Food Security in World of Changing Climate and
Natural Resource Scarcity:
The Role of Agricultural Technologies
Panel Pres...
Factors Influencing Farmer Access
• Market systems and forces
• Infrastructure
• Institutional factors (i.e. extension, pu...
Conventionally Bred Varieties Introduced
with Minimal “Safety Review”
• Evaluated for efficacy/performance to assess
the d...
Crop Protection Products
Evaluation of crop protection chemicals for
environmental and human/animal health safety
• recogn...
GM Crop Varieties
Regulatory factors have been a rate limiting step
in introduction and farmer access despite:
• Nearly 2 ...
$$$$ TIME NEW SKILLS
UNIQUE CHALLENGES FOR GM CROPS
REGULATORY IPR OUTREACH STEWARDSHIP
General Product Development Cycle
Slide Courtesy of Donna Ramaeker-Zahn
1 – 3 years 1 – 3 years 1 – 3 years
Product
Concep...
Biotech Crop Countries and Mega-Countries, 2012
Impact: India emerged as 2nd largest
exporter of cotton
Source: Cotton Advisory Board 2009
India: Bt Cotton
contributed to doubling of yields in 5 years
Source: Cotton Advisory Board
Page 11
Impact at the Farm Level: Average effects of Bt
cotton vs non-Bt in India
Yield Increase 39%*
Reduction in insecti...
Current Status in India
GM Moratorium
No additional products approved
CONTROVERSY AND NON-SCIENCE ISSUES HAVE
IMPACTED REGULATORY PROCESS FOR GM
TECHNOLOGIES
• Trade competition and retaliatio...
Regulatory Delays and Inefficiencies –
A “Chilling” Effect in Africa
• Despite growing technical capacity and products in development
(often from public/private partnerships) – uneven progres...
Focus of Biosafety Capacity Building
• Start from a perspective of Goals/Objective and Strategy
• Legal framework developm...
Remedies for Ineffective Regulatory Systems
• Integrated approach –
technical, legal, communications, research
• Capacity ...
THANK YOU!!!!!
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Getting Technologies to Farmers -- Fixing Regulatory Systems for Agricultural Technologies

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Panel Presentation: Getting Technologies to Farmers --
Fixing Regulatory Systems for Agricultural Technologies by
Judith Chambers, Ph.D., Director – Program for Biosafety Systems at IFPRI. Presented at Food Security in a World of Growing Natural Resource Scarcity event February 12, 2014.

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Getting Technologies to Farmers -- Fixing Regulatory Systems for Agricultural Technologies

  1. 1. Food Security in World of Changing Climate and Natural Resource Scarcity: The Role of Agricultural Technologies Panel Presentation: Getting Technologies to Farmers Fixing Regulatory Systems for Agricultural Technologies Judith Chambers, Ph.D. Director – Program for Biosafety Systems Newseum Conference Center February 12, 2014
  2. 2. Factors Influencing Farmer Access • Market systems and forces • Infrastructure • Institutional factors (i.e. extension, public vs. private sector) • Intellectual property rights • Regulatory/Biosafety Policies
  3. 3. Conventionally Bred Varieties Introduced with Minimal “Safety Review” • Evaluated for efficacy/performance to assess the desired trait or traits that was the objective of the breeding event • New variety not evaluated from a safety perspective as it is “assumed” to pose no additional health or environmental risk since the genetics are manipulated within the species
  4. 4. Crop Protection Products Evaluation of crop protection chemicals for environmental and human/animal health safety • recognized part of the product development cycle • costs and time for evaluating the toxicological profile of these chemicals are factored in to the overall product development cost and cycle
  5. 5. GM Crop Varieties Regulatory factors have been a rate limiting step in introduction and farmer access despite: • Nearly 2 decades of safe use • FASTEST ADOPTED AG TECHNOLOGY IN HISTORY Biotech crop hectares increased 1000 fold from 1.7 M (1996) to 170 M (2012) (ISAAA, 2013)
  6. 6. $$$$ TIME NEW SKILLS UNIQUE CHALLENGES FOR GM CROPS REGULATORY IPR OUTREACH STEWARDSHIP
  7. 7. General Product Development Cycle Slide Courtesy of Donna Ramaeker-Zahn 1 – 3 years 1 – 3 years 1 – 3 years Product Concept Discovery Early Product Testing & Development Integration & Product Selection Product Ramp Up Market Introduction Post Market Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 CFTs Stakeholder Engagement Intensity
  8. 8. Biotech Crop Countries and Mega-Countries, 2012
  9. 9. Impact: India emerged as 2nd largest exporter of cotton Source: Cotton Advisory Board 2009
  10. 10. India: Bt Cotton contributed to doubling of yields in 5 years Source: Cotton Advisory Board
  11. 11. Page 11 Impact at the Farm Level: Average effects of Bt cotton vs non-Bt in India Yield Increase 39%* Reduction in insecticide sprays 33%* Profit Increase/ha 70.9%* * Significantly different from zero at 5% level Source: Gruere, Mehta-Bhatt and Sengupta 2008 Based on peer-reviewed published studies
  12. 12. Current Status in India GM Moratorium No additional products approved
  13. 13. CONTROVERSY AND NON-SCIENCE ISSUES HAVE IMPACTED REGULATORY PROCESS FOR GM TECHNOLOGIES • Trade competition and retaliation • First generation products without direct consumer benefit • Technological disparity • Science literacy • Religious and cultural concerns • Food system control, consumer right to know • Cartagena Protocol – expanded scope; de facto regulatory system RESULT TRADE DISRUPTIONS, MARKET REJECTION, REGULATORY IMPACT AND DELAY !!!!
  14. 14. Regulatory Delays and Inefficiencies – A “Chilling” Effect in Africa
  15. 15. • Despite growing technical capacity and products in development (often from public/private partnerships) – uneven progress • Stuck on the CFT treadmill—still no commercial products after nearly 15- 20 years of biosafety work • Regulatory system--  Expensive; time consuming; unpredictable (subject to political “whimsy”)  Often heavily focused on risk; doesn’t reflect global experience and evolving science  Lack of product experience to test system  Problematic provisions (liability, socio-economics) -- a disincentive to technological progress  Inter-ministerial turf  Lack of capacity and resources  Lack of access to accurate information esp. for the political process  Lack of political will to move forward Biosafety Issues and Impacts on Adoption In Developing Countries
  16. 16. Focus of Biosafety Capacity Building • Start from a perspective of Goals/Objective and Strategy • Legal framework development and adopted policy • Regulations • Theory and practical training – workshops, study tours, one on one advisory services • Practical experience – dossier reviews, field tests, de- regulation, monitoring, inspections • Reconciliation with other laws • Communications and outreach • Understanding of political process • Broad ministry focus – Agr, Env, S&T, Health, Trade, Judicial
  17. 17. Remedies for Ineffective Regulatory Systems • Integrated approach – technical, legal, communications, research • Capacity building • Strategy and innovative problem solving • Relationship building • Patience; long term engagement • Policy voice from broad-based stakeholder groups and coalitions • Involvement of women • Harmonization • Reposition or redefine international/regional regulatory frameworks (Cartagena Protocol, AU Model Law)
  18. 18. THANK YOU!!!!!
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