Food and Fuel
– innovative options for
 developing countries

      Ron Oxburgh
21st Century - a Changing & less
       Predictable World
   •   A more unpredictable climate
   •   The need to limit GHG...
Travel – Internal Combustion
                 Engine!
• Rising demand for liquid fuel – needed as long as the
  ICE is use...
Suitable bio-molecules
Available in:            • Food crops:
• sugars & starches         –   Corn
• Vegetable oils       ...
Biofuels
• Fuel liquids can be made from anything
  that can be grown or once grew:
• Must make sense:
  – Financially
  –...
Biofuels – impossible on agricultural land
                                             ?+ other bye-
                    ...
Ethanol from Straw
1. Agricultural residues




   First Cellulose Ethanol
 Shipment: April 21, 2004


                   ...
2. New Feedstocks i

      NATIVE JATROPHA TREES




   Robust & undemanding
   on marginal land
Jatropha curcas
• Perennial tree – 30-40 yrs; full
  fruiting after 5 yrs.
• Grows on degraded or
  marginal land - refore...
Jatropha curcas (2)

• Labour intensive: ca. one
  person/ha – jobs where needed
• Wild tree yield ca. 1.7 t/ha
• Crude oi...
Jatropha, Swaziland with okra intercrops
J. Curcas - Expelling the oil
Jatropha - sustainable biofuel story
  • Reforestation of degraded or marginal land with
    orchards of jatropha curcas
 ...
2. New Feedstocks ii




               Miscanthus
3. ALGAE   The Joker?
Jatropha Carbon Economics –
          System Approach
A: ‘C-credits’                   B: ‘C-debits’
   – Energy content o...
Jatropha Cash Economics
•   Land costs
•   Planting and husbandry costs
•   1.7 Toe/Ha - or more?
•   Local transport
•   ...
Kg CO2eq/ MJ
                                  Et
                                    ha
                                 ...
Conclusions
• Agriculture will be of massive importance in 21st century -
  sustainability
• All parts of the plant will b...
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Food and Fuel - innovative options for developing countries

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Ron Oxburgh
14th May 2008, Royal museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium

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Food and Fuel - innovative options for developing countries

  1. 1. Food and Fuel – innovative options for developing countries Ron Oxburgh
  2. 2. 21st Century - a Changing & less Predictable World • A more unpredictable climate • The need to limit GHG emissions • Profound changes in price relativities with much local variability – >$100 oil; all fossil fuels more expensive – Other non-renewable raw materials – more expensive – Water - scarcer/costlier many places – Land – more competition – >6.5 billion people & rising - labour – relatively cheaper ? • Future total dependence on what can be grown – food, materials and some fuel What hasn’t changed: • The need to eat • the urge to travel
  3. 3. Travel – Internal Combustion Engine! • Rising demand for liquid fuel – needed as long as the ICE is used – minimum 25 years • Mineral oil – environmentally damaging – alternatives? • Hydrogen? – very distant future • Fuels from plants: – Can be less damaging to the environment than mineral oil – Opportunities for poor farmers
  4. 4. Suitable bio-molecules Available in: • Food crops: • sugars & starches – Corn • Vegetable oils – Wheat – Sugar • Proteins – Barley • Cellulose – Canola • lignin rich residues – Soy – Palm • Bye products • Non-food products • Straw from marginal land • Forestry • Jatropha • Animal wastes • Prolific grasses • Sewage • Others?
  5. 5. Biofuels • Fuel liquids can be made from anything that can be grown or once grew: • Must make sense: – Financially – In energy-balance – Environmentally Even if otherwise acceptable, a mono- product biofuel industry based on agricultural land would be too small to be globally significant – not enough land
  6. 6. Biofuels – impossible on agricultural land ?+ other bye- products and Forests Deserts organic wastes 42CONTINENT 45 +?Algae New crops 150 Crops 16 Tropical Savannah 23 OCEANS Wetlands, Tundra, Grass, Ice, etc. 360 World Diesel World Gasoline Requirement Requirement (areas – million km2 )
  7. 7. Ethanol from Straw 1. Agricultural residues First Cellulose Ethanol Shipment: April 21, 2004 Co-production of food and fuel
  8. 8. 2. New Feedstocks i NATIVE JATROPHA TREES Robust & undemanding on marginal land
  9. 9. Jatropha curcas • Perennial tree – 30-40 yrs; full fruiting after 5 yrs. • Grows on degraded or marginal land - reforestation • Efficient use of water • Minimum-tillage planting • Can be largely fertilized with residues • C-sequestration in root system • Oil inedible
  10. 10. Jatropha curcas (2) • Labour intensive: ca. one person/ha – jobs where needed • Wild tree yield ca. 1.7 t/ha • Crude oil used directly in heavy static diesel engines • Emissions saving >60% over mineral oil • Anti-feedant properties • D1/BP – ca. 200,000 Ha on three continents
  11. 11. Jatropha, Swaziland with okra intercrops
  12. 12. J. Curcas - Expelling the oil
  13. 13. Jatropha - sustainable biofuel story • Reforestation of degraded or marginal land with orchards of jatropha curcas • Short rotation intercrops between j.c. rows • Carbon sequestration in root systems • Fruit: – Seeds for fuel oil (non-edible) – Seed cake for protein feed – Hulls for char • About one job/ha created • Local self-sufficiency in biodiesel
  14. 14. 2. New Feedstocks ii Miscanthus
  15. 15. 3. ALGAE The Joker?
  16. 16. Jatropha Carbon Economics – System Approach A: ‘C-credits’ B: ‘C-debits’ – Energy content of biofuel – Tillage soil gas release – Carbon sequestration in – Fuel – transport, tree & root system processing, cultivation – Credit for co-products – ? Fertilizer – ? Displaced plant life • Environmental Impact P e.g. drainage, water use & quality, erosion, ecosystems, community life etc.
  17. 17. Jatropha Cash Economics • Land costs • Planting and husbandry costs • 1.7 Toe/Ha - or more? • Local transport • Crushing and de-gumming costs • Crude oil transport to refinery • Key economic differentiators – Yield – Logistics • Unless oil price collapses, within five years Jatropha oil should be fuel of choice on both cost & environmental grounds
  18. 18. Kg CO2eq/ MJ Et ha no l( 0.1 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 Et St ra ha w no ) l( w Et he ha at no ) Bi l( od Be ie et se ) Et l( ha ra no pe l( ) U U s nl C ea or n) de d Pe Lo tro w l S D ie se l Biofuels & Biofuels – C saving Data from Elsayed et al 2003
  19. 19. Conclusions • Agriculture will be of massive importance in 21st century - sustainability • All parts of the plant will be used – co-production – Food – Fuel – Raw materials – Fabrication – Fertiliser • New cultivars needed for more variable conditions • Job opportunities for the very poor • There are ‘good’ biofuels and ‘bad’ biofuels
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