APR Workshop 2010-M&E Presentations-Techinal guidelines-Annual Outcome Survey

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APR Workshop 2010-M&E Presentations-Techinal guidelines-Annual Outcome Survey

  1. 1. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 Conducting an annual outcome surveyI- What is the annual outcome survey and why to do it? • The annual outcome survey is a simple household survey that will be undertaken annually by project staff and will cover a small sample of 200 households selected randomly. • The survey will be conducted exclusively in villages targeted by the project or receiving project interventions, and will include both project beneficiaries and non beneficiaries (the latter used as control group). • Overall, the exercise is expected to take no more than 3 months and can be implemented by project staff and extension officers, with or without external support. • The main objectives of the survey are to: (i) measure changes happening at the household level in terms of livelihoods and food security during the project life; (ii) assess targeting efficiency; (iii) provide evidence of project success or failure; and (iv) provide timely performance information necessary to undertake corrective actions.II- How and when to conduct the survey? • Annual outcome surveys should be conduced every year starting from the 2nd year of implementation. • The survey should be implemented in conjunction with qualitative assessments that will complement the household-level information, providing information on “why” and “how” some outcomes were or were not achieved. This means that in each village, in addition to the household interviews, the team should conduct a certain number of focus group (FG) discussions and key informant (KI) interviews (see TG 3 and TG 4 for more details on qualitative assessments). • The figure below provides an overview of the survey design. The figure shows that the field data collection teams will go to 20 villages, and in each village they will conduct 10 household interviews as well as focus groups and/or key informant interviews. The number of qualitative interviews to conduct will be decided by the project (number in the figure below given as examples). Village 1 Village 20 1 Key 2 Key 10 HH 10 HH informa informan interview interview 1 Focus 2 Focus nt t s s group groups intervie interview 200 Household interviews 10-15 Focus groups 10-15 Key informant interviews
  2. 2. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome surveyII- How to prepare and conduct an annual outcome survey?Overview: Estimated Activity/step Comments Responsibility Duration1 Development of the 1-3 days Can take longer if M&E officer, with inputs from questionnaire and questions are added or component coordinators and project interview guides for modified from the coordinator. qualitative standard template. assessments (see TG 3 and 4)2 Selection of the 1-3 days Depending on M&E officer. Lists to be provided by sample availability of reliable project staff (villages) and local lists. authorities (households).3 Selection of 5 days If possible, M&E officer and project coordinator. enumerators and enumerators should be supervisors field officers and supervisor project staff.4 Training of 1-2 days The training should M&E officer and external consultant if enumerators and include a session on any. field testing of sampling. questionnaire and qualitative assessment guides5 Logistical planning, 1-2 days M&E officer and Project coordinator. preparation for data collection6 Data collection 1-3 weeks Depends on availability Project coordinator for supervision, of cars/motorbikes. extension workers for data collection.7 Data entry 1-2 weeks If Excel file is used, M&E officer for supervision, assistant data entry can only be for data entry. conducted by one person at a time.8 Data analysis 1 week M&E officer with support from external consultant (if any).9 Report writing 1 week M&E officer, with inputs from component coordinators and project coordinator.10 Communication and ad hoc Project coordinator, M&E and KM sharing events officer.
