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fessional Ethics in Engineering, Parts 6 to 10

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Michael C. Loui presents parts 6 to 10 of the video series “Professional Ethics in Engineering”.

Michael C. Loui presents parts 6 to 10 of the video series “Professional Ethics in Engineering”.

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    • 1. Professional Ethics in Engineering, Part 6: The Citicorp Center Case Michael C. Loui Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign December 2008
    • 2. William LeMessurier designed the structure for the Citicorp Center
    • 3. The Citicorp Center in Manhattan …
    • 4. The Citicorp Center in Manhattan …
    • 5. … was built over a church on the corner of a city block
    • 6. The diagonal bracing structure was innovative
    • 7. Quartering winds can cause a building to sway
    • 8. LeMessurier took responsibility for reinforcing the structure
      • Calculated that building would fall down in a 16-year storm
      • Determined that welding steel plates over 200 joints would secure the building
      • Worked with Citicorp to organize repairs over two months
      • Litigation settled for limit on LeMessurier’s professional liability insurance
    • 9. The Citicorp Center may now have the strongest structure in New York
    • 10. Reference
      • J. Morgenstern, The fifty-nine-story crisis, The New Yorker , pp. 45–53, May 29, 1995.
      • Photos and illustrations from
        • New York Times (slide 2)
        • Online Ethics Center, http://onlineethics.org (slides 5, 6)
        • www.nyc-architecture.com/UES/UES001.htm (slides 3, 4, 8)
    • 11. Professional Ethics in Engineering, Part 7: Codes of Ethics Michael C. Loui Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign December 2008
    • 12. All engineering organizations have codes of ethics
      • Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
      • National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying
      • National Society of Professional Engineers
      • Disciplinary engineering societies
        • American Society of Civil Engineers
        • American Society of Mechanical Engineers, …
    • 13. Different codes serve different purposes
      • Aspirational
        • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
      • Educational
        • Association for Computing Machinery
      • Decision support
        • “ You are asking me to violate my profession’s code of ethics. I could lose my license.”
    • 14. IEEE Code of Ethics (2006)
      • We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree:
    • 15. IEEE Code of Ethics (2006)
      • 1. to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public , and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment;
      • 2. to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist;
    • 16. IEEE Code of Ethics (2006)
      • 3. to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data;
      • 4. to reject bribery in all its forms;
      • 5. to improve the understanding of technology , its appropriate application, and potential consequences;
    • 17. IEEE Code of Ethics (2006)
      • 6. to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations;
      • 7. to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others;
    • 18. IEEE Code of Ethics (2006)
      • 8. to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin;
      • 9. to avoid injuring others , their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action;
      • 10. to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics.
    • 19. Sources
      • Codes of Ethics Online
      • http://www.iit.edu/departments/csep/codes/coe.html
      • IEEE Code of Ethics
      • http://www.ieee.org/portal/pages/iportals/aboutus/ ethics/code.html
      • M. Davis, Thinking like an engineer: the place of a code of ethics in the practice of a profession, Philosophy and Public Affairs , vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 150–167, Spring 1991.
    • 20. Professional Ethics in Engineering, Part 8: The NSPE Code and the BER Michael C. Loui Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign December 2008
    • 21. The NSPE Code of Ethics (2007)
      • National Society of Professional Engineers
      • NSPE Code of Ethics has four sections
        • Preamble
        • I. Fundamental Canons
        • II. Rules of Practice
        • III. Professional Obligations
    • 22. NSPE Code of Ethics (2007): Preamble
      • Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare . Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct.
    • 23. Some items from the NSPE Code of Ethics, II. Rules of Practice (2007)
      • II.2.b. Engineers shall not affix their signatures to any plans or documents dealing with subject matter in which they lack competence, nor to any plan or document not prepared under their direction and control.
      • II.4.b. Engineers shall not accept compensation , financial or otherwise, from more than one party for services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the same project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interested parties.
    • 24. Items from the NSPE Code of Ethics, III. Professional Obligations (2007)
