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Implementing videos in online educational settings

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  • Communications that can overcome different frames of reference and clarify ambiguous issues to promote understanding in a timely manner are considered more rich. Communications that take a longer time to convey understanding are less rich.
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    • 1. Implementing Videos in Online Educational SettingsGlobal Shift in EducationGlobal Studies Association, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
      Laeeq Khan
      Michigan State University
      Saturday, May 08, 2010
    • 2. Changing Educational Landscape
      Education has undergone a paradigm shift
      Greater use of internet resources to study and learn
      Economic considerations
      Convenience
      Some skepticism
      (Bower, 2001; Postman 2003; Noble 2002)
    • 3. Online Learning
    • 4. Online Learning Statistics (Allen & Seaman, 2010)
      Rapid growth in online enrollments at 17% in 2008
      1.2 % > the growth of student population in the overall higher education
      Students in higher education take at least one online course
    • 5. What Learning?
      Learning
      Web-based learning (Khan, 1998)
    • 6. Benefits
      Employee training (Simmons, 2002, Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003)
      Time and money saving due to elimination of distance,
      Access to experts and convenience (Rossett, 2002)
    • 7. Vision
      “the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”.
      (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)
    • 8. Effective online Delivery
      (Based on Leidner and Jarvenpaa ,1993)
    • 9. Online Learning
      e-learning is often referred to as web-based learning (Khan, 1998)
      Several terminologies are interchangeably for online learning - virtual learning, e-learning computer-assisted learning, web-based learning and distance learning
    • 10. Benefits of Online Learning
      Organizations are increasingly using online learning methods for employee training (Simmons, 2002), (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003)
      Students are also advantaged due to their skills being applicable in businesses (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 1993).
      Time, cost saving due to elimination of distance, access to experts, and convenience (Rossett, 2002).
    • 11. Online Learning
      “the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”.
      (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)
    • 12. Video based learning
    • 13. Why Videos ?
    • 14. Technological advancement
      Increasing network bandwidth, better user access
      User friendly software and hardware
      More practical to deliver instructional materials (Martindale, 2002)
      Live instructional broadcasts or recorded material
    • 15. Visual cues
      VBI was more memorable than the traditional text-based instruction (Choi & Johnson, 2005)
      Context-based videos in online courses have the potential to enhance learners’ retention and motivation (Choi& Johnson, 2005)
      Learners can visualize a process or see how something works
    • 16. Easing complexity
      Online instructors will be able to better help their students
      Streaming media can help understand “complex concepts and procedures” otherwise difficult to elaborate with text and graphics (Klass, 2003; Reed, 2003)
      Additional support for learners
    • 17. Good old TV
      Research by Salomon (1984) found that:
      sixth grade children rated television (video) as an easier medium to learn from than books.
    • 18. “A picture is worth a thousand words”, what about video?
      Enhanced creativity and novelty
      Multimedia can help improve and augment the learning process of students as they see the concept in action (Michelich, 2002)
      When continual feedback needed, video is far superior than text or graphics. (Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V., 2007)
    • 19. Motivation - Videos
      “The arousal, direction, and sustenance of behavior”
      (Keller, 1979, p. 27).
      Enhanced student engagement and capturing of cultural context (Stilborne & MacGibbon, 2001)
    • 20. Student Motivation & Online Learning
      For conducive learning, students need to:
      “become active participants in their own learning”
      “effective instruction has embedded within it motivational components that enhance self-efficacy and perceived challenge”
      (Hacker & Niederhauser, 2000, p. 53).
    • 21. The Vital Link
      Based on Goslin, 2003, Wlodkowski, 1985
    • 22. Situational Interest
      Situational interests sparked by books, websites, videos
      Catch and hold (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000)
      Catch – that’s gets students engaged
      Hold – deeper learning – intrinsic motivation
      Situational interest can lead a student to learn more about a topic. As knowledge deepens, reasons for engaging in a activity become intrinsic
    • 23. Media richness theory (Daft and Lengel, 1986)
      Richer communication generally more effective than less rich media.
      Example: phone call – a less richer medium than video conferencing
    • 24. Allan Paivio’s dual coding theory (1990)
      When visual and auditory information are presented together, they do not compete for important mental resources, but actually work together
      Video technology can make learning alive
      Recall enhanced by presenting information in both visual and verbal form
    • 25. Implementing Videos
    • 26. Successful Video Implementation
      Results of an experiment showed that effective online learning hinged on interactivity of the video (Zhang et al. 2006)
      Effective online delivery is based on technology, instructor characteristics and student characteristics (Leidner and Jarvenpaa, 1993)
    • 27. Technology
      Processing speed
      At least 256 MB RAM, preferably higher
      A large, fast hard drive (80+ GB)
      Good quality graphics card
      Good internet connection
    • 28. Software
      Video capture software:
      Camtasia, Jing, Jing Pro
      Video editing software:
      Microsoft Movie Maker, Apple iMovie, Avid FreeDV
      Video software:
      VLC Media player, Real player, Win Media player
    • 29. Instructor Role
      Encouraging creativity in an online global classroom
      Online instructor role - understanding effective video production techniques
      Timely video-based personalized feedback
    • 30. Student Characteristics & Instructional Design
      Instructional design - Understanding learner's goals, needs, and motivations in taking a course a basic tenet of instructional design (McManus, 2000; Schrum, 1995)
      Technology acceptance
      Commitment & motivation
      Effective communication
    • 31. Successful Video Implementation
      Physical education (Lim & Pellet, 2009)
      Teacher training and development (Laarhoven, T., Munk, D., Zurita, B., Smith, T., 2008; Star & Stirckland, 2008; McConnell, et al, 2008; Lundeberg, Koehler, Zhang, Karunaratne, McConnell, Eberhardt, 2008; Rosaen, Lundeberg, Cooper, Fritzen, Terpstra, 2008)
      Information retention and recall (Baggett, 1979; Cowen, 1984; Choi & Johnson, 2007)
    • 32. Endless possibilities
      Supporting older learners (GramB, D., & Struve, D. 2009)
      Language learning (Herron, Dubreil, Corrie, and Cole, 2002; Al-Seghayer, 2001; Tscirner, 2001; Secules, Herron, & Tomasello, 1992; Hung, 2009)
      Distance Learning & eLearning (Bloomberg, 2007; Bassili, 2008; Pouezevara & Parajuli, 2007; Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, Nunamaker, 2006)
      Overall classroom reflection (Hansen, 1989).
    • 33. Videos
      Video always better? Not necessarily
      Not all are visual learners
      Opportunity for better communication
      Increased learner motivation
    • 34. Laeeq Khan (www.laeeq.com)
      Thank You!