  3. 3. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome surveyStep 1 - Developing the questionnaire• A standard questionnaire is given in Annex V. Some parts of the questionnaire (highlighted in yellow) must be adapted by the project staff according to the context of the project.• The questionnaire can either be used is as it is or be modified according to the specific information needs of the project. Some guidance on how to modify the questionnaire is given in Annex II.• The administration of the questionnaire should not take more than 30 minutes per household. Step 2 - Selecting the sample• The sampling frame (ie. population from where the sample is selected) is the list of villages targeted by the project. This list should be available at project level.• The sample will be composed of 200 households (20 villages, 10 households per village).• The selection of the sample is done in two stages: (1) Selection of 20 villages; and (2) Selection of 10 households in each village.• The same sampling frame will be used every year, but the sample selection will be re- done every year. This means that different villages and different households will be surveyed each year Step 2 - Stage 1: Selection of 20 villages There are two options: Option A: If all villages covered by the project have identical socio-economic conditions, random selection can be done. Option B: If there are different groups of villages with different characteristics (for example some villages are located in the lowlands, others in the highlands; or some villages are poorer than others), then the stratified sampling methodology needs to be used. Option A: Random selection of 20 villages  Write down the list of all the villages targeted by the project, in alphabetical order, and give them a number from 1 to total number of villages. Example: The project ABC targets 212 villages, listed below in alphabetical order. Numbe Village r
  4. 4. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey 1 Banora 2 Boubere 3 Boukaria 4 Diarendli 5 Kolla 6 Loppe Soun … … … … 209 Vienza 210 Vouk 211 Watagan 212 Winso Calculate the Sampling Interval (SI) according to the formula below: SI = total number of villages/20. Round up if the decimal is 0.5 or greater. Round down if the decimal is less than 0.5. Example: SI = 212/20 = 10.6 SI = 11 Select a Random Number (R) between 1 and SI. To find a random number, you can use the Excel function Rand (type “=rand()” in an Excel worksheet) which gives a random number comprised between 0 and 1, and multiply this number by SI to get a number between 1 and SI. Round up if the decimal is 0.5 or greater. Round down if the decimal is less than 0.5. Example: Typing “rand()” on an Excel spreadsheet we get the number 0.54. We multiply this number by SI. R = 0.54 * SI = 0.54 * 11 = 5.94. R=6 Select the Rth village from the list. This is the first village selected for your sample. Add the sampling interval (SI) and select the next village. This is the second village selected for your sample. Add again the sampling interval and go to the next village, which will be your third village. Continue like this until you reach 20 villages. If you get to the end of the list, just continue from the beginning. Example: R=6 The 6th village (Dsik) is selected  th 6 + SI = 6 + 11 =17  The 17 village (Loufta) is selected 17 + SI = 17 + 11 = 28  The 28th village is selected
  5. 5. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome surveyEtc.
  6. 6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey Numbe Villages Selected?Last village rselected 1 Banora No 2 Boubere No 3 Boukaria Yes (20th) 4 Diarendli No1st village 5 Doussoura Noselected 6 Dsik Yes (1st) 7 Farabat No If you 8 Fardia No reach the 9 Fomma No end of the 10 Gaghaty No list before Sampling 11 Gogta No getting 20 interval villages, 12 Kalenko No continue 13 Kolla No from the 14 Loppe Soun No beginning 15 Lansanaya No 16 Lenny Tiewi No 17 Loufta Yes (2nd) … … … … … … … … … … … … 204 Tambanao Yes (19th) 205 Toukri No 206 Tomokan No 207 Ullih No 208 Vienza No 209 Vouk No 210 Watagan No 211 Winao No 212 Winsik No  The exercise is over and your list of 20 villages randomly selected is ready! Option B: Selection of 20 villages through stratified random sampling  Identify groups or clusters of villages, looking at their main characteristics. Example: Stratified village categories Nb of villages Lowland villages 90 Highlands villages 122 Total 212
  7. 7. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey  Calculate the percentage in each group. Example: % Lowlands villages = ( 90 / 212 ) x 100 = 42 % % Highlands villages = ( 122 / 212 ) x100 = 58 % This tells us that, out of a sample of 20 villages: - 42% should be villages in the lowlands (8 villages) - 58% should be villages in highlands (22 villages)  From there on, apply the same methodology as explained in Option A above.  Calculate the Sampling Interval (SI) according to the formula below: SI = total number of villages/8 [Lowlands villages] SI = 26 SI = total number of villages/22 [Highlands villages SI = 7  For the next steps, you will random select the villages using two separate lists of villages (corresponding to your two categories of villages).  Etc. Step 2 - Stage 2: Selection of 10 households in each selected village• Once you have the list of 20 villages where you will go to collect data, you will need to select randomly 10 households in each village.• Two options exist for selecting households in the villages, described below.• Option 1 is similar to the method for selection of the villages. It is preferred over option 2. However, it requires having a reliable list of all households living in the selected villages. If this information is not available, option 2 can be applied. Option 2 is cheaper and faster than option 1.• Choosing the appropriate method for household selection will depend on the information available and the logistic, time and resources constraints.• More detailed information on sampling procedures is given in Annex III. Option 1 • In each village, each household is given a unique number (no two households can have the same number). Example: In the village there are 35 households, such that households are numbered 1 to 35. • A sampling interval (SI) is calculated, by dividing the total number of households by 10. Round up if the decimal is 0.5 or greater. Round down if the decimal is less than 0.5. Example: 35/10=3.5, SI=4.
