UNESCO-IHE - Contribution to the discussion


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Balancing Hardware with Software for Sustainable Agricultural Water management

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  • For the water sector an enabling environment for bringing out tacit knowledge would mean: investing in the capacities that are needed for a well-performing sector, and working towards better governance, transparency and accountability. Knowledge management tools can be utilized, drawn from human resources management and personnel management, to put in place the objectives and the administrative procedures that create a climate in which people are encouraged to learn about their field and share their knowledge. Organizations in the sector should become learning organizations and these learning organizations will have incentive systems that encourage knowledge creation and individual learning, and internal procedures that facilitate and require open discussion, peer reviews, and the valuation of knowledge. Information and Communication Systems (ICS--comprising both the technologies proper, and the interfaces and educated users who are able to utilize and work with these systems) are essential, for example to develop databases and make information broadly available and to facilitate communication and exchange of information. In reality, many water sector agencies do not actively promote critical reviews and discussion, and staff careers are often based on performance in contract management for works and political relationships.
  • UNESCO-IHE - Contribution to the discussion

    1. 1. IFAD Workshop on: “ Balancing Hardware with Software for Sustainable Agricultural Water management” Rome, 18 April 2011 Contribution to the discussion by Jan Luijendijk
    2. 2. Vision & Mission UNESCO-IHE envisions a world in which people manage their water and environmental resources in a sustainable manner, and in which all sectors of society can enjoy the benefits of basic services. Mission of the Institute is to contribute to the education and training of professionals and to build the capacity of sector organisations and knowledge centres in the fields of water, the environment and infrastructure, in developing countries and countries in transition.
    3. 3. Importance of Knowledge and Capacity <ul><li>We are living now in a Knowledge Society </li></ul><ul><li>The need for knowledge and know-how is rapidly changing as well: both in quantity and in content </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence: Information and knowledge have become crucial factors in the performance and effectiveness of individuals and organisations. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries have insufficient human and institutional capacity in professional organizations to fully participate in the knowledge society. </li></ul><ul><li>KM and CD are in fact two sides of the same coin </li></ul>
    4. 4. Knowledge <ul><li>Explicit Knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge (Information) stored in: </li></ul><ul><li>papers, reports, books, CD-Rom’s, </li></ul><ul><li>(grey) literature, Models, Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit Knowledge = Tacit Knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in people </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management: </li></ul><ul><li>KM: “Creating a learning organization in which everyone is stimulated to handle his/her personal knowledge with care, and share his/her knowledge.” </li></ul>
    5. 5. Capacity Development <ul><li>Capacity development: </li></ul><ul><li>is the process by which individuals, organizations, institutions and societies develop abilities (individually and collectively) to perform functions, solve problems and set and achieve objectives. ( Lopes and Theisohn,1997) </li></ul><ul><li>CD is aimed at solving problems and improving performance. If problems and challenges change, so does the required capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Development involves concerted efforts at multiple levels </li></ul>
    6. 6. + INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Knowledge & Capacity Dev Knowledge and Capacity Outcome Factual knowledge Understanding Skills Attitudes Explicit Knowledge : Training Education Tacit Knowledge : Apprenticeship Peer learning Learning-by-doing Political priorities Policies Regulatory frame Public administration Fiscal frame Accountability Strategies Human Resources Management Pol Administrative procedure Budget frame Accountability frame System to learn lessons Change management Tech advice on structure, mgmt, & incentives Human Resources Dev. Peer learning Learning-by-doing Networking Press Technical advice Dialogue Peer learning Learning-by-doing KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING SKILLS ATTITUDES ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE “ CONDUCIVENESS” GOOD GOVERNANCE + =>> SECTOR PERFORMANCE Indicator/ Attribute <ul><li>Competences of the individual and the organization: </li></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial </li></ul><ul><li>On governance </li></ul><ul><li>For continual learning and innovation </li></ul>CIVIL SOCIETY Water “literacy” Social/indigenous capital Culture Awareness raising Mass communication Learning-by-doing Framework for Capacity development (Alaerts and Kaspersma, 2010)
    7. 7. Balancing H:S (1) <ul><li>Some considerations/questions: </li></ul><ul><li>The need for Capacity Development in the water sector is increasing because of new challenges, like </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth and urbanization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many countries are in a process of water sector reform adopting </li></ul><ul><li>IWRM and changing the paradigm (from a focus on development to management and from specific users to multiple users) </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence: - more involvement of multiple stakeholders - increase in complexity of the problems - Need for new knowledge and skills of all actors involved </li></ul>
