110510 tracers in heavy oil

  • 1,192 views
Uploaded on

Tracers in heavy oil. A presentation by Tor Bjørnstad, Institute for Energy Technology, 2011

Tracers in heavy oil. A presentation by Tor Bjørnstad, Institute for Energy Technology, 2011

More in: Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,192
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
51
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Heavy Oil Reservoirs: Fluid Tracing Challenges Tor Bjørnstad Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) Kjeller, Norway
  • 2.
    • Established 1948
    • About 600 employees
    • Turnover: MNOK 750
    • Main activity areas
      • Nuclear technology
      • Petroleum research
      • Energy and environmental technology
    • Research under contract
    Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) 21.09.11 Tor Bjørnstad
  • 3. Purpose of my visit here:
    • O ffer to Pemex services with state-of-the-art technology within reservoir description (tracer technology), corrosion, flow assurance and pipeline transportation developed in our own laboratories.
    • I nvite Pemex as an industrial participant along with other major oil companies into our various and ongoing Joint Industry Programs (JIPs) on R&D and technology development .
  • 4. Contents
    • About tracers
    • Conventional use of tracers in reservoirs
    • Tracer types, sampling, analysis and modelling
    • Heavy oil recovery methods – tracing challenges
    • Outlook – new functional tracers
  • 5. Visionary thinking
  • 6. Reservoir characterization Reservoir model incl. dynamic properties Geological (or static) reservoir model Well logs Biostratigraphy Sedimentology Geochemistry Seismics Reservoir modelling Tracer data Production data
  • 7. Tracer Technology: Definitions
  • 8. What is Tracer Technology?
    • Tracer Technology may roughly be defined as a monitoring technology of physical, chemical or biological processes whereby a tracer species, which can be readily analysed on-line (in-stream, in-vivo) or off-line (in vitro), is added to the process in order to follow the process development and describe its mechanisms .
  • 9. Tracer category 1: Passive tracers
    • Passive or conservative (or also, less precisely, called ideal) tracers :
    • The requirement is that the tracer shall passively follow the fluid phase or phase fraction into which it is injected without any chemical or physical behaviour different from that of the traced component itself. In addition, the tracer must not perturb the behaviour of the traced phase in any way, -neither must the fluid phase or its components perturb the tracer behaviour.
  • 10. Tracer category 2: Active tracers
    • Active (also, less precisely, called non-ideal or reacting) tracers:
    • The tracer is taking active part in the process in qualitatively predictable ways , and is used to measure a property of the system in which it is injected. The degree of the active part-taking is a quantitative measure of the property to be determined.
  • 11. There are various tracer types
    • It is found to be practical to divide oilfield tracers into three types (not kinds!) based on their principally different production, treatment and analysis :
    • Molecules with special Stable-Isotope Ratios (  D ,  13C etc)
    • Non-radioactive chemical species
    • Radioactive atoms or molecules
  • 12. The “IFE Tracer Club”- different phases Tracer Technology development sponsored by major oil companies.
  • 13. Tracers in reservoirs: Reservoir description and flow-field mapping
  • 14. Water expels oil 8 km 2 km
  • 15. Tracing of injection fluids P referential flow directions H orizontal and vertical communication between wells P ermeability strata S weep volumes L arge-scale hetero-geneities Injection well Production well Stratified reservoir
  • 16. Field tracer production profiles P roduction curves for HTO in various production wells also illustrating how break-through has been missed in two cases D esign of experi-ment done with ECLIPSE on existing reservoir model FROM WELLS IN A NORTH SEA RESERVOIR 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 (Thousands) TIME FROM FIRST INJECTION (DAYS) 2.6 2.4 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 INJ.
  • 17. North Sea field example
    • Use of well-to-well TT on the SNORRE-field showed surprising fluid flow directions of water and gas.
    • This resulted in a partly new stratigraphic model which again changed the reservoir model . Infill wells can be placed with increased reliability.
    Injection well Production well Water tracer Gas tracer
  • 18. North Sea oil reservoir – FAWAG process Flow pattern from I1, I2 and I3
    • Overlap of gas- contacted areas
    • Development of gas caps both from I1 and I2
    P10 P9 P11 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P7 P8 I1 I2 I3 P6
  • 19. Tracer response after WAG PMCH responses from I2 PMCH P4 P5 P7 P8 P9 I2 I3 P6
  • 20. Tracer Types, Sampling, Analysis and Modeling
  • 21. Isotopic ratio tracers Example: Ratio of 12 C and 13 C which varies in different fluids and C-containing matter. The standard is an established reference, such as ocean water .