  8. 8. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey• As in the selection of the villages, a random number between 1 and SI is selected (for example, you can write numbers from 1 to 4 on small pieces of paper, fold them and ask someone to pick one paper).Example: The number 2 was picked. The household number 2 of the list is selected as thefirst household. Then we add 4 (the sampling interval) and select the next household(household number 6). Add again 4 and so on until you reach 10 households. Option 2 • Once the data collection team arrives in the village, the approximate center of the village is identified. A pencil or bottle is spun to select a random walking direction (also called a transect line). • The data collection team then counts the number of households encountered along the transect line between the centre and the perimeter of the cluster (end of the village). This number is divided by 10 (total number of household needed in our case) to determine the interval at which households will be selected in the transect line. • When the transect line contains less than the number of households required, all households in the line are included in the sample and the data collection team returns to the center of the cluster to pick a second random walking direction and the process is repeated. • This may require returning to the center and repeating the process as for transects with fewer than the number of required households. Source: WFP sampling guidelines for vulnerability analysis, ODAV (VAM) – WFP, Rome, December 2004
  9. 9. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey Step 3 – Conducting the survey Training and field testing of the questionnaire • The survey team will consist of enumerators and their supervisors. It is recommended that each team should consist of three enumerators and one supervisor (see below). • Training and field testing must be organized with all enumerators and supervisors before going to the field. • The training should include sessions on: (i) questionnaire comprehension and interviewing skills; (ii) sampling procedure for selection of the households in the villages; (iii) how to conduct key informant interviews. • The duration of the training can vary from one to two days, and the training can be conducted in the project office. • The training should include field testing of the data collection tools (questionnaire and interview guidelines), the purpose being to verify that all questions are clear and easy to understand by the respondent. If necessary, the questionnaire should be revised after training and field testing. The revision must involve the trainees who did the field testing. Selecting the enumerators and supervisors • The data collection should be undertaken by 3 teams, each team being composed of 1 enumerator and 1 supervisor. • The 3 teams will go to the first 2 villages together, and a debriefing will take place the next day to discuss and agree on possible corrective actions to take for the rest of the data collection exercise. • Then each team will go to 6 villages, and stay one day in each village. • The entire data collection should therefore take approximately 10-15 days if all teams Data collection can work at the same time, and if transportation from one village villages other is not 2 to the teams too long. More days will be needed if there is only one car/motorbike available and if villages are very far from each other. Debriefing and preparation for field workDay 1 – 2 -3:Day 4: 1 supervisor (project staff) 1 supervisor (project staff) 1 enumerator 1 supervisor (field officer) (project staff)Day 5 - 15 1 enumerator (field officer) 1 enumerator (field officer) 6 villages 6 villages 6 villages
  10. 10. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey Logistical planning and preparation for data collectionThe following material is needed for the data collection exercise:  Cars or motorbikes to go to the villages (ideally 3 so that all teams can work contemporaneously)  Hardcopies of the questionnaires (plan for approx. 10 additional copies per team in case of need)  6 copies of the present guidelines (one for each team member)  Pens and plastic folders to carry the questionnaires Data collection Household surveys • The respondent should be the head of household or any person designated by him/her. • If there is no respondent in the household (e.g. head of household is absent and the other people do not want or cannot respond), the team should proceed to the next selected household. • See do & don’ts for interviewers in Annex IV. Role of the supervisor Throughout the fieldwork, the supervisor will be responsible for observing interviews and provide assistance to enumerators when needed. Supervisors should also make sure that questionnaires are reviewed for completeness, legibility and consistency, during the field work (so that eventual corrections can be made while in the village).Step 4 – Analysing results Entering the data • An Excel file is provided to facilitate data entry and data analysis. • In the database, each row corresponds to a household (ie. a questionnaire), and each column correspond to a variable (ie. a question). Analysing the data • The data will include beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries households since the selection of the households in the villages will be done randomly on all the households living in the village. • The results can be compared from year to year even though the same households will not be surveyed each year. • The expected outcomes of the project should guide the analysis of the data. Remember to look back at your performance questions and Logframe before starting the analysis and report writing. It will remind you what your analysis should focus on.
  11. 11. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey Writing the report • The emphasis should be on the meaning and implications of the data analysis for the project, not on the methodological aspects (these can be put in annex). • The survey report should not be more than 10 pages. Communicating and sharing the results • Once a first draft of the report has been prepared, the M&E officer must organize a ½ day workshop with the project team and main stakeholders to present the results of the survey and discuss the main issues. • Enumerators (project field staff) and supervisors must participate in the workshop. • After the workshop, comments can be integrated in the report and the final report must be sent to IFAD and other stakeholders.
