1. Golden Rice – What Now? With some special emphasis on India IFPRI Policy Seminar April 14th 2011Adrian Dubock S R RaoGolden Rice Project Manager Advisor, Government of Indiacontact@goldenrice.orgwww.goldenrice.org
2. Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato contains 1-160 µg/g retinol equivalentsBiofortified staple foods cansustainably complement otherVAD interventions, with lesscost and logistical problems sobetter population coverage
3. Progress towards UN MDG Goal 4: Reduction of <5Years Child Mortality Deaths 1990 2006 2009 2015 Target Per year 12.4m 9.7m 8.1m <4.1m Per day ~34,000 >26,000 ~22,000 <11,200“23 – 34% reduction in preschool mortality can be expected fromVitamin A programs reaching children in undernourished settings”* Sources: Levels & Trends in Child Mortality. UNICEF 2010 The State of the World’s Children. UNICEF 2008 www.un.org/en/mdg/summit2010 *West, Klemm & Sommer, 2010.
4. PLANNING SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMISSION PRIME MINISTER COMMITEE MINISTRIES / DEPARTMENTS DEALING NUTRITION PROGRAMMES Women & Consumer Affairs, Human Health Agriculture Science Child Food and public Resource &Development & Distribution Development Family Technology welfare Nutrition policyNational Nutrition Board Mid- Day meal Seeds and Food Production /Integrated Child scheme regulationDevelopment services Agricultural Research &Nutrition Education & Educationtraining National blindness controlConsumer protection  Health & nutrition researchPublic Distribution of Immunizationfood Food safety regulationPrice control of essentialcommodities  Basic research Technology Development Biotechnology
5. :1. Continue nutritionalresearch to demonstrateeffect on Vitamin Astatus
6. The human bioconversion of the beta carotene inGolden Rice to Vitamin A is better than fromconventional food sources: •Excellent in adults •Even better in children •The effect of fat in the diet on bioconversion is minimal
7. Golden Rice picture ~40 g per day of Golden Rice, with 6 µg/ gram of β-carotene can provide >40% of the EAR daily. Sufficient to combat morbidity and mortality from Vitamin A deficiency
8. :2. Breeding into locallyadapted and preferredrice varieties in allcountries
9. Golden Rice Research In India Three rice breeding centres involved,........... patient rice breeders.............Version 1 – Received in Taipei 309 in 2003. Research abandoned whenmarker free materials available Version 2 – Received in Taipei 309 & IR64 in 2004 – Backcross breeding workcompleted. Work abandoned when higher carotenoid content materialsbecame available Version 3 – GR1- Received in Cocodrie in 2005. Work abandoned by GoldenRice Humanitarian Board decision in favour of GR2 in 2009, following humantrials results for bioconversion Version 4 – GR2R - Received in Kaybonnet in 2006 & via IRRI in IR36 and IR64 in late 2010 
10. Everywhere, the current GoldenRice was created once by geneticengineering about 8 years ago.Since then it has been about:• multiplying that rice seed•breeding the trait into Asian ricevarieties•selecting the best materials forfurther breeding into local ricevarieties
11. Some of the Golden Rice team in Vietnam
12. Screenhouse facility for Golden rice work in India – 600 m2 area
13. Back cross derived lines of SwarnaSwarna Golden Swarna Homozygous lines available for evaluation………..
14. GR2R Crosses with ADT43 &ASD16 at TNAU Feb 2011
15. All for Planting in screen house in Feb 2011 Swarna GR2RIR36 GR2R IR64 GR2R
16. Golden Rice breeding program (India):……. Golden Rice is in high yielding good quality Indian rice varieties Field trials India are planned for 2012 Golden Rice is now being combined with rice with additional agronomic traits ‘Golden Rice + submergence tolerance ’ ‘Golden rice + Bacterial Blight resistance’ ‘Golden rice + high iron rice combination’ is planned
17. :3. Marketing researchto understand peoplesinterest, attitudes &sources of influence
18. ‘ New food crops‘ have a 5000 year movement history: 1550 1804 Sunflower Sugar beet 1900 Soybean, Bean Rape 1529 Wheat Corn Rape Coffee Potato Sugar cane Cassava Tomato Kiwi 1955 = YearsSource: Fond der chemischen Industrie - Nr. 20 »Biotechnologie/Gentechnik«, Frankfurt/M, 1996, modified 2003