  • 22. Radioactive tracers for IWTT Organic molecules : CH 2 T OH, 14 C H 3 OH CH 3 14 C HOHCH 3 , CH 3 C T OHCH 3 Inorganic molecules: H T O, 22 Na + , 125 I - , ( 131 I - ), ( 82 Br - ), 36 Cl - , 35 S CN - , S 14 C N - , ( 35 S O 4 2- ), 56 Co (CN) 6 3- , 57 Co (CN) 6 3- , 58 Co (CN) 6 3- , 60 Co (CN) 6 3- Co(CN) 5 ( 14 C N) 3-
  • 23. Non-radioactive polyfluorinated interwell water tracers H F COOH H H H H F COOH H H H F H COOH F H H H H COOH F F H H H COOH H F F H F COOH H H F H F COOH F F F H F COOH H H H
  • 24. “ Water” samples from flow line
  • 25. Non-radioactive gas tracers P erfluorinated cyclic hydro-carbons with coordinated light hydrocarbon (methyl) groups are excellent gas tracers PMCP PMCH CARBON FLUORINE 1,2,4-PTMCH PDCB 1,3-PDMCH
  • 26. Gas Tracer sample container General version, pressurized New, for PFC-tracers, non-pressurized
  • 27. GC-MS/MS
  • 28. HPLC spectrometer
  • 29. Fluorescense of produced waters and tracers Gullfaks water IFE-WTN-1,3 IFE-WTN-1,3,6 Fluorescein Tap water Heidrun water IFE-WTN-2,7 Emission wavelength (nm) Exitation wavelength (rel) Norne water
  • 30. Isotope mass spectrometer
  • 31. LSC scintillation vial 12 mL scintillation cocktail + 8 mL distilled sample intimately mixed
  • 32. Liquid scintillation counting - analysis of HTO in produced water Channel number (Energy) Counting rate HTO spectrum, sample 1: 82 ± 4 Bq/l HTO spectrum, sample 2: 10 ± 2 Bq/l Background spectra
  • 33. Heavy Oil Production – Tracing Challenges
  • 34. Oil Classification Type API gravity Density (kg/m 3 ) Viscosity (cP) Bitumen << 10 1000 ++ > 10.000 Extra heavy oil < 10 1000 + > 1000 Heavy oil 10 – 22.3 920 - 1000 > 100 Medium oil 22.3 – 31.1 870 - 920 10 - 100 Light oil > 31.1 < 870 < 10
  • 35. Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) Steam injection Steam soaking Backpro- duction
  • 36. Tracers for CSS
    • Requirement: Tracers stable at temperatures of 200-300  C
    • For water vapor: H T O, CH 2 T OH
    • For water cond. phase: Naphtalene-sulphonic acids
    • For steam/gas phases: Various PFCs
  • 37. Toe-to-Heel Air Injection (THAI) Cold heavy oil Combustion zone Coke zone Mobil oil Injected air and water
  • 38. Tracers for THAI
    • Requirement: Tracers stable at oil com- bustion temperatures
    • For air: 127 Xe , 133 Xe , 85 Kr , 4 He
    • For water vapor: H T O
    • For water cond. phase: 22 Na + , Cl -
    • For CO 2 : 14 C O 2
  • 39. SAGD principle SAGD = Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Steam injection Oil production Vapor heats up a compartment around the well and mobilizes the oil The mobilized oil is drained into the lower production well
  • 40. Statement “ D uring the startup and early operation of horizontal SAGD wells, it is important to understand the flow distribution of bitumen and water along the horizontal reservoir interval. I f this distribution is understood, the distribution of steam, injected either at the heel or toe of the steam injector, can be adjusted to optimize the startup and early operation of the SAGD pair”. JPT
  • 41. Tracers for SAGD Requirement: Tracers stable at temperatures of 200-300 C For water vapor: H T O, CH 2 T OH For water cond. phase: Naphtalene-sulphonic acids For steam/gas phases: Various PFCs
  • 42. Low Temp. Solvent (VAPEX) Production well Injection well Draining diluted and deasphalted oil
  • 43. Tracers for VAPEX presently in pilot tests Requirement: Temperature is not a stability issue for the tracers but they must be stable against biodegradation For light injected HC: T - or 14 C -labelled propane, isopropane, butane, isobutane, pentane etc. For cond. aq-phase: FBA, Naphtalene-sulphonic acids, H T O and several more
  • 44. SAGD and VAPEX combined -high-temperature recovery – in pilot stage Production well Injection well Mobilized oil
  • 45. Tracers for combined SAGD and VAPEX Requirement: Tracers for water vapor, water condensed phase and gas phase stable at temperatures of 200-300  C as for SAGD Additional: Radiolabelled light HC tracers as for VAPEX
  • 46. Outlook
  • 47. Tracer development line 1945 1955 1975 1985 2008 2015 He-gas 131 I - , HTO
    • SCN - (?)
    • Co(CN) 6 3- (?)
    • Radiolabelled
    • natural gases
    • Alcohols
    • Lab studies:
    • Radioactive
    • inorg. & org. w & g
    • Non-radioactive
    • w & g
    • New high-temperature gas and water tracers
    • Tracers for heavy oil EOR
    • Oil-partitioning tracers.
    • Functional nano-tracers
    • PFC gas tracers
    • FBA water tracers
    • New gas tracers
    • New water tracers
  • 48. Tracer molecules become constantly more complex Are these among the future candi-dates?? Borrowed from Nick D. Kim
  • 49. Fluorescent and radioactive nano-particles Particle core emission Particle core and functional layer emission Particle core and multifunctional layer emission
  • 50. Surfactant: Alpha-olefine sulphonate labelled with radioactive nuclides CH 3  (CH 2 ) 8  CH = CH  CH 2  35 S O 3 - Na + OH CH 3  (CH 2 ) 8  CH  CH 2  CH 2  SO 3 - Na + OH 14 C H 3  (CH 2 ) 8  CH  CH 2  CH 2  SO 3 - Na + OH CH 3  (CH 2 ) 8  C T  CH 2  CH 2  SO 3 - Na +
  • 51. Tor Bjørnstad Tracer injection pump IFE personnel Tracer operations in the North Sea 1
  • 52. Tor Bjørnstad Learning to operate the gas tracer sampling kit
  • 53. Hybrid End