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Vietnam: Mitigate GHG emissions What benefit to Farmers?
 

Vietnam: Mitigate GHG emissions What benefit to Farmers?

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    Vietnam: Mitigate GHG emissions What benefit to Farmers? Vietnam: Mitigate GHG emissions What benefit to Farmers? Presentation Transcript

    • GHG Mitigation Seminar Hanoi, 03 May 2010 Vietnam: Mitigate GHG emissions What benefit to Farmers? Nguyen Mong Cuong Research Center for Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Viet Nam
    • Global challenges:  Rising sea levels  Inundate coastlines low lands Global warming Threats  Storms Climate change  Droughts  Floods Severe impacts HFCs, SF6,CO2, CH4, N2O … Industry Agriculture Health & Livelihood of the poor Mitigate GHG’s KP & UNFCCC objective: Stabilizing GHG in the atmosphere within a timeframe that would allow Ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change and not threaten food security
    • 1. Viet Nam: Challenges in Agriculture 1/ Pressure on forest … 2/ Pollution and GHG Emission by animal husbandry / > 20 mil.tons waste/Year Livestock Sector GHG's emissions 30 27 25 22 20 Tg CO2 equiv. 17 15 11.2 9.8 10 5 0 1994 2000 2010 2020 2030 Year Source: P.V.THANH (CCRD,2008)
    • 3/ Burning or freeing agricultural residues on the field 4/ Rice paddy cultivation with methane emissions
    • 5/Chemical fertilizer use in agriculture A large amount of chemical fertilizers being lost 40- 45% lost to 40- 65% leaching, chemical fertilizers erosion, using by plants: volatilization and fixation nitrogen : 35-45%, in the soil phosphorus and potassium : 50-60% From a Total ~ 2.4 million tons NPK /Year Estimated 1,2 mil.tons of urea-equivalent being lost → Soil environment pollution N2O emission Source: P.V.THANH (CCRD,2008)
    • 2. GHG Emission inventory in agriculture- 2000 CH4 N2O Total CO2 Sub-sectors (Gg) (Gg) equiv. (Tg) (%) Rice Cultivation 1782.4 37.4 57.5 Livestock - Enteric fermentation 368.1 0,001 7.7 11.9 - Manure 164.2 3.4 5.3 management Agricultural soil 45.9 14.2 21.8 Burning Savanna 10.0 1.2 0.59 0.9 Field burning of 59.1 1.4 1.7 2.6 agriculture residues Total 2383.7 48.5 65.1 100 Sources: Technical report for GHG inventory of SNC. HANOI, 2009.
    • Figure: GHG Emissions from agriculture 2000 Field burning Enteric agric. fermentation: Burning Savanna residues Manure 11.9% 0.9% 2.6% management: 5.3% Agric. soil 21.8% Rice cultivation: 57.5%
    • GHG emission projection to 2030 Tg CO2 equi. 600 GHG Emission Projection to 2010, 2020, 2030 500 Sub-sector 2010 2020 2030 Energy Forestry 400 Agriculture Total GHG 1. Livestock 17.0 22.0 26.9 300 2. Rice cultivation 34.8 34.0 32.7 3. Agricultural soil 14.0 13.5 13.2 200 100 Total ( Tg CO2 equivalent) 65.8 69.5 72.9 Year 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 -100
    • 3.Ultimate goal of mitigating GHG: Increasing Farmer’s income and reduce GHG’s • Economic aspect – Low cost : investment, labor, machinery – Market : positive expandable market, good price • Social aspect – Acceptable by farmers – Easy to implement – Undisturbed farmer way of life
    • 1/ The biogas system Benefits: +Treat waste safely and prevent infectious diseases + Generate cheap and clean source of fuels for families, save money. + Convenient and free women from housework + Reduce deforestation + Make use biological organic Source: P.V.THANH (CCRD,2008) fertilizers for cultivation.
    • 2/ Water Management in Rice Field by intermittent irrigation during vegetative period Benefits: + Increase rice yields +Save money as save irrigation fees. + Save water resources
    • 3/ Bio-fertilizer produced by recycling living & agricultural waste CH4 (Biogas) for cooking, lighting, Living & agricultural generating electricity waste BiOVAC Benefits: Human excreta +Increased nitrogen Animal dung Biodigester Biodigester 45 days fixing capacity biodigester +Soil enrichment by higher levels of organic matter N,P,K + Direct savings for Bio- farmers as they use (40-60%) fertilizer less chemical fertilizers + Decreased environmental pollution plants
    • 4/ Land levelling, mulching practices Benefit: Source: Thu DC, 2004 -Soil erosion and landslides control, reduce weed infestation -Retain moisture and organic matter -Increasing crop yield -Increasing SOC’s.
    • 5/ Improving meal and eating tradition Benefits +Meal and eating tradition not only rice but also various vegetables, foodstuff. +Reduce pressure on rice cultivation; +Some rice fields could be used to cultivate secondary crops and other trees instead of rice. (Source: Viet Nam INC, 2003)
    • 4. ASSESSING SOME GHG MITIGATION OPTIONS FOR AGRICULTURE SECTOR Based on GHG emission potential, 5 GHG mitigation options are assessed for Agriculture sector as follows: • PA1: Using biogas replacing coal in cooking for the plain areas • PA2: Using biogas repacing firewood in cooking for the moutainous areas • PA3: Water management in rice paddy of Red river delta region • PA4: Water management in rice paddy of Central coastal region • PA5: Providing MUB nutritional cake for dairy cows.
    • ASSESSING SOME GHG MITIGATION OPTIONS FOR AGRICULTURE SECTOR Additional cost Cost (USD/ tonne CO2 equiv. (Tg) reduction Option (million of USD) of CO2) (1) (2) (3) PA1 17.43 0.122 4.118 PA2 5.21 0.086 9.726 PA3 21.90 0.128 5.230 PA4 4.13 0.032 6.990 PA5 7.91 -0.196 -10.933 Total 56.58
    • ASSESSING SOME GHG MITIGATION OPTIONS FOR AGRICULTURE SECTOR US $/t of CERI CURVE FOR AGRICULTURE IN 2030 C O2 15.0 PA2 10.0 PA4 PA3 PA1 5.0 mil. t. C O2 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 -5.0 PA5 -10.0 -15.0
    • Thank you for your listening < cuongccsd@yahoo.com >