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Partnership for Impact Event_Brussels-Nkonya

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"Partnering for Impact: IFPRI-European Research Collaboration for Improved Food and Nutrition Security" presentation by Ephraim Nkonya, IFPRI, on 25 November 2013 in Brussels, Belgium.

"Partnering for Impact: IFPRI-European Research Collaboration for Improved Food and Nutrition Security" presentation by Ephraim Nkonya, IFPRI, on 25 November 2013 in Brussels, Belgium.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. Economic Impact of Land Degradation in the Himalayan region & Sub-Saharan Africa & policy implications Dr. Ephraim Nkonya1 Dr. Melanie Requier Desjardins2 Dr. Ho Young Kwon1 Professor Raghavan Srinivasan3 1 International Food Policy Research Institute 2 Researcher, Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development & member of the French Scientific Committee on Desertification (CSFD) 3 Texas A&M University
  • 2. Bhutan, in Pursuit of Happiness • Bhutan measures its economic development in terms of Gross Domestic Happiness (GPH) – Enhancing traditional values, improving people’s standard of living and environmental sustainability • 72% of land area covered with forest – Deforestation rate in 1990-2010 only 0.03% - mainly conversion to built land • 51% of land area protected • Ag land area only 1.8%, but employs 67% of population • Hydroelectric power (HEP) accounts for 22% of GDP – largest sector
  • 3. The cost of land degradation • Bhutan spends US$9.6 million to repair turbines damaged by sediment loading, which is 0.53% of country’s GDP – SLM reduces sediment loading by 50% Table 1: Impact of SLM on sediment loading, SWAT results orest Agriculture Citrus orchards Area in 000 Km2 26.31 1.22 0.039 Sediment under SLM T/ha 1.75 4.58 2.98 Baseline % Change Sediment T/ha 3.5 5.93 5.96 50% 23% 50%
  • 4. On-farm & off-farm benefits of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Benefit of SFM (million US$) in Bhutan The large off-benefit suggests The need for PES to farmers Practicing SLM 7.8 10.14 On-farm Off-site
  • 5. What can be done to achieve SFM? • Payment for ecosystem services (PES) with direct tangible benefits to land users – Currently DGPC pays the government 1% of its revenue for encouraging SFM but land users hardly link the PES to SFM • Turn publicly managed forests to community forests – this can increase forest density by 25% (Agarwal 2009 • Secure land tenure, access to roads & extension services enhance SLM
  • 6. Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 7. Economics of land degradation • We evaluate losses due to land degrading land management practices on crops. Empirical models used to determine impact of land management on maize yield • We use past studies and secondary to determine land degradation due to deforestation
  • 8. Crop loss due to land degrading practices • Annual yield loss: – Empirical model 2% for two thirds of farmers using low management practices – Long-term experiment, Kenya 4.6% • Such loss is enormous and has negative implications on achieving food security and poverty reduction
  • 9. Cropland change in SSA % change Country Botswana Guinea Ethiopia Senegal Equatorial Guinea Baseline, 1973-83 Endline, 1997-2007 Million ha Countries with declining cropland area 0.40 0.24 3.56 3.12 13.63 12.23 3.21 3.08 0.23 0.22 SSA countries with >70% increase in cropland area Benin 1.53 Ghana 3.54 Sierra Leone 0,51 Mauritania 0.22 Mali 2.01 SSA 103.97 2.73 6.34 0.98 0.45 5.17 202.36 -41 -12 -10 -4 -3 79 79 93 106 157 23 Botswana’s large investment into R&D partly explains the countries decrease in Crop land area
  • 10. Why farmers replace forests with cropland? Forest ecosystem value Sustainable timber harvesting Fuelwood NTFPs Genetic info Recreation Watershed benefits Climate benefit Existence value Tangible local benefits Global benefits US$/ha 1480 40 50 1500 236 47.5 1280 7 1570 2780 Ecosystem value of forest (US$/ha) Tangible local benefits Global benefits
  • 11. Tropical forest vs maize production Benefit (US$/ha) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1570 Maize has greater returns than forest with no timber  deforestation  Farmer also need food more than forest products 573 90 Tangible local benefits (no timber) maize proudction Tangible local benefits (with timber)
  • 12. Cost of land Degradation in SSA
  • 13. Cost of desertification in North Africa The Cost of Desertification in North Africa : % of GDP 1,6 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 % of GDP 0,4 0,2 0 Algeria Sarraf, 2004 Tunisia Morocco Egypt
  • 14. Cost of land degradation in SSA Country, year Type of loss Cost AGDP Main Elements of Methodology Rwanda, 2003 Agriculture 3,5% Agr P ; loss of human productivity Ethiopia 2003 Agr, Livstk, For 4% Depth of soil and loss in productivity Ethiopia, 1986 Agriculture <1% Modelling of crop WRS Zimbabwe, 1994 Agriculture <1% Modelling of plants growth, erosion mapping Zimbabwe, 1992 Agriculture, Livestock 8% Cost of replacement, main soils and farms types Malawi, 1992 Agriculture 3% Modelling of soil losses and drop in productivity Berry et al. 2003, Bojo, 1996
  • 15. Implications • Direct and tangible local benefits should form basis of decision making • Incentives Build SLM on solid ground – effective governance • PES programs can enhance SLM – especially if they are grounded on local buyers and sellers of ecosystem services • R&D will help increase intensification – lead to saving the forests