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  • Communications that can overcome different frames of reference and clarify ambiguous issues to promote understanding in a timely manner are considered more rich. Communications that take a longer time to convey understanding are less rich.

Implementing videos in online educational settings Implementing videos in online educational settings Presentation Transcript

  • Implementing Videos in Online Educational SettingsGlobal Shift in EducationGlobal Studies Association, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    Laeeq Khan
    Michigan State University
    Saturday, May 08, 2010
  • Changing Educational Landscape
    Education has undergone a paradigm shift
    Greater use of internet resources to study and learn
    Economic considerations
    Convenience
    Some skepticism
    (Bower, 2001; Postman 2003; Noble 2002)
  • Online Learning
  • Online Learning Statistics (Allen & Seaman, 2010)
    Rapid growth in online enrollments at 17% in 2008
    1.2 % > the growth of student population in the overall higher education
    Students in higher education take at least one online course
  • What Learning?
    Learning
    Web-based learning (Khan, 1998)
  • Benefits
    Employee training (Simmons, 2002, Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003)
    Time and money saving due to elimination of distance,
    Access to experts and convenience (Rossett, 2002)
  • Vision
    “the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”.
    (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)
  • Effective online Delivery
    (Based on Leidner and Jarvenpaa ,1993)
  • Online Learning
    e-learning is often referred to as web-based learning (Khan, 1998)
    Several terminologies are interchangeably for online learning - virtual learning, e-learning computer-assisted learning, web-based learning and distance learning
  • Benefits of Online Learning
    Organizations are increasingly using online learning methods for employee training (Simmons, 2002), (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003)
    Students are also advantaged due to their skills being applicable in businesses (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 1993).
    Time, cost saving due to elimination of distance, access to experts, and convenience (Rossett, 2002).
  • Online Learning
    “the new focus of distance learning is to build a cost-effective learning infrastructure that enables anytime, anywhere, self-paced, and interactive learning”.
    (Zhang & Nunamaker, 2003, p. 208)
  • Video based learning
  • Why Videos ?
  • Technological advancement
    Increasing network bandwidth, better user access
    User friendly software and hardware
    More practical to deliver instructional materials (Martindale, 2002)
    Live instructional broadcasts or recorded material
  • Visual cues
    VBI was more memorable than the traditional text-based instruction (Choi & Johnson, 2005)
    Context-based videos in online courses have the potential to enhance learners’ retention and motivation (Choi& Johnson, 2005)
    Learners can visualize a process or see how something works
  • Easing complexity
    Online instructors will be able to better help their students
    Streaming media can help understand “complex concepts and procedures” otherwise difficult to elaborate with text and graphics (Klass, 2003; Reed, 2003)
    Additional support for learners
  • Good old TV
    Research by Salomon (1984) found that:
    sixth grade children rated television (video) as an easier medium to learn from than books.
  • “A picture is worth a thousand words”, what about video?
    Enhanced creativity and novelty
    Multimedia can help improve and augment the learning process of students as they see the concept in action (Michelich, 2002)
    When continual feedback needed, video is far superior than text or graphics. (Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V., 2007)
  • Motivation - Videos
    “The arousal, direction, and sustenance of behavior”
    (Keller, 1979, p. 27).
    Enhanced student engagement and capturing of cultural context (Stilborne & MacGibbon, 2001)
  • Student Motivation & Online Learning
    For conducive learning, students need to:
    “become active participants in their own learning”
    “effective instruction has embedded within it motivational components that enhance self-efficacy and perceived challenge”
    (Hacker & Niederhauser, 2000, p. 53).
  • The Vital Link
    Based on Goslin, 2003, Wlodkowski, 1985
  • Situational Interest
    Situational interests sparked by books, websites, videos
    Catch and hold (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000)
    Catch – that’s gets students engaged
    Hold – deeper learning – intrinsic motivation
    Situational interest can lead a student to learn more about a topic. As knowledge deepens, reasons for engaging in a activity become intrinsic
  • Media richness theory (Daft and Lengel, 1986)
    Richer communication generally more effective than less rich media.
    Example: phone call – a less richer medium than video conferencing
  • Allan Paivio’s dual coding theory (1990)
    When visual and auditory information are presented together, they do not compete for important mental resources, but actually work together
    Video technology can make learning alive
    Recall enhanced by presenting information in both visual and verbal form
  • Implementing Videos
  • Successful Video Implementation
    Results of an experiment showed that effective online learning hinged on interactivity of the video (Zhang et al. 2006)
    Effective online delivery is based on technology, instructor characteristics and student characteristics (Leidner and Jarvenpaa, 1993)
  • Technology
    Processing speed
    At least 256 MB RAM, preferably higher
    A large, fast hard drive (80+ GB)
    Good quality graphics card
    Good internet connection
  • Software
    Video capture software:
    Camtasia, Jing, Jing Pro
    Video editing software:
    Microsoft Movie Maker, Apple iMovie, Avid FreeDV
    Video software:
    VLC Media player, Real player, Win Media player
  • Instructor Role
    Encouraging creativity in an online global classroom
    Online instructor role - understanding effective video production techniques
    Timely video-based personalized feedback
  • Student Characteristics & Instructional Design
    Instructional design - Understanding learner's goals, needs, and motivations in taking a course a basic tenet of instructional design (McManus, 2000; Schrum, 1995)
    Technology acceptance
    Commitment & motivation
    Effective communication
  • Successful Video Implementation
    Physical education (Lim & Pellet, 2009)
    Teacher training and development (Laarhoven, T., Munk, D., Zurita, B., Smith, T., 2008; Star & Stirckland, 2008; McConnell, et al, 2008; Lundeberg, Koehler, Zhang, Karunaratne, McConnell, Eberhardt, 2008; Rosaen, Lundeberg, Cooper, Fritzen, Terpstra, 2008)
    Information retention and recall (Baggett, 1979; Cowen, 1984; Choi & Johnson, 2007)
  • Endless possibilities
    Supporting older learners (GramB, D., & Struve, D. 2009)
    Language learning (Herron, Dubreil, Corrie, and Cole, 2002; Al-Seghayer, 2001; Tscirner, 2001; Secules, Herron, & Tomasello, 1992; Hung, 2009)
    Distance Learning & eLearning (Bloomberg, 2007; Bassili, 2008; Pouezevara & Parajuli, 2007; Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, Nunamaker, 2006)
    Overall classroom reflection (Hansen, 1989).
  • Videos
    Video always better? Not necessarily
    Not all are visual learners
    Opportunity for better communication
    Increased learner motivation
  • Laeeq Khan (www.laeeq.com)
    Thank You!