  12. 12. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey ANNEXESI - Modifying the questionnaireThe basis for developing your questionnaire should be the Logframe, which is supposed to tellyou what the expected outcomes of each component are. If the Logframe is not clearlydefined, the project staff should meet to identify the outcomes they are interested in trackingwith the household survey. The design of the questionnaire is extremely important since thesame questionnaire will be used along the project life (in order to be able to compare theresults). Therefore make sure to insert all the information that you need to track outcomes.-> How to translate the expected outcomes into indicators?-> From indicator to question in the questionnaire Example: One expected outcome is “Improved quality of the crops and sustainable operating conditions for small farmers”. In order to know whether this outcome was achieved, the performance questions might be as follows: 1 - “To what extent small farmers have improved the quality of their crops?” 2 - “Do small farmers have a more secured and stable access to market?” What kind of information do you need in order to answer these two questions? Information will be related to the quality of the crops and on how farmers are organized to sell their products. You may need information both at farmer (household) level and at community level (ie. talking to the marketing groups or community market institutions). Let’s focus on household level indicators (ie. that we can inform through household survey). Possible indicators at household level are: 1.1 - Number of farmers growing high value crops 1.2 – Perception of the farmers on the quality of their crops 1.3 - Perception of the farmers on the way project activities have improved their operating conditions 2.1 – Number of farmers who are part of a marketing group 2.2 - Perception of the farmers on the ability of the group to improve their operating conditions 2.3 - Perception of the farmers on the way project activities have increased the quality of the crops Now that we have the indicators, we need to translate them into questions to insert in the questionnaire. One or more questions can be needed to inform one single indicator. 1.1 – “Do you grow high value crops?” Y/N 1.2 – “This year, did you improve the quality of your crops compared to last year?” Y/N 1.3 - “Do you see any relation between your participation in project activities and the quality of your crops?” Y/N 2.1 - “Please explain your answer” 2.2 – “Are you part of a marketing group?” Y/N 2.3 – “Do you think that the fact that you are in this group has improved your operating conditions?” Y/N
  13. 13. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome surveyWhen modifying the questionnaire, remember that:  Questions should be as clear as possible. Notes for enumerators must be inserted in italic in the questionnaire when the question may not be interpreted correctly, or to define a key term.  Each question should correspond to a precise information need. It must add value to the analysis without making it too complex.  Delete questions that are not related to your project activities (e.g. if your project has no micro-enterprise component, delete the section on micro-enterprises)  If you add a question, make sure to attribute a unique variable number (e.g. K1).  If you delete a question, modify the variable numbers to make sure they are coherent (e.g. if you delete E2, E3 becomes E2, E4 become E3 etc.)  When you modify question numbers, check in the analysis file that the variable numbers correspond to the questionnaire.  The administration of one questionnaire should take no more than 30 minutes. 15-20 min is ideal.  You can arrange the questionnaires by component (one section by component) instead of by thematic as in the example.II - SamplingProbability sampling will be used for the survey, since it minimizes the risk of biased selection.This means that all target villages will have the same probability of being selected. In otherwords, villages located far away from the project office in a remote area will have as muchprobability to be selected as villages closer to the main urban centre and more easilyaccessible. This will increase the cost and duration of the survey (enumerators are likely totravel more) but will considerably increase the credibility of the results.Probability sampling is opposed to convenience sampling, in which the prime consideration isaccessibility: only those easily reached by interviewers are included in the sample.Convenience sampling does not permit generalization of the data.To select the sample, the first thing you need is a sampling frame. The sampling frame is thelist of villages that will be considered for inclusion in the sample. Since the survey will coveronly villages who are participating in project activities, in our case the sampling frame will becomposed exclusively of all the villages targeted by the project. A list of these villages shouldbe available at project level.For the selection of households in the village, sampling option 1 is recommended since it ismore statistically rigorous, but it is feasible only if an accurate list of all households in theselected villages is available (or if a map can be drawn with the village leader indicating all thehouseholds). If a list can be obtained from a recent census or from local authorities, and if thevillages are not too large in size, the survey team should use this option to select thehouseholds.The second option for selecting households is the most rapid, but also the least preferredmethod. This method is commonly used in anthropometric surveys.III - Interviewing skills: some do’s and don’ts for interviewers • DO test the interview schedule beforehand for clarity, and to make sure questions cannot be misunderstood. • DO state clearly what the purpose of the interview is. • DO assure the interviewee that what is said will be treated in confidence. • DO ask if the interviewee minds if you take notes or tape record the interview.
