2012 GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX The Challenge of Hunger: ENSURING SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY UNDER LAND, WATER, AND ENERGY STRESSES2012-1.0
Why a Global Hunger Index?• To raise awareness of regional and country differences in hunger• To show progress over time• To help learn from successes and failures in hunger reduction• To provide incentives to act and improve the international ranking• To focus on one major hunger-related topic every year
• Ranking is a powerful tool• Other sectors use it successfully too• It gets public and professional attention• It can spur competition• A special subject can be highlighted
GHI measures three dimensions of hunger • Undernourishment • Child underweight • Child mortality Proportion of Prevalence of Mortality rate of + + the population underweight in that is children under children under undernourished age five (in %) GHI age five (in %) (in %)score = 3
Countries ranked on a 100 point scaleMinimum and maximum values not observed in practice
Summary: Background Facts and Key Findings (1)• The 2012 Global Hunger Index (GHI) is calculated for 120 developing countries and countries in transition for which data on the three indicators of hunger are available.• This year’s GHI reflects data from 2005-2010—the most recent country-level data available on the three GHI measures. It is thus a snapshot of the recent past.• The GHI combines three equally weighted indicators into one score: the proportion of people who are undernourished, the proportion of children under five who are underweight, and the mortality rate of children younger than age five.• An increase in a country’s GHI score indicates that the hunger situation is worsening, while a decrease in the score indicates improvement in the country’s hunger situation.
Summary: Background Facts and Key Findings (2)• According to the GHI, hunger on a global scale remains “serious.” Twenty countries have levels of hunger that are “alarming” or “extremely alarming.”• The 2012 world GHI fell by 26 percent from the 1990 world GHI, from a score of 19.8 to 14.7.• South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have the highest levels of hunger with regional scores of 22.5 and 20.7, respectively.• From the 1990 GHI to the 2012 GHI, 15 countries reduced their scores by 50 percent or more.• In terms of absolute progress, Angola, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nicaragua, Niger, and Vietnam saw the largest improvements in their scores from the 1990 to 2012 GHI.
Summary: Background Facts and Key Findings (3)• In terms of absolute progress, Angola, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nicaragua, Niger, and Vietnam saw the largest improvements in their scores from the 1990 to 2012 GHI.• Haiti’s GHI score fell about one quarter from 1990-2001, but most of this improvement was reversed in subsequent years. The devastating 2010 earthquake, although not fully captured by the 2012 GHI because of insufficient data, pushed Haiti back into the category of “extremely alarming.”• With the exception of North Korea, all the countries in which the hunger situation worsened from the 1990 GHI to the 2012 GHI are in Sub-Saharan Africa.• More than 50 percent of the population is undernourished in Burundi, Eritrea, and Haiti.
Good news, but …• The GHI has declined somewhat since 1990, but ... … it remains “serious” with 14.7• South Asia reduced its GHI score significantly between 1990 an 1996, but ... … could not maintain this rapid progress• South Asia in the 1990s made more progress than Sub-Saharan Africa, but … … has fallen back since, its 2012 score now higher than that of Sub-Saharan Africa
Regional performance and progress
3 countries “extremely alarming” 17 “alarming”Country GHI Country GHI Country GHIBurundi 37 Ethiopia 29 Zambia 23Eritrea 34 Chad 28 Mozambique 23Haiti 31 Timor-Leste 27 India 23 Central African Rep. 27 Madagascar 23 Comoros 26 Niger 22 Sierra Leone 25 Djibouti 22 Yemen 24 Sudan 22 Angola 24 Nepal 20 Bangladesh 24No complete data available for Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bhutan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq,Myanmar, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Somalia
GHI and income
Winners and losers from 1990 to 2012 GHI
Policies that threaten sustainable food security
Typology of land acquisitions accordingto 2012 GHI score and agricultural GDP
Poor people’s spending on food and energy (2007)
Energy use, access to sanitation and food
Change in forested area by region
The centrality of land, water, and energy for smallholdersWelthungerhilfe:How pressure for land transforms rurallivelihoods in Sierra LeoneConcern Worldwide:Land title and water in rural Tanzania:Protecting the livelihoods of poor farmers
Policies that lead to sustainable food security
Responsible governance of natural resources: Getting the policy frameworks right• Secure land and water rights• Phase out subsidies• Create a macroeconomic enabling environment
Scaling up technical approaches: Addressing the nexus• Invest in agricultural production technologies that support increased land, water, and energy efficiency• Foster approaches resulting in more efficient land, water, and energy use along the value chain• Prevent resource depletion by monitoring and evaluating strategies in water, land, energy, and agricultural systems
Addressing the drivers of natural resource scarcity: Managing the risks• Address demographic change, women’s access to education and reproductive health• Raise incomes, lower inequality, and promote sustainable life-styles• Mitigate and adapt to climate change through agriculture
• Available in English, German, Spanish, French, and Italian• Download from www.ifpri.org www.welthungerhilfe.de www.concern.net• Embed interactive world hunger map• Wikipedia and Google Books• Available as interactive e-book for Kindle, iPad, and mobile phone