoilHydro Project shore) Snøhvit CO2 Norway (off- 700,000 Mt Saline Marine Sandstone StatoilHydro Storage shore) CO2/yr GeoForschungsZentrum, CO2SINK Germany 60,000 Mt CO2 Saline Sandstone Potsdam (GFZ) In Salah Gas BP, Sonatrach, Algeria 1 MMt CO2/yr Gas Field Sandstone Field StatoilHydro Gas Field and Saline Otway Basin Australia 65,000 Mt CO2 CO2CRC Sandstone 100,000 Mt Ordos Basin China Ordos Basin Shenhua Coal CO2/yr© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 68
    • For More Information • EPRI Report 1023468 • Issued last month • Free download for all members© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 69
    • Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 70