  14. 14. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome survey• DO record the exact words of the interviewee as far as possible.• DO keep talking as you write.• DO keep the interview to the point.• DO cover the full schedule of questions.• DO watch for answers that are vague and probe for more information.• DO be flexible and note down everything interesting that is said, even if it isn’t on the schedule.• DON’T offend the interviewee in any way.• DON’T say things that are judgmental.• DON’T interrupt in mid-sentence.• DON’T put words into the interviewee’s mouth.• DON’T show what you are thinking through changed tone of voice.
  15. 15. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES No2 - Conducting an annual outcome surveyIV – QuestionnaireThe following standard questionnaire may be amended to capture the essence of yourproject interventions. In so doing, irrelevant issues or questions should be deleted; and any additionalquestions can be added.Changing the questionnaire will however have implications on the Excel database thatIFAD has developed to facilitate data entry and analysis.In case you will need support to amend this database to reflect the changes introducedin the standard questionnnaire, please contact the IFAD Asia and Pacific Division(m.donnat@ifad.org).
  16. 16. [Insert logo of QUESTIONNAIRE ID: /___/___/___/ implementing agency] ANNUAL OUTCOME SURVEY [Insert name of the project and country] I Date (D/D/M/M/Y/Y/Y/Y) : /___/___/___/___/___/___/___/___/ II Name of the enumerator: ___________________________________________________ Note for enumerator : Before starting the interview, introduce yourself, explain what are the objectives of the survey and ask the person if he/she consents to respond to the questions. If not, go to the next household. Circle codes corresponding to the answers in the right column. A – HOUSEHOLD IDENTIFICATIONA.1 Village ____________________________ A.2 District or Province _______________________A.3 Name of the head of household : ______________________________________________________A.4 What is the gender (sex) of the household head? A. Male B. Female A. Well off In terms of income group, in which of the following categories would you B. AverageA.5 consider that your households belongs?: C. Poor D. Very poor B – PARTICIPATION IN PROJECT ACTIVITIESB.1 Since when is your household involved in project activities (year)? /___/___/___/___/ Over the last 12 months, were you (or any household member) involved A. YesB.2 in any activity of the [insert name of the project] B. No (->go to B4)
  17. 17. In which of the following project activities were you (or any member of your household) involved during theB.3 past 12 months? [For each main set of activity below (e.g. “Forestry training”, circle the corresponding code] B.3.1 - [Insert name of activity a] A. Yes B. No B.3.2 - [Insert name of activity b] A. Yes B. No B.3.3 - [Insert name of activity c] A. Yes B. No A. Yes B. No B.3.4 - [Insert name of activity d] B.3.5 - [Insert name of activity e] A. Yes B. No B.3.6 - [Insert name of activity f] A. Yes B. No B.3.6 - [ continue list of activities…] A. Yes B. No A. Very satisfied In general, regarding how your participation in project activities hasB.4 B. Moderately satisfied impacted on your living conditions, are you: C. Not satisfied at all A. Frequently How often do you have contact with project staff (extension workers;B.5 B. Occasionally facilitators, etc.)? C. Rarely C - LIVELIHOODS A. YesC.1 Do you have a source of cash income? B. No (no cash income, only subsistence agriculture) A. Higher C.1.1 – Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), would you say B. Equal that, this year, your income is: C. Lower /_ __/ What is the main source of income of your household?C.2 [Use codes below and write corresponding code on the right] [One answer only] [Adapt the response options below to the context of your project] G. Salaries, wages (employees) A. Agriculture and sales of crops H. Handicraft B. Fishing and sales of fish I. Remittances C. Livestock and sales of animals J. Begging, assistance D. Natural resources K. Other (specify: E. Petty trading F. Unskilled labourC.3 Do you have other sources of income? A. Yes B. No (-> go to D.1) C.3.1 - What are these other income sources for your household? /_ _ _/ ; /_ __/ ; /__ _/ [Use same codes as above ]
