View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Reservoir characterization Reservoir model incl. dynamic properties Geological (or static) reservoir model Well logs Biostratigraphy Sedimentology Geochemistry Seismics Reservoir modelling Tracer data Production data
Tracer Technology may roughly be defined as a monitoring technology of physical, chemical or biological processes whereby a tracer species, which can be readily analysed on-line (in-stream, in-vivo) or off-line (in vitro), is added to the process in order to follow the process development and describe its mechanisms .
Passive or conservative (or also, less precisely, called ideal) tracers :
The requirement is that the tracer shall passively follow the fluid phase or phase fraction into which it is injected without any chemical or physical behaviour different from that of the traced component itself. In addition, the tracer must not perturb the behaviour of the traced phase in any way, -neither must the fluid phase or its components perturb the tracer behaviour.
Active (also, less precisely, called non-ideal or reacting) tracers:
The tracer is taking active part in the process in qualitatively predictable ways , and is used to measure a property of the system in which it is injected. The degree of the active part-taking is a quantitative measure of the property to be determined.
Tracing of injection fluids P referential flow directions H orizontal and vertical communication between wells P ermeability strata S weep volumes L arge-scale hetero-geneities Injection well Production well Stratified reservoir
Field tracer production profiles P roduction curves for HTO in various production wells also illustrating how break-through has been missed in two cases D esign of experi-ment done with ECLIPSE on existing reservoir model FROM WELLS IN A NORTH SEA RESERVOIR 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 (Thousands) TIME FROM FIRST INJECTION (DAYS) 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 INJ.
Isotopic ratio tracers Example: Ratio of 12 C and 13 C which varies in different fluids and C-containing matter. The standard is an established reference, such as ocean water .
Radioactive tracers for IWTT Organic molecules : CH 2 T OH, 14 C H 3 OH CH 3 14 C HOHCH 3 , CH 3 C T OHCH 3 Inorganic molecules: H T O, 22 Na + , 125 I - , ( 131 I - ), ( 82 Br - ), 36 Cl - , 35 S CN - , S 14 C N - , ( 35 S O 4 2- ), 56 Co (CN) 6 3- , 57 Co (CN) 6 3- , 58 Co (CN) 6 3- , 60 Co (CN) 6 3- Co(CN) 5 ( 14 C N) 3-
Non-radioactive polyfluorinated interwell water tracers H F COOH H H H H F COOH H H H F H COOH F H H H H COOH F F H H H COOH H F F H F COOH H H F H F COOH F F F H F COOH H H H
Requirement: Tracers stable at oil com- bustion temperatures
For air: 127 Xe , 133 Xe , 85 Kr , 4 He
For water vapor: H T O
For water cond. phase: 22 Na + , Cl -
For CO 2 : 14 C O 2
SAGD principle SAGD = Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Steam injection Oil production Vapor heats up a compartment around the well and mobilizes the oil The mobilized oil is drained into the lower production well
Statement “ D uring the startup and early operation of horizontal SAGD wells, it is important to understand the flow distribution of bitumen and water along the horizontal reservoir interval. I f this distribution is understood, the distribution of steam, injected either at the heel or toe of the steam injector, can be adjusted to optimize the startup and early operation of the SAGD pair”. JPT
Tracers for SAGD Requirement: Tracers stable at temperatures of 200-300 C For water vapor: H T O, CH 2 T OH For water cond. phase: Naphtalene-sulphonic acids For steam/gas phases: Various PFCs
Low Temp. Solvent (VAPEX) Production well Injection well Draining diluted and deasphalted oil
Tracers for VAPEX presently in pilot tests Requirement: Temperature is not a stability issue for the tracers but they must be stable against biodegradation For light injected HC: T - or 14 C -labelled propane, isopropane, butane, isobutane, pentane etc. For cond. aq-phase: FBA, Naphtalene-sulphonic acids, H T O and several more
SAGD and VAPEX combined -high-temperature recovery – in pilot stage Production well Injection well Mobilized oil
Tracers for combined SAGD and VAPEX Requirement: Tracers for water vapor, water condensed phase and gas phase stable at temperatures of 200-300 C as for SAGD Additional: Radiolabelled light HC tracers as for VAPEX