Opportunites for linking agriculture and nutrition - Marie Ruel

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IFPRI Policy Seminar 'Linking Agriculture, Health and Nutrition' dated 7th Dec, 2010, Washington D.C.

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Opportunites for linking agriculture and nutrition - Marie Ruel

  1. 1. Photo: One Acre Fund<br />What are the opportunities for linking agriculture and nutrition?<br />Marie Ruel (IFPRI)<br />IFPRI, December 7, 2010<br />
  2. 2. AGRICULTURE – NUTRITION - HEALTH<br />AGRICULTURE BENEFITS NUTRITION + HEALTH THROUGH:<br />HEALTH & NUTRITION<br />BENEFITS AGRICULTURE THROUGH:<br />Productivity<br />Livelihoods<br />Agriculture<br />Income<br />Risk taking<br />Employment<br />Education<br />Food security<br />Nutrition<br />Cognition<br />Dietary diversity<br />Endurance<br />Gender equity<br />AGRICULTURE POSES<br />RISKS:<br />Physical strength<br />Health<br />Water-related diseases<br />Food-borne diseases<br />Zoonotic diseases<br />
  3. 3. Agriculture is Essential but Insufficient to Improve Nutrition<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />National nutrition outcomes<br />Policy drivers of growth: Green Revolution in 1970s & 1980s, “liberalization” & nonfarm economic growth in 1990s & 2000s.<br />Food output<br />Food imports<br />Sectoral linkages<br />Supply side effects<br />Food <br />prices<br />Nonfood output<br />Demand side effects<br />National Level<br />Household Level<br />Individual Level<br />Household assets and livelihoods<br />Food income: consumption<br />Nutrient consumption<br />Food expenditure<br />Nutrient intake<br />Child nutrition outcomes<br />Food income: from markets<br />Health care expenditure <br />Health status<br />Non-food expenditure<br />Non-food income<br />Mother’s nutrition outcomes<br />Caring capacity & practices <br />Female employment <br />Farm/nonfarm employment<br />Female energy expenditure<br />Drivers of “taste”: culture, location, growth, globalization.<br />Intrahousehold inequality: gender bias, education, family size, seasonality, religion, SCTs.<br />Public health factors: water, sanitation, health services, education.<br />Interhousehold inequality in assets, credit, access to public goods & services <br />Interacting socioeconomic factors<br />[possible leakages]<br />Policy drivers of inequality: land policies, financial policies, infrastructure investments, education policies, empowerment policies for women & SCTs.<br />Policy drivers of nutrition: health, nutrition, social protection & education<br />Pathways from Agriculture to Nutrition (TANDI) <br />
  5. 5. Weak relationship between agriculture performance and nutrition status outcomes<br />Estimated elasticities between child undernutrition and welfare indicators<br />
  6. 6. What are the Opportunities? <br />3 Examples:<br /><ul><li>Biofortification
  7. 7. Homestead food production programs, which bring agriculture-health-nutrition together at community and household level
  8. 8. Nutrition-sensitive value chains</li></li></ul><li>Photo: Julie Ruel-Bergeron<br />Biofortification for Improved Nutrition<br />
  9. 9. OFSP in Mozambique and Uganda(HarvestPlus)<br /><ul><li>Impact evaluation: randomized trial of 1st HarvestPlus crop
  10. 10. Intervention:
  11. 11. Seed systems (dissemination of vines, farmers’ training)
  12. 12. Demand creation (nutrition education)
  13. 13. Marketing and product development
  14. 14. Reached 14,000 hh in Mozambique; 10,000 in Uganda
  15. 15. Dissemination: 2006-09</li></ul>Source: Dan Gilligan et al. ; Biofortification Conference, Nov 2010<br />
  16. 16. Impact on OFSP Adoption Rate, 2009 Mozambique<br />69% compared to control<br />% who retained OFSP vines for next season<br />Source: Dan Gilligan et al. ; Biofortification Conference, Nov 2010<br />
  17. 17. Agriculture Programs to Improve Nutrition<br />Photo: One Acre Fund<br />
  18. 18. HKI’s Homestead food production in Bangladesh<br />Helen Keller International<br />Integrating agriculture and nutrition<br />at household and community level<br /> Program: <br /><ul><li>Production-focused: micronutrient-rich vegetables, small livestock production
  19. 19. Nutrition education to promote consumption
  20. 20. Focus on women: income generation, empowerment
  21. 21. Nutrition objective: Improve diet diversity, micronutrient intake
  22. 22. Impact:
  23. 23. Triple vegetable production; increased income
  24. 24. 73% of gardens managed by women
  25. 25. improved food security for 5 million people
  26. 26. :</li></ul>Source: Millions Fed , IFPRI, 2009; www.ifpri.org/millionsfed<br />
  27. 27. Evidence of impact on maternal & child nutrition is limited<br />Helen Keller International<br />Areas for improvement:<br /><ul><li>Stronger, better targeted BCC
  28. 28. Focus on the 1000 days
  29. 29. Stronger links to health systems
  30. 30. More rigorous theory-based impact</li></ul> evaluation <br /><ul><li>Systematic documentation of lessons learned
  31. 31. :</li></ul>Source: Millions Fed , IFPRI, 2009; www.ifpri.org/millionsfed<br />
  32. 32. Nutrition-Sensitive Value Chains<br />Photo: Andrew Westby<br />
  33. 33. Example of bean value chains in Uganda and Rwanda (Dry Grain Pulses CRSP, Mazur et al. 2009)<br />4 objectives:<br /><ul><li>Improve yields and quality of harvested beans
  34. 34. Enhance nutritional value and appeal through appropriate post-harvest handling + processing
  35. 35. Increase market access
  36. 36. Increase demand and consumption</li></li></ul><li>A Nutrition-Sensitive Value Chain for Beans (Uganda)<br />Value Chain Steps<br />Activities<br />Inputs into production<br />Field trials with new varieties<br />Soil & terrain analysis<br />Farmers trainings<br />Production<br />Technologies to  losses (insects)<br />Nutrient retention analysis <br />Post-harvest handling/storage<br />Testing sequencing + duration of<br />different processing techniques<br />(nutrient retention, anti-nutrients)<br />Processing<br />Analysis of main market channels,<br />Drivers of market decisions,<br />Presence of nutrient-enhanced foods<br />Marketing<br />Increased availability of, access to, and demand for<br /> NUTRITIOUS BEANS<br />Consumer surveys<br />Cooking trainings, Education,<br />Behavior chance communications<br />Source: Adapted from Mazur et al. 2009. Pulses CRSP <br />
  37. 37. Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Agriculture alone will not improve nutrition fast enough
  38. 38. We have opportunities and examples of success on how to bridge the agriculture-nutrition divide
  39. 39. We have challenges
  40. 40. Our biggest challenge AND opportunity is to work together - cross-sectorally (how?)
  41. 41. And we need to do much better at documenting successes – and failures; we need the evidence
  42. 42. We have a momentum, global consensus, new initiatives, committed donors, experienced NGOs, research community</li>
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