A long tradition of being a sea port & important trade centre since the beginning of Christian era (around 9 th century).
It flourished as a commercial center and was renowned as Porto Grande or a great port for largely due to the monopolized sea borne Portuguese trade.
Before the Mughals, various powers (the Arakanese, the Portuguese, the Tippera and so on) competed for the land and invaded as their supremacy for its competent geographic quality to be operated as port. It had 1) easy access 2) safe anchorage 3) position near the mouth of Meghna which was the principal route to the royal capital.
Early history as port and commercial centre P a r t 0 1
Chittagong Municipality area - 1914 Mughal period
Conquered the land in 1666 & named Islamabad.
Paid attention to build city.
Gave an administrative boundary
Built forts, mosques, tombs etc.
P a r t 0 1 Port area Sadar Ghat Chaktai Khal Administrative zone K a r n a f u l y R i v e r P a r t 0 1 Katalganj Bhanghutna Kapashgola Chawk Bazar Chandanpura Ander killa Jamalkhan Rahmatganj Firinghi Bazar
K a r n a f u l y R i v e r Chittagong Municipality area - 1914
The company was engaged here as a commercial body.
Identified potentials about produce, manufactures and commerce.
Municipality was formed after more than a century of British take over.
Shifted the administrative centre to fairy hill.
Incorporated the city with Asam Bengal Railway system to export produces through the port at cheaper cost.
Colonial period Mughal administrative zone Colonial administrative area (Fairy hill) Railway Head Quarter & related establishment Railway connecting jetty Connecting to Asam Bengal railway system P a r t 0 1
Urban growth of the city 1991 Urban population 289, 981 Urban population 364,205 Urban population 1,390,684 Urban population 2,348,428 P a r t 0 1
Master plans of the city (1961& 1999) The first regional plan of Chittagong was prepared in 1961 for an area of 549 sq. km by a British town planning consulting firm. With in that, the master plan area was 259 sq. km and that master plan governed till the approval of the current one. Master plan of 1961: Second Metropolitan master plan was approved by the Government of Bangladesh on 1999. Master plan of 1999: P a r t 0 1
Areas in master plan -1999 Areas only surveyed Study area DAP area: 691 sq km ( or 267 sq mile) City Corporation area: 202 sq km ( or 78 sq mile) CDA control area: 1152 sq km ( 0r 445 sq mile) P a r t 0 1
Sea Port Air Port To Dhaka Karnafuly Railway Station CCC area-2008 Metropolitan area-2008 P a r t 0 1
Chittagong is growing at a rate of 4.5%, where more than 60% of the city dwellers are migrants from neighbouring districts, who are attracted to what is perceived as better living conditions and job opportunities in the urban area.
Massive pull of urban population due to economic growth.
Tremendous population pressure has far exceeded the infrastructure facilities, which is deteriorating the quality of urban or neighbourhood services.
The implication of such urbanization are manifested in day to day life.
P a r t 0 2
Concern of experts and intellectuals A perception study on Chittagong metropolitan city says that the residents are dissatisfied with over all urban environment. P a r t 0 2
The Brundtland Commission , formally the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), known by the name of its Chair Gro Harlem Brundtland , was convened by the United Nations in 1983. The commission was created to address growing concern "about the accelerating deterioration of the human environment and natural resources and the consequences of that deterioration for economic and social development ." In establishing the commission, the UN General Assembly recognized that environmental problems were global in nature and determined that it was in the common interest of all nations to establish policies for sustainable development .
The most widely known definition of sustainable development comes from the Brundtland Commission, which defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Rees, William E. and Roseland, Mark. 1991. Sustainable Communities: Planning for the 21st Century. "Sustainable community development is the ability to make development choices which respect the relationship between the three "E's"-economy, ecology, and equity: Economy - Economic activity should serve the common good, be self-renewing, and build local assets and self-reliance. Ecology - Human are part of nature, nature has limits, and communities are responsible for protecting and building natural assets. Equity - The opportunity for full participation in all activities, benefits, and decision-making of a society." Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED): Hart Environmental Data Concept of sustainability P a r t 0 3
Definitions of sustainability often refer to the "three pillars" of social , environmental and economic sustainability. A representation of sustainability showing how both economy and society are constrained by environmental limits. ^ a b Adams, W.M. (2006). "The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century." Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, 29–31 January 2006. Retrieved on: 2009-02-16. ^ Ott, K. (2003). "The Case for Strong Sustainability." In: Ott, K. & P. Thapa (eds.) (2003). Greifswald’s Environmental Ethics. Greifswald: Steinbecker Verlag Ulrich Rose. ISBN 3931483320 . Retrieved on: 2009-02-16. P a r t 0 3
Issues that deteriorate sustainability of a city varies from city to city with the change of social, cultural and economic condition. Sustainability issues for the city of Chittagong Economy Industry Trade & commerce P a r t 0 3
Port based trade and commerce Port P a r t 0 3 A B A B
Industrial development as guiding factor P a r t 0 3 Urban area of 1948 1950-51 1960 1960-61 1961-63
According to Bill hillier, Designing cities depends on how we understand them. It is the understanding of cities as movement economies Proper design of cities gives way out in achieving sustainability. A glimpse from the theory by Bill Hillier “ Cities as Movement Economies” P a r t 0 3
Activities that occur in economic, social, cultural and environmental processes. Cities as movement economies Cities could be understood from two sides Physical city Functional city Stocks of buildings connected by space and infrastructure Means Ends (Control) (Sustainability) P a r t 0 3
Sustainable functional city (Ends) Proper urban design & city planning, development co-ordination, control etc. Physical city of Chittagong (Means) P a r t 0 3
Established in the year 1959 in order to ensure the planned and systematic growth of the city. The Master plan approved in 1999 has three major components. 1. Planning component 2. Drainage component 3. Transportation component Structure plan Urban development plan Detailed area plan Chittagong Development Authority (CDA) P a r t 0 3
Research Question Is the detailed area plan (DAP) of Chittagong is adding to the economic sustainability of the city? Sustainability Focus on economy, reasons behind How to achieve sustainability Theory of physical and functional city Physical city (DAP) P a r t 0 3 (focusing on land use and spatial structure towards economic sustainability)
Aim: To help the city for sustainable urban development Objectives:
To examine the Detailed area plan (DAP) of the city with a vision to explore its contribution to the economic sustainability of projected urban development.
To analyze the spatial structure of the city in correspondence with its economic land use.
P a r t 0 4
Methodology Step 01: Literature study to gain the knowledge about the physical growth pattern of the city to know the evolving urban problems to develop the concept of sustainability to review the detailed area plan (DAP) of the city Step 02: Space Syntax Analysis of the city to understand the spatial morphology of Chittagong. Step 03: Examination of the prospects of detailed area plan (DAP) for sustainable urban development in the light of syntactic properties of the city. Step 04: Interviewing experts in critical issues. P a r t 0 4
Syntactic representation of Chittagong P a r t 0 4