  18. 18. [Max 3 answers] D – FOOD SECURITY Over the last 12 months, was there any period(s) during which you were A. YesD.1 not able to provide 3 meals per day for your household (food shortage B. No (-> go to D.2) period)? D.1.1 - For how many weeks in total, over the last 12 months? /___/___/ A. Some improvement D.1.2 – Was there an improvement as compared to previous year? B. Same C. Situation is worse E – LAND TENUREE.1 Do you own productive land (including fish ponds)? A. Yes B. No (-> go to E.2) E.1.1- What is the size of your land (in acres)? /_ __/__ _/ acresE.2 Do you have property rights on a land? A. Yes B. No (-> go to F.1) A. Very secure B. Moderately secure E.2.1 - How secure do you consider your property rights? C. Insecure D. Very insecure F - AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND IRRIGATION A. Yes, own consumption only B. Yes, sales onlyF.1 Do you cultivate land, and if so, for what purpose? C. Yes, consumption and sale D. No (-> go to F.5) F.1.1 - Do you grow high value crops? [provide definition of high A. Yes B. No value crop] F.1.2 - Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), did the A. Yes B. No (-> go to F.2) productivity of your crops increase this year? A. Small F.1.2.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. Large F.1.2.2 – Is this increase related to any project activity? A. Yes B. No During the past 12 months, did you adopt any new agricultural A. Yes B. No (-> go toF.2 production technology promoted by the project? F.3)
  19. 19. /____/ ; /____/ F.2.1 - Which one? [response options to be adapted by project] [Two answers maximum] [Adapt the response options below to the context of your project] A. Technology a B. Technology b C. Technology c D. Technology d E. Technology e Compared to last year (ie. 12 months ago), this year, did your crop A. Yes B. No (-> go toF.3 F.4) production area increase: A. Small F.3.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. Large F.3.2 – Is this increase related to any project activity? A. Yes B. No A. Yes B. No (->go toF.4 Do you use irrigation system(s)? F.5) F.4.1 - Did you manage to increase your irrigated area this year A. Yes B. No (->go to F.5) compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago)? A. Small F.4.1.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. Large F.4.1.2 – Is this increase related to any project activity? A. Yes B. No A. Yes B. No (->go toF.5 Do you have access to a fish pond? F.6) F.5.1 - Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago) did the A. Yes B. No (-> go to productivity of this fish pond increase this year? F.6) A. Small F.5.1.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. Large F.5.1.2 – Is this increase related to any project activity? A. Yes B. No A. Yes B. No (->go toF.6 Do you own livestock? G.1) F.6.1- Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), is your herd A. Yes B. No (->go to G.1) size larger this year?
  20. 20. A. Small F.6.1.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. Large F.6.1.2 – Is this increase related to any project activity? A. Yes B. No G – ACCESS TO MARKETS A. Yes B. No (->go toG.1 Do you get an income from sales of agricultural production? G.2) A. Increased G.1.1 - Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), has your B. Did not change income from sales of agricultural production increased? C. Decreased A. Yes B. No (->go to G.1.2 - Do you have a contract for selling your production? G.2) G.1.2.1 - Has this contract improved your financial A. Yes B. No situation? Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), has your physical access A. Yes B. NoG.2 to market improved this year?*******************************************************************************The following sections (H, I and J) are optional: they should be included in the questionnaire only ifthe project is involved in activities related to the particular topic. For example, if the project has anatural resources management component, include the section on NRM (section J). Remove thesections that are not relevant to the project
  21. 21. H – ACCESS TO RURAL FINANCIAL SERVICES Did you (or any household member) borrow money over the last 12H.1 A. Yes B. No (-> go to H.2) months? A. Informal (friends, NGOs, Cooperatives/credit group) H.1.1 – What was the source of credit? B. Formal (bank/micro-finance institution) /___/___/___/___/___/___/___/ H.1.2 - How much did you borrow (total last 12 months)? [Write the amount in the local currency] [Currency]: _______________ A. Yes H.1.3 – Have you repaid the amount borrowed? B. Not yet, but soon C. No, cannot repay A. Consumption (food, clothes, ceremonies, etc.) B. Income generating activities (tools; equipment, etc.) H.1.4 - What did you - or will you - use the money for? C. Other investments (housing [One answer: only the main use should be reported] improvement, land acquisition; etc.) D. Education E. Health Overall, do you consider that, compared to last year (ie. 12 months ago),H.2 A. Yes B. No your household has now a better access to financial services? H.2.1 - Would you say this is related to any project activity? A. Yes B. No(-> go to I.1) I - ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT AND EMPLOYMENT Do you or any household member have a non-farm enterprise?I.1 A. Yes B. No (-> go to I.2) [Provide definition of non-farm enterprise e.g. handicraft activities] A. No employee B. One to two employees I.1.1 – In addition to yourself, how many employees do you have? C. Three to five employees D. More than five employees A. Yes, establish I.1.2 - Did the project help your household establish or expand B. Yes , expand your enterprise/business? C. No (-> go to I.2) Did project help you find a job or improve your employmentI.2 A. Yes B. No conditions?
