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  • 1. Rebuilding after Natural Disasters: Lessons from the Aceh Tsunami and Yogyakarta Earthquake
    Budy P. Resosudarmo
  • 2. 8 am, 26 December 2004
    death toll of 167,000 people
    500,000 displaced persons
    loss of over 110,000 houses and 2,000 school buildings
    Aceh Tsunami
  • 3. 6am. 27 May 2006
    death toll of 5,700 people
    37,900 were injured
    1,000,000 homeless
    loss of over 156,700 houses and 2,200 school buildings
    Yogyakarta Earthquake
  • 4. Planning and the Management of Rebuilding
    The goal: Building better
    Master plan
    Aceh: Initially top-down, but more relax later on
    Took about 5 months
    Lack of local government ownership
    Resistance from local people
    More difficult exit strategy
    Yogyakarta: Bottom-up / more relax
    Took about 2 months
    Management of rebuilding
    Aceh: BRR  coordination, later on developer
    Lack of solid local government and conflict
    Issues of accountability
    Victim of dissatisfaction
    Yogyakarta: Local government  coordination
  • 5. Aceh:
    Early period: strong emphasis on housing
    Longer stay in temporary shelters
    Delaying the process of livelihood recovery
    Sequence of Rebuilding
    Yogyakarta:
    Livelihood recovery was conducted at the same time as building houses
    Within a year, 85% of enterprises have resumed their operations
    ( important research topic: resilience and adaptation)
    Shorter stay in temporary shelters
    Relatively quick recovery of livelihood
  • 6. Input Prices and Management
    Lower local supplies, higher demand of materials and labour, as well as influx of large money supply  increasing costs of living, housing and infrastructures
    Lessons
    Aceh: Ensuring the economy is open
    Special regulations on material imports
    Establishing peace and allowing massive movement of goods and labour from neighbouring regions
    Yogyakarta: Domestic provision of materials
    Provision of materials is part of livelihood recovery support brick factories and wood building materials
    Possible adjustments on cost estimation / supports
  • 7. Cash vs In-kind
    Aceh: mostly in-kind (houses and boats)
    Certainty that houses were built / boats were provided
    Relatively protected from price fluctuations
    Time delay in receiving support
    Dissatisfaction on house specifications
    Yogya: mostly cash
    Uncertainty on the use of the cash
    Sensitive to price fluctuations
    Faster distribution of support
    Dissatisfaction on the size of compensation
  • 8. Managing Expectations
    High expectations  Dissatisfaction / social unrest  Unsmooth process of rebuilding
    Announcement of building better
    Ambitious plan: schedule/quantity and quality
    Aceh: 92,000 houses in 2006 or 108,000 houses by end of 2006  too ambitious
    Arrival of large-scale support
    Warning people that reconstruction takes time
    Socialization on relative variations of quality
    Improve living conditions in shelters
  • 9. Donor Commitments and Exit Strategy
    Donor commitments:
    Commitments may not materialize in a timely manner
    May not translate into actual flow of funds
    Amount spent on the ground vs for donors’ own administration
    Domestic capacity to absorb aid
    Effective communications with donors
    Exit strategy
    No exit strategy can lead to:
    A big shock to the local economy
    Sudden huge responsibility to local governments
    Gradual exit and involvement of local people since the beginning of rebuilding
  • 10. After Rebuilding
    Better livelihood
    New house
    New Market
    New school