    8. 8. Balancing H:S (2) <ul><li>Some considerations/questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Development is becoming more diverse. In the past : Capacity building was mainly training; </li></ul><ul><li>In the future : Based on a capacity building needs analysis a well-balanced set of CB measures and interventions should be implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Case Indonesia: (request for staff training) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No HRM policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff not qualified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No HRD unit in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks organization unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Law is too vague and not enough elaborated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It’s all about learning: individual, organizational and social </li></ul>
    9. 9. Balancing H:S (2) <ul><li>Some considerations/questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How do we define the S-component? In the past : focus on H-implementation. Standard 2- 5% of investments spent on CB activities (mostly training); In the future? focus on an inclusive design and formulation process, maximum performance and sustainability. It includes all activities needed to build the capacity of different actors involved to realize an optimal H-investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: include knowledge of relevant stakeholders maximize relevance/effectiveness optimize cost-benefit/efficiency maximize sustainability/ownership </li></ul><ul><li>The S-component comprises all KCD activities to optimize and sustain the H-component </li></ul>
    10. 10. Ideas for applying new frameworks <ul><li>A framework to identify and involve multiple actors (4B’s) </li></ul><ul><li>A framework to facilitate information and knowledge sharing in water related development projects (WICKS) </li></ul>
    11. 11. A new framework for facilitating cooperation, communication and co-learning among stakeholders in the public domain (4B-framework) <ul><li>The classical paradigm is characterized by separation of public power and responsibilities leading to long top-down hierarchical and bureaucratic decision making procedures and technocratic solutions for societal problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The new paradigm is proposing new, effective and efficient ways of dealing with problems in society by introducing an open and multilateral cooperation and network based decision processes among four societal “Basic”forces to develop collaboratively creative and innovative solutions. (“Physics of cooperation” by Ad de Rooij ;in Dutch) </li></ul>
    12. 12. A new framework for facilitating cooperation, communication and co-learning among stakeholders in the public domain (4B-framework) <ul><li>The basic hypothesis of the framework is the multiple interactions of four societal ‘Basic”-forces connected to groups of actors, each with their own role and responsibility: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i)citizens/communities force : end-users with experienced problems and wishes; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ii)administrators force : vision and the public decision power for the realization process; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>iii)bureaucrats force : care-takers of the process and the integration approach, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>iv) companies/NGO’s force : creation and realization of solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Any infrastructure or community development can be described and analyzed with the 4B-Framework.It structures objects, subjects and actors, and supports multiple co-learning on integrated strategies to solve social, economic and ecological problems on a local scale. </li></ul>
    13. 13. A framework for facilitating information sharing and communication (WICKS) R.Price Figure: Information communication framework Data collection interface Procedural interface Analysis interface Data collection interface
    14. 14. A framework for facilitating information sharing and communication (WICKS) R.Price <ul><ul><li>This framework is built on the notion that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We live and work in the physical and social world simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The involvement of stakeholders in water projects is essential for the sustainability of associated physical, technical and social interventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful involvement depends on a suitable generation, analysis and communication of information between the engineering, technical and social science professionals, the decision makers, and the beneficiaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and communication technologies (ICT) can increasingly facilitate the information and knowledge management and the involvement of all stakeholders in water projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The corresponding information communication system (ICS) tools can facilitate the decision making processes in the water sector taking into account the proposed physical interventions and the related social changes. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. A framework for facilitating information sharing and communication (WICKS) R.Price <ul><ul><li>Information communication tools can facilitate the decision making processes by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring, Modelling, and Managing the physical (water)world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge mapping, Knowledge acquisition, Knowledge sharing (communication) and developing Decision Support Systems </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Postgraduate Education, Training and Capacity Building in Water, Environment and Infrastructure www.unesco-ihe.org