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IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"
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IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health"

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IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health" by Robert Bos 28 October 2010

IFPRI 2020 Panel Discussion "Understanding the Interactions Between Agriculture & Health" by Robert Bos 28 October 2010

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  • One barrier to evaluating EH services was the fact that they are traditionally administered by several agencies such as health, environment, agriculture, industry, transport. (WHO EURO about 1997). A study of EH in the Pacific concluded Much EH protection is under jurisdiction of Environment ministries. Delineation of responsibility between environment and health is not clear.
  • One barrier to evaluating EH services was the fact that they are traditionally administered by several agencies such as health, environment, agriculture, industry, transport. (WHO EURO about 1997). A study of EH in the Pacific concluded Much EH protection is under jurisdiction of Environment ministries. Delineation of responsibility between environment and health is not clear.
  • One barrier to evaluating EH services was the fact that they are traditionally administered by several agencies such as health, environment, agriculture, industry, transport. (WHO EURO about 1997). A study of EH in the Pacific concluded Much EH protection is under jurisdiction of Environment ministries. Delineation of responsibility between environment and health is not clear.
  • One barrier to evaluating EH services was the fact that they are traditionally administered by several agencies such as health, environment, agriculture, industry, transport. (WHO EURO about 1997). A study of EH in the Pacific concluded Much EH protection is under jurisdiction of Environment ministries. Delineation of responsibility between environment and health is not clear.
  • IAIA 07 HIA Screening - P. Furu
  • IAIA 07 HIA Screening - P. Furu
  • Transcript

