The Road from Kyoto to Copenhagen: How Can We Ensure Sustainable Growth?
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The Road from Kyoto to Copenhagen: How Can We Ensure Sustainable Growth?

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Gerardo Martha, Jr.

Gerardo Martha, Jr.
EMBRAPA

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    The Road from Kyoto to Copenhagen: How Can We Ensure Sustainable Growth? The Road from Kyoto to Copenhagen: How Can We Ensure Sustainable Growth? Presentation Transcript

    • The road from Kyoto to Copenhagen: how can we ensure sustainable growth? Geraldo Martha, Jr. Embrapa Estudos Estratégicos e Capacitação IFPRI Meeting, Bold actions for stimulating inclusive growth, June 2 2010
    • Source: MCT (2009). Brazilian GHG Emissions
    • Source: MCT (2009). Brazilian Mitigation Actions
    • Source: MCT (2009). Composition of the Brazilian GHG Emissions
    • R&D at Embrapa: some examples in sustainable technologies / agricultural systems (focus on mitigation actions)
      • technical and economic potential do mitigate emissions;
      • co-benefits that improve agricultural productivity and resilience (food security, adaptation);
    • Target 1: 15 M ha of degraded areas (- 83-104 M mt CO2-e)
    • Target 2: 4 M ha of ICLS+forests (- 18-22 M mt CO2-e)
    • Avoided Deforestation Martha & Vilela (2009). 1 ha of degraded pasture (0.4 hd./ha) Environmental Commitement (key-part of all actions)
    • Sousa et al., 1997 Corn/soybean rotation Pasture following crop Crop following pasture Soil organic matter content (%) Carbon mitigation x ICLS
    • Continuous crop Crop/livestock systems Banco de sementes de plantas invasoras Weeds x ICLS
    • Sousa et al., 2007 Nutrient-Use Efficiency x ICLS
    • Barioni, Sainz & Martha, Jr. (unpublished) Pastoral Systems x GHG Emissions
    • Martha Jr.; Barioni; Sainz, 2009 (unpublished) Return to investment and Financial Needs, 2009-2030
    • With Bradyrhizobium Without Bradyrhizobium Anual economy: ~ US$ 5 billion Target 3: 5.5 M ha of BNF (- 16-20 M mt CO2-e)
    • Target 4: 8 M ha of No-Till Planting (- 16-20 M mt CO2-e)
    • R&D at Embrapa: some examples in sustainable technologies / agricultural systems (focus on adaptation actions)
      • assign high priority to mitigation actions that have strong adaptation benefits;
    • Drought tolerant wheat Drought susceptible wheat New cultivars Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics
    • New cultivars Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) Pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas) Capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum) Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics
    • Improved Soil Conservation Techniques Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics
    • Soil quality 61% 29% 8% 1% 1% 60 0 15 30 45 75 With gypsum without gypsum Depth (cm) ‏ 30% 22% 18% 18% 12% Sousa et al. 1995 Relative distribution of corn roots in a clay oxisol profile after phopho-gypsum application. Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics
    • Soil quality Sousa et al. (2006). Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics
    • Agro-Ecological Zonning System Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics
    • Improved Water-Use Efficiency Development and Management of Efficient Irrigation Systems SUPERFICIAL CENTER PIVOTS MICRO-SPRINKLER DRIP Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics
    • Training & Education
    • Technology transfer for ICLS focus Best management practices
      • There are clear opportunities for accommodating food and biofuel expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado in a sustainable way;
      • Public-private partnership played a very important role in the development of the Brazilian Cerrado agriculture and its importance is strengthened in face of future food, energy and environmental challenges;
      • Intensifying pastoral systems in a sustainable way, and promoting initiatives on capacity strengthening, will be of central importance for a low-carbon agriculture;
      Final Comments
      • A lag between adoption and the realization of productivity benefits may create an adoption threshold, especially when a farmer is uncertain about future productive benefits or when he highly discounts future benefits. Farmers must have access to adequate financing to avoid exacerbating this threshold effect;
      • Successful scaling-up depends upon multi-stakeholder approaches. Knowledge exchange, capacity development, technology transfer and well-functioning input and market chains are key-components to foster the adoption of sustainable technologies.
      Final Comments
    • Thank you ! [email_address] +55 61 3448-1734