column• an upright pillar, typically cylindrical, supporting an arch, or other structure or standing alone as a monument.• an upright shaft for controlling a machine or vehicle: a Spitfire control column
Background• Around 600 BC, the wooden columns of the old Temple of Hera at the Olympia went through material transformation, known as "petrification." The wood traditional columns were replaced with stone traditional columns. Almost all new construction of temples and significant buildings from the 6th century BC onwards were built from stone architectural columns. A few examples have survived through the ages.
Types of column• The ancient Greeks invented three types of columns.• The Doric column• Ionic Column - invented around 500 BCE• Corinthian Columns
The Doric column• Of the three columns found in Greece, Doric columns are the simplest. They have a capital (the top, or crown) made of a circle topped by a square. The shaft (the tall part of the column) is plain and has 20 sides. There is no base in the Doric order. The Doric order is very plain, but powerful-looking in its design.
Ionic Column - invented around 500 BCE• Ionic column were taller than Doric ones. This makes the columns look slender. They also had flutes, which are lines carved into them from top to bottom.
Corinthian• The Corinthian order is the most decorative and is usually the one most modern people like best. Corinthian also uses entasis to make the shafts look straight. The Corinthian capitals have flowers and leaves below a small scroll.
other typesTuscan Column• Developed in ancient Italy, a Tuscan column resembles a Greek Doric column, but it has a smooth shaft.
Composite ColumnIn about the first century BC, the Romans combined the Ionic and the Corinthian orders of architecture to create a composite style.
Solomonic Column• Solomonic columns with twisted, spiraling shafts have ornamented buildings since ancient times. Over the centuries, many cultures have adopted the Solomonic column style.
• Egyptian Column• Brightly painted and elaborately carved, columns in ancient Egypt . Nearly 2,000 years later, architects in Europe and the United States borrowed Egyptian motifs and Egyptian column styles.
Persian Column• During the fifth century BC, builders in the land that is now Iran carved columns with images of bulls and horses. The unique Persian column style was adapted in many parts of the world.
general condition of columnA) One end is fixed and the other end freeB) Both the ends hingedC) One end fixed and one end hingedD) Both the end fixed
Strut and column are not same why ?• Both are the compression taking members . A column is always vertical whereas the strut is inclined member .• A column is a load carrying members in acse of RCC framed structure whereas the strut is a member of roof truss etc.• For all practical purpose short column designed for axial compression without any moment is a strut.• A compression member is also called pillar, post, pilaster.
Limitations of Euler’s Theory• 1. The Euler’s theory is applicable to columns which are initially exactly straight and the load is truly axial. However, there is always some crookedness in the column and the load may not be exactly axial.• 3. This theory does not take into account the axial compressive stress.
RANKINE’S FORMULA• This formula takes into account the effect of direct compressive stress. Rankine proposed that crippling load,