  22. 22. J – ACCESS TO NATURAL RESOURCES [Section to adapt. Select only the parts that are relevant for your project activities.]. J.1 Do you have access to community fish ponds? A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.2) J.1.1 – Is this access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.1.2 – Has your access to the fish ponds improved since last year? A. Yes B. No J.1.3 – Do you consider that the productivity of the fish ponds has A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.2) improved as compared to last year? J.1.3.1 - If yes, was it thanks to project activities? A. Yes B. No J.2 Do you have access to marine fisheries? A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.3) J.2.1 – Is the access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.2.2 – Has your access to marine fisheries improved since last A. Yes B. No year? J.2.3 – Do you consider that the productivity of the marine A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.3) fisheries has improved as compared to last year? J.2.2.1 – If yes, was it thanks to project activities? A. Yes B. No J.3 Do you have access to forest? A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.4) J.3.1 – Is this access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.3.2 – Do you consider that your access to the forest has improved A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.4) as compared to last year? J.3.3 – Do you consider that the productivity of the forest has A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.4) improved as compared to last year? J.3.3.1 – If yes, was it thanks to project activities? A. Yes B. No J.4 Do you have access to community pasture land? A. Yes B. No (-> end) A. Yes B. No J.4.1 – Is this access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.4.2 – Do you consider that your access to pasture land has improved as compared to last year? J.4.3 – Do you consider that the productivity of the forest has A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.4) improved as compared to last year? A. Yes B. No J.4.3.1 – If yes, was it thanks to project activities?********************************************************************************** ***THIS IS THE END OF THE INTERVIEW, THANK YOU
  23. 23. QUESTIONNAIRE B FOR NON BENEFICIARIESThis questionnaire is the same as questionnaire A except that it does not contain the questions related toproject activities. The numbering should not be changed, so that same questions have the same number inboth questionnaires. C - LIVELIHOODS A. YesC.1 Do you have a source of cash income? B. No (no cash income, only subsistence agriculture) A. Higher C.1.1 – Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), would you say B. Equal that, this year, your income is: C. Lower /_ __/ What is the main source of income of your household?C.2 [Use codes below and write corresponding code on the right] [One answer only] [Adapt the response options below to the context of your project] G. Salaries, wages (employees) A. Agriculture and sales of crops H. Handicraft B. Fishing and sales of fish I. Remittances C. Livestock and sales of animals J. Begging, assistance D. Natural resources K. Other (specify: E. Petty trading F. Unskilled labourC.3 Do you have other sources of income? A. Yes B. No (-> go to D.1) /_ _ _/ ; /_ __/ ; /__ _/ C.3.1 - What are these other income sources for your household? [Use same codes as above ] [Max 3 answers] D – FOOD SECURITY Over the last 12 months, was there any period(s) during which you were A. YesD.1 not able to provide 3 meals per day for your household (food shortage B. No (-> go to D.2) period)? D.1.1 - For how many weeks in total, over the last 12 months? /___/___/ A. Some improvement D.1.2 – Was there an improvement as compared to previous year? B. Same C. Situation is worse
  24. 24. E – LAND TENUREE.1 Do you own productive land (including fish ponds)? A. Yes B. No (-> go to E.2) E.1.1- What is the size of your land (in acres)? /_ __/__ _/ acresE.2 Do you have property rights on a land? A. Yes B. No (-> go to F.1) A. Very secure B. Moderately secure E.2.1 - How secure do you consider your property rights? C. Insecure D. Very insecure F - AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND IRRIGATION A. Yes, own consumption only B. Yes, sales onlyF.1 Do you cultivate land, and if so, for what purpose? C. Yes, consumption and sale D. No (-> go to F.5) F.1.1 - Do you grow high value crops? [provide definition of high A. Yes B. No value crop] F.1.2 - Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), did the A. Yes B. No (-> go to F.2) productivity of your crops increase this year? A. Small F.1.2.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. Large During the past 12 months, did you adopt any new agriculturalF.2 production technology (e.g. promoted by government extension A. Yes B. No (-> go to F.3) services or by a donor-funded project)? A. Through government extension services B. Through an NGO F.2.2 – How did you learn about this new technology? C. Through donor-funded project D. Through a neighbour/friend E. On my own initiative Compared to last year (ie. 12 months ago), this year, did your cropF.3 A. Yes B. No (-> go to F.4) production area increase: A. Small F.3.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. LargeF.4 Do you use irrigation system(s)? A. Yes B. No (->go to F.5)