      • III.4. Engineers shall not disclose, without consent, confidential information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former client or employer, or public body on which they serve.
      • III.9.c. Engineers, before undertaking work for others in connection with which the engineer may make improvements, plans, designs, inventions, or other records that may justify copyrights or patents , should enter into a positive agreement regarding ownership.
    • 25. The NSPE Board of Ethical Review
      • BER consists of seven experts
      • Issues consensus advisory opinions on cases submitted by members,
      • Opinions based on interpreting provisions of the NSPE Code of Ethics
    • 26. Sources
      • NSPE Code of Ethics
      • http://www.nspe.org/Ethics/CodeofEthics/index.html
      • BER Cases
      • http://www.murdough.ttu.edu/pdd.cfm?pt=NIEE&doc=EthicsCases
    • 27. Professional Ethics in Engineering, Part 9: Overview of Moral Theories Michael C. Loui Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign December 2008
    • 28. Ethics is the formal study of morality
      • Morality
        • Actions that ought to be done
        • Character that a person ought to be
        • Values that one ought to adopt
      • Ethics
        • Formal study of morality (philosophy)
        • Moral standards of particular group (engineering ethics, medical ethics, etc.)
      • Moral theories: Kinds of moral reasons
    • 29. Consequentialist theories emphasize consequences of actions
      • Assess good and bad consequences
        • Both individual and others
        • Both short- and long-term
      • Act-utilitarianism
        • Choose action with greatest net benefit over costs
      • Rule-utilitarianism
        • Choose rule with greatest net benefit
    • 30. Consequentialist theories have practical difficulties
      • Assessing chance occurrences
      • Measuring on common scale (e.g., cost of life)
      • Distribution of benefits may seem unfair
    • 31. Deontological theories emphasize duties and rules
      • Kant’s Categorical Imperative
        • Act according to that maxim which should be a universal law
      • Rawls’s Theory of Justice
        • Rules that rational persons would agree to follow, not knowing their actual positions in society
        • Most individual liberty compatible with equal amount for others
        • Differences in social and economic power justified only if all benefit, including disadvantaged groups
    • 32. An important duty is treating people with respect
      • Kant’s Categorical Imperative (alternate form)
        • Treat people as ends, never as means
      • Golden Rule Test
        • Christian form: “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”
        • Confucian form: “Do not do to others what you would not want them to do to you”
      • Rights and duties are reciprocal
        • My right to not be deceived, your duty to tell truth
    • 33. What should we do when duties/rights conflict?
      • Conflicts between rights
        • Individual privacy vs. airport security
      • Gewirth’s hierarchy of rights
        • First tier: required for existence (life, health)
        • Second tier: maintenance of self (not being cheated, not suffering broken promises)
        • Third tier: enhancement of self (property acquisition, self-respect, achievement)
      • Create solutions that honor all rights
    • 34. References
      • C. E. Harris, M. S. Pritchard, and M. J. Rabins , Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases, 3rd ed., Wadsworth/Thompson Learning, Belmont, Calif., 2005.
      • M. W. Martin and R. Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2005.
    • 35. Professional Ethics in Engineering, Part 10: Ethics in Research Michael C. Loui Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign December 2008
    • 36. Research misconduct refers to three practices
      • Fabrication
        • Creating research data illegitimately
      • Falsification
        • Altering data inappropriately
      • Plagiarism
        • Presenting the words and ideas of others without attribution
      • What about errors and negligence?
    • 37. Questions about authorship and citation
      • Who can be a co-author of a report or article?
      • Does authorship order matter?
      • If a published article has a mistake, which authors are responsible? Why?
      • Is a citation required for a well-known fact, theory, or principle?
    • 38. Questions about peer review
      • What are the obligations of a reviewer of a manuscript or proposal?
      • What information in a manuscript should be considered confidential? Why?
      • Why are the identities of reviewers hidden?
      • When can a professor who is asked to review a manuscript delegate the task to a graduate student?
    • 39. Questions about data management
      • Who owns experimental data?
      • How should data be collected, recorded, and protected to ensure integrity?
      • To what extent should data be shared with other researchers?
      • Do these answers change when the research is sponsored by an industrial firm?
    • 40. References
      • The National Academies, On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research , 3 rd ed., to appear soon.
      • Online Ethics Center at the National Academy of Engineering
      • www.onlineethics.org