    • 1. Agriculture-Nutrition-Health From Framework to Action IFPRI Washington DC, 28 October 2010 Robert Bos, Coordinator Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health World Health Organization
    • 2. Today’s presentation
      • Where were we four years ago?
      • Frameworks and models in the health sector
      • The local perspective: safe use of wastewater
      • New opportunities
    • 3. Key messages for policy and programme change
      • Allocate resources to public health actions that, by independent criteria, are truly intersectoral.
      • (2) Initiate a process of joint review, reformulation and harmonization of agriculture and health policies.
      • (3) Anchor the methods and procedures for health impact assessment in the planning of agricultural development.
      • (4) Re-structure and strengthen the health sector to enable it to collaborate effectively in an agriculture/health framework.
      • (5) Analyse and document the economics of joint agriculture and health actions as opposed to single sector approaches.
    • 4. THE GLOBAL HEALTH PICTURE Global mortality rates from water-, sanitation- and hygiene-related diseases 90% of the toll of diarrhoeal disease is borne by children under five (WHO 2000, 2006, 2007 and Prüss-Üstün et al. 2008) WHO/Carolos Gaggero Disease Cases per year Deaths per year (year) Cholera 131 943 2 272 (2005) Typhoid fever 16 million 600 000 (2000) Diarrhoeal disease 4.6 billion 2.2 million (2004)
    • 5.
      • The insidious impact of morbidity: billions of diarrhoeal disease and malaria episodes; hyper-endemic intestinal worm infections; chronic under- and malnutrition; chronic effect of exposure to arsenic or pesticides …
      • What is prevention?
      • What are the economic dimensions of managing determinants of health rather than managing disease?
      • Do emerging diseases take prevalence over long-time health crises to which we have become accustomed?
      THE GLOBAL HEALTH PICTURE For other sectors: poor living standards, lost productivity, missed development opportunities
    • 6. Linkages between agriculture and health: a conceptual framework
    • 7. Development policy and health Social determinants Environmental determinants Health system Health Health Policy Development Policy Poverty
    • 8. Development policy and health Social determinants Environmental determinants Health system Health Health Policy Agricultural Development Policy Poverty
    • 9. Development policy and health Improved land tenure; Increased income; Enhanced farmer education; Intensified and expanded irrigation; changed livestock management; increased chemical inputs; introduction new crop varieties; mechanization Health system Health Health Policy Agricultural Development Policy Poverty
    • 10. Development policy and health Improved land tenure; Increased income; Enhanced farmer education; Intensified and expanded irrigation; changed livestock management; increased chemical inputs; introduction new crop varieties; mechanization Health system Communicable diseases Non-communicable diseases Malnutrition Injuries and accidents Psycho-social disorders Health Policy Agricultural Development Policy Poverty
    • 11. We change the world Environmental P ressure Environmental S tate Human E xposure Development D riving forces A ction Health E ffect The DPSEEA model Modified from WHO, 1997
    • 12. Environmental P ressure D riving Forces Environmental S tate We change the world Consumption patterns Production manufacturing Waste release Population growth Economic development Technology Natural hazards Resource availability Pollution levels DPSEEA Development
    • 13. Human E xposure Health E ffect A ction Level of external exposure to hazards Level of hazards absorbed Target organ dose Well-being Morbidity Mortality To reduce burden of disease and increase well-being DPSEEA
    • 14. Environmental P ressure Environmental S tat e Human E xposure Environmental improvement, pollution monitoring and control Education, awareness raising Treatment, rehabilitation Economics, social policies, clean technology Hazard management Modified from WHO, 1997 Development D riving forces A ction Health E ffect
    • 15. Water Safety Plans Integrated risk assessment & incremental risk management
    • 16. Managing hazards and risks along agricultural value chains
      • Establish health-based targets for your outcome for vulnerable groups
      • Identify hazards and assess risks at each critical point along the chain
      • Design safeguards and risk mitigation measures along your chain that add up to achieve your health-based target
    • 17. Wastewater use in agriculture: Situation and trends
      • Fresh water resources are rapidly becoming scarce.
      • Rapid urbanization is resulting in increasing outflows of domestic wastewater.
      • There is a growing market of urban workers looking for fast food with “green” ingredients
      • Fertilizers are a costly input into the agricultural production system.
      • Result: Farmers in rural and peri-urban areas are turning to the use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture in increasing numbers.
      • Without effective risk assessment and management, such use incurs important health hazards. The associated water-borne disease risks affect farmers and their families, those who market the produce and consumers.
    • 18. Informal, shifting urban agriculture using wastewater in and around Accra, Ghana
    • 19. Disposal of septic tank sludge at Lavender Hill, Accra Ghana
    • 20. Cooperative peri-urban agriculture in Pikine, near Dakar, Senegal
    • 21. Wastewater use in agriculture is extensive worldwide, and on the increase
      • Ten percent of the world’s population is thought to consume wastewater irrigated foods.
      • Twenty million hectares in 50 countries are irrigated with raw or partially treated wastewater.
      • The use of excreta (faeces, urine) is important worldwide, but the extent has not been quantified.
      • The use of greywater is growing in both developed and less-developed countries – it is culturally more acceptable in some societies.
    • 22. Irrigation water use in cities around the world
      • Wastewater use is extensive worldwide, and increasing
      • Ten percent of the world’s population is thought to consume wastewater irrigated foods.
      • Twenty million hectares in 50 countries are irrigated with raw or partially treated wastewater.
      • The use of excreta (faeces, urine) is important worldwide, but the extent has not been quantified.
      • The use of greywater is growing in both developed and less-developed countries – it is culturally more acceptable in some societies.
      Source: IWMI 2007
    • 23. Key messages for policy and programme change revisited
      • (1). Allocate resources to public health actions that, by independent criteria, are truly intersectoral.
      • Explore whether recent re-structuring in bilateral donor agencies (from sectoral to thematic approaches) offers new opportunities to put multidisciplinary/intersectoral issues on the agenda.
      • Generate new and more compelling evidence for ministers of planning and of finance about the potential to improve agriculture-associated health status through targeted investment in agriculture.
      • Mainstream health impact assessment in investment planning for the agriculture sector.
    • 24. Key messages for policy and programme change revisited
      • Allocate resources to public health actions that, by independent criteria, are truly intersectoral.
      • Initiate a process of joint review, reformulation and harmonization of agriculture and health policies.
      • Enlist a number of interested governments in an exercise of reviewing, reformulating and harmonizing agriculture, health and nutrition policies.
      • Develop ways to translate the harmonized policies into functional institutional arrangements between the different public sectors.
    • 25. Key messages for policy and programme change revisited
      • Allocate resources to public health actions that, by independent criteria, are truly intersectoral.
      • (2) Initiate a process of joint review, reformulation and harmonization of agriculture and health policies.
      • Anchor the methods and procedures for health impact assessment in the planning of agricultural development.
      • (Covered under 1 from a more effective resource allocation perspective).
      • Combine the creation of an enabling policy environment for HIA with institution strengthening and human resource development.
    • 26. Key messages for policy and programme change revisited
      • Allocate resources to public health actions that, by independent criteria, are truly intersectoral.
      • (2) Initiate a process of joint review, reformulation and harmonization of agriculture and health policies.
      • (3) Anchor the methods and procedures for health impact assessment in the planning of agricultural development.
      • Re-structure and strengthen the health sector to enable it to collaborate effectively in an agriculture/health framework.
      • Boost the environmental health and health promotion components in health sector programmes.
      • Generate evidence of how other sectors can assist in overcoming health sector constraints (drug resistance, insecticide resistance, infrastructure and human resource deficiencies, outbreak and crisis pressures).
    • 27. Key messages for policy and programme change revisited
      • Allocate resources to public health actions that, by independent criteria, are truly intersectoral.
      • (2) Initiate a process of joint review, reformulation and harmonization of agriculture and health policies.
      • (3) Anchor the methods and procedures for health impact assessment in the planning of agricultural development.
      • (4) Re-structure and strengthen the health sector to enable it to collaborate effectively in an agriculture/health framework.
      • Analyse and document the economics of joint agriculture and health actions as opposed to single sector approaches.
      • Implement economic evaluations in a number of settings and for a range of agriculture/nutrition/health issues, comparing singular and integrated interventions in terms of their efficiency.
      • Promote the concept of Disability-Adjusted Life Years outside
      • of the health sector.
    • 28. Thank you for your attention
      • For more information
      • www.who.int/phe

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