Communications that can overcome different frames of reference and clarify ambiguous issues to promote understanding in a timely manner are considered more rich. Communications that take a longer time to convey understanding are less rich.
Implementing Videos in Online Educational SettingsGlobal Shift in EducationGlobal Studies Association, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Laeeq Khan Michigan State University Saturday, May 08, 2010
Changing Educational Landscape Education has undergone a paradigm shift Greater use of internet resources to study and learn Economic considerations Convenience Some skepticism (Bower, 2001; Postman 2003; Noble 2002)
Online Learning Statistics (Allen & Seaman, 2010) Rapid growth in online enrollments at 17% in 2008 1.2 % > the growth of student population in the overall higher education Students in higher education take at least one online course
What Learning? Learning Web-based learning (Khan, 1998)
Benefits Employee training (Simmons, 2002, Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003) Time and money saving due to elimination of distance, Access to experts and convenience (Rossett, 2002)
Vision “the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”. (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)
Effective online Delivery (Based on Leidner and Jarvenpaa ,1993)
Online Learning e-learning is often referred to as web-based learning (Khan, 1998) Several terminologies are interchangeably for online learning - virtual learning, e-learning computer-assisted learning, web-based learning and distance learning
Benefits of Online Learning Organizations are increasingly using online learning methods for employee training (Simmons, 2002), (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003) Students are also advantaged due to their skills being applicable in businesses (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 1993). Time, cost saving due to elimination of distance, access to experts, and convenience (Rossett, 2002).
Online Learning “the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”. (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)
Technological advancement Increasing network bandwidth, better user access User friendly software and hardware More practical to deliver instructional materials (Martindale, 2002) Live instructional broadcasts or recorded material
Visual cues VBI was more memorable than the traditional text-based instruction (Choi & Johnson, 2005) Context-based videos in online courses have the potential to enhance learners’ retention and motivation (Choi& Johnson, 2005) Learners can visualize a process or see how something works
Easing complexity Online instructors will be able to better help their students Streaming media can help understand “complex concepts and procedures” otherwise difficult to elaborate with text and graphics (Klass, 2003; Reed, 2003) Additional support for learners
Good old TV Research by Salomon (1984) found that: sixth grade children rated television (video) as an easier medium to learn from than books.
“A picture is worth a thousand words”, what about video? Enhanced creativity and novelty Multimedia can help improve and augment the learning process of students as they see the concept in action (Michelich, 2002) When continual feedback needed, video is far superior than text or graphics. (Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V., 2007)
Motivation - Videos “The arousal, direction, and sustenance of behavior” (Keller, 1979, p. 27). Enhanced student engagement and capturing of cultural context (Stilborne & MacGibbon, 2001)
Student Motivation & Online Learning For conducive learning, students need to: “become active participants in their own learning” “effective instruction has embedded within it motivational components that enhance self-efficacy and perceived challenge” (Hacker & Niederhauser, 2000, p. 53).
The Vital Link Based on Goslin, 2003, Wlodkowski, 1985
Situational Interest Situational interests sparked by books, websites, videos Catch and hold (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000) Catch – that’s gets students engaged Hold – deeper learning – intrinsic motivation Situational interest can lead a student to learn more about a topic. As knowledge deepens, reasons for engaging in a activity become intrinsic
Media richness theory (Daft and Lengel, 1986) Richer communication generally more effective than less rich media. Example: phone call – a less richer medium than video conferencing
Allan Paivio’s dual coding theory (1990) When visual and auditory information are presented together, they do not compete for important mental resources, but actually work together Video technology can make learning alive Recall enhanced by presenting information in both visual and verbal form
Successful Video Implementation Results of an experiment showed that effective online learning hinged on interactivity of the video (Zhang et al. 2006) Effective online delivery is based on technology, instructor characteristics and student characteristics (Leidner and Jarvenpaa, 1993)
Technology Processing speed At least 256 MB RAM, preferably higher A large, fast hard drive (80+ GB) Good quality graphics card Good internet connection
Software Video capture software: Camtasia, Jing, Jing Pro Video editing software: Microsoft Movie Maker, Apple iMovie, Avid FreeDV Video software: VLC Media player, Real player, Win Media player
Instructor Role Encouraging creativity in an online global classroom Online instructor role - understanding effective video production techniques Timely video-based personalized feedback
Student Characteristics & Instructional Design Instructional design - Understanding learner's goals, needs, and motivations in taking a course a basic tenet of instructional design (McManus, 2000; Schrum, 1995) Technology acceptance Commitment & motivation Effective communication
Successful Video Implementation Physical education (Lim & Pellet, 2009) Teacher training and development (Laarhoven, T., Munk, D., Zurita, B., Smith, T., 2008; Star & Stirckland, 2008; McConnell, et al, 2008; Lundeberg, Koehler, Zhang, Karunaratne, McConnell, Eberhardt, 2008; Rosaen, Lundeberg, Cooper, Fritzen, Terpstra, 2008) Information retention and recall (Baggett, 1979; Cowen, 1984; Choi & Johnson, 2007)