  25. 25. F.4.1 - Did you manage to increase your irrigated area this year A. Yes B. No (->go to F.5) compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago)? A. Small F.4.1.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. LargeF.5 Do you have access to a fish pond? A. Yes B. No (->go to F.6) F.5.1 - Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago) did the A. Yes B. No (-> go to F.6) productivity of this fish pond increase this year? A. Small F.5.1.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. LargeF.6 Do you own livestock? A. Yes B. No (->go to G.1) F.6.1- Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), is your herd size A. Yes B. No (->go to G.1) larger this year? A Small F.6.1.1 - How would you quantify this increase? B. Medium C. Large G – ACCESS TO MARKETSG.1 Do you get an income from sales of agricultural production? A. Yes B. No (->go to G.2) A. Increased G.1.1 - Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago), has your B. Did not change income from sales of agricultural production increased? C. Decreased G.1.2 - Do you have a contract for selling your production? A. Yes B. No (->go to G.2) G.1.2.1 - Has this contract improved your financial A. Yes B. No situation? Compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago) has your physical access to A. Yes B. NoG.2 market improved this?*******************************************************************************The following sections (H, I and J) are optional: they should be included in the questionnaire only ifthe project is involved in activities related to the particular topic. For example, if the project has anatural resources management component, include the section on NRM (section J). Remove thesections that are not relevant to the project H – ACCESS TO RURAL FINANCIAL SERVICES
  26. 26. Did you (or any household member) borrow money over the last 12H.1 A. Yes B. No (-> go to H.2) months? A. Informal (friends, NGOs, Cooperatives/credit group) H.1.1 – What was the source of credit? B. Formal (bank/micro-finance institution) /___/___/___/___/___/___/___/ H.1.2 - How much did you borrow (total last 12 months)? [Write the amount in the local currency] [Currency]: _______________ A. Yes H.1.3 – Have you repaid the amount borrowed? B. Not yet, but soon C. No, cannot repay A. Consumption (food, clothes, ceremonies, etc.) B. Income generating activities (tools; equipment, etc.) H.1.4 - What did you - or will you - use the money for? C. Other investments (housing [One answer: only the main use should be reported] improvement, land acquisition; etc.) D. Education E. Health Overall, do you consider that, compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago),H.2 A. Yes B. No your household has now a better access to financial services? I - ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT AND EMPLOYMENT Do you or any household member have a non-farm enterprise?I.1 A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.1) [Provide definition of non-farm enterprise e.g. handicraft activities] A. No employee B. One to two employees I.1.1 – In addition to yourself, how many employees do you have? C. Three to five employees D. More than five employees A. Yes (Establish) I.1.2 - Did anyone help you establish or expand your enterprise or B. Yes (Expand) business? C. No A. Government extension services I.1.2.1 - If yes, who helped you? B. An NGO C. A donor-funded project
  27. 27. J – ACCESS TO NATURAL RESOURCES [Section to adapt. Select only the parts that are relevant for your project activities.]. J.1 Do you have access to community fish ponds? A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.2) J.1.1 – Is this access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.1.2 – Has your access to fish ponds improved compare to last year? J.1.3 – Do you consider that the productivity of the fish ponds A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.2) has improved as compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago)? J.2 Do you have access to marine fisheries? A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.3) J.2.1 – Is the access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.2.2 – Has your access to fish ponds improved compare to last year? J.2.3 – Do you consider that the productivity of the fish ponds A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.3) has improved as compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago)? J.3 Do you have access to forest? A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.5) J.3.1 – Is this access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.3.2 – Has your access to fish ponds improved compare to last year? J.3.3 – Do you consider that your access to the forest has A. Yes B. No (-> go to J.4) improved as compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago)? J.4 Do you have access to community pasture land? A. Yes B. No (-> end) J.4.1 – Is this access regulated? A. Yes B. No J.4.2 – Has your access to fish ponds improved compare to last year? J.4.3– Do you consider that your access to pasture land has improved A. Yes B. No as compared to last year (i.e. 12 months ago)?********************************************************************************** ***THIS IS THE END OF THE INTERVIEW, THANK YOU

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