19. Demand creation & consumption: modifying behaviour:19
20. What do people think?
21. After probing for attitudes, eventually information isgiven about Golden Rice...then attitudes probed again
22. :4. ContinueEconomicanalysis to supportpolicy adoption ofGolden Rice as anadditional healthintervention
23. Cost effectiveness per DALY saved (US$) World Health Organisation value of a DALY 620 1860 Highest efficiency Lowest efficiency Supplementation costs 134 599 (Vit A capsule distribution) Vitamin A food 84 ? fortification Golden Rice 3 19DALY = Disability Adjusted Life Year Stein et al., Nature Biotechnology 2006, 24, 10, 200-201
24. HIDDEN HUNGER IN INDIA Malnourishment • 35 per cent of the developing worlds malnourished children. • largest number of Vitamin A deficient children in the world; only 43 per cent of children Vitamin A deficiency (aged 6-59 months) receive the recommended two doses of Vitamin A per year.Iron deficiency anemia • 75 per cent of children and 51 per cent of women • no way to obtain iodine from the diet; fortification is essential. only 50 per cent of Iodine deficiency Indian households have access to adequately iodized salt. • Contributes stunting of 42 per cent Zinc deficiency of children
25. THE CONSEQUENCES OF MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN INDIA EVERY YEAR Vitamin A deficiency • 330,000 child deaths precipitated • 6.6 million children born Iodine deficiency mentally impaired • Intellectual capacity reduced Iodine deficiency by 15 per cent • 22,000 people, mainly severe anaemia pregnant women, die • 200,000 babies born with neural Folic acid deficiency tube defects ; 16 times the global average.
26. Making biofortified foods available to the Indian Populationrequires consideration also of:Indian “public’s” concerns about food safety and the environment, especiallyconcerning genetically enhanced cropsRegulatory aspects of genetically engineered cropsMultiplication and delivery systems for biofortified crop seedsCreation of an enabling environment for adoption through attitudinal research,appropriate partnerships and social marketing
27. Asian GDP could benefit by >US$15 billion annually -due to increases in agricultural productivity - fromconservatively adopting Golden Rice, ………… Kym Anderson, et al. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3380, August 2004
28. BIOFORTICATION STRATEGY FOR INDIA SEED TO SPOON BREEDING OBJECTIVESIRON ZINC PROVITAMIN A GERMPLASM SCREENING & NUTRIENT ANALYSIS MICRONUTRIENT RETENTION & BIOAVAILBILITY BIOLOGICAL IMPACT IN HUMANS EFFICACY TRIALS POPULATION IMPACT - EFFECTIVENESS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE OR PPP DELIVERY SYSTEMS
29. :We welcome Helen Keller International to the Golden Riceproject in Philippines and Bangladesh as we move towardsadoption of Golden Rice as an additional intervention forVitamin A deficiency alleviationWe are delighted with the new funding for Golden Rice’sdevelopment in Philippines and Bangladesh from the Billand Melinda Gates FoundationThe regulatory data generated will be made available freeof charge also to the Golden Rice projects in othercountries, which will be very helpful
30. Rice Teams & budgets @ To all our sponsors at various times, •IRRI since before 1990: •Phil Rice- Philippines •CLRRI- Vietnam ETH / Swiss Federal Funds •DBT, IARI, DRR,TNAU- India European Commission HarvestPlus USAID Syngenta Company Syngenta Foundation National Institutes of Health (USA) The Golden Rice Humanitarian Board Bayer, Mogen, Novartis, Monsanto, Orynova, ZenecaFor additional information, please visit our website:www.goldenrice.org