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APR Workshop 2010-Sustainable Natural Resources Management-Dhrupad Chowdhury
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APR Workshop 2010-Sustainable Natural Resources Management-Dhrupad Chowdhury

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  • 1. Integrating rural development, climate change and sustainable natural resources management in the Asia-Pacific Community perceptions of change, impact, responses and needs: lessons from the HimalayasIFAD Annual Portfolio Review Workshop1-4 November, 2010, Nanning, China
  • 2. Climate change….
  • 3. What does it mean for the rural poor?
    Is climate change perceived by the rural communities?
    What do they perceive?
    How is it affecting their livelihoods?
    How are they responding?
    What support is required by the poor?
    From whom?
  • 4. IFAD Grant 1113
    Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services in the Himalayas: Enhancing Adaptation Capacity and Resilience of the Poor to Climate and Socioeconomic Changes
    Bhutan, India & Nepal
    October, 2009 – September, 2012
    IFAD Loan projects & other partners
  • 5. Understanding the issues: The process
    Enhanced adaptive capacities & resilience
    Improved livelihoods and reduced poverty
  • 6. Documentations: The canvas….(where and with whom)
    Survey districts
    Bhutan
    Pemagatshel
    TrashiYangste
    India
    Uttarakhand
    Almora
    Bageshwar
    Tehri
    NE India
    W Garo Hills
    E Garo Hills
    RiBhoi
    KarbiAnglong
    Ukhrul
    Nepal
    (West)
    Humla
    Bajhang
    Dailekh
    (Central & East)
    Tanahu
    Terathum
    Uttarakhand: 3
    Bhutan: 2
    Nepal: 3+2
    N E India: 5
    Total: 15 districts (6 villages per district); 90 villages
    (criteria – elevation, accessibility, marginality)
    Elevation range: 50-3500 M ASL
    6 IFAD Projects:
    Bhutan: AMEPP
    India: Aajeevika, MRDS & NERCORMP
    Nepal: WUPAP & LFLP
  • 7. Community perceptions on climate change, impacts and responses : Approach & methodology (How..)
    Approach: Participatory Rural Appraisal
    • Based on ICIMOD Strategic Framework on Climate Change Adaptation
    • 8. Community based Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment Framework
    Methodology
    • PRA Toolkit
    • 9. Tool I – Seasonal Dependency (Support systems, Resource diversity & availability)
    • 10. Tool II – Seasonal Calendar (Seasonal activities)
    • 11. Tool III - Weather perceptions (Seasonality, duration, change)
    • 12. Tool IV – Hazard Ranking (Weather & weather induced)
    • 13. Tool V – Venn diagram (Institutional dependency)
    Participatory interpretation of PRA results :
    Impacts, coping/adaptive mechanisms
  • 14. Community perceptions: Weather change (in months)
    Uttarakhand:
    Snowfall
    Onset: 1 delayed
    Completion: 1-2 early
    Duration: (-) 2-3
    Rainfall
    Onset: 2-3 delayed
    Completion: 4 early
    Duration: (-) 3-4
    Dry periods
    Onset: (+) 2-3
    Completion: 1-2 prolonged
    Duration: (+) 3
    New periods: 3-4
    Nepal:
    Snowfall
    Onset: 1 delayed
    Completion: 1 early
    Duration: (-) 2-3
    Rainfall
    Onset: 1-2 delayed
    Completion: 3 early
    Duration: (-) 3-4
    Dry periods
    Onset: (+) 2-3
    Completion: 1-2 prolonged
    Duration: (+) 3
    New periods: 2-3
    Bhutan
    Snowfall
    Onset: ½ delay (earlier in some)
    Completion: early in some villages
    Duration: local changes
    Rainfall
    Onset: ½ early (in some villages)
    Completion: no change
    Duration: no change
    Dry periods
    Onset: delayed in some villages
    Completion: No change
    Duration: (-) ½
    N E India:
    Rainfall
    Dryspell 5
    NE India
    Rainfall
    Onset: ½ -1 delayed (in some villages)
    Completion: ½ earlier
    Duration: (-) 1
    Dry periods
    Onset: ½ to 1
    Completion: ½ to 1 prolonged
    Duration: (+) 1-2
    New periods: 1-2
  • 15. Community perceptions: Hazard ranking
    Uttarakhand:
    1.Dry spells (4.17)
    2.Temp (H) (3.92)
    Weather-induced hazards
    1.Pests (3.8)
    2.Forest fires (3.8)
    (Landslides)
    Nepal:
    1. Dry spells (4.8)
    2. Storms (3.0)
    Weather-induced hazards
    1.Pests (3.0)
    (Landslides)
    NE India
    1.Dry spells (4.3)
    2.Temp (H) (3.4)
    3.Storms (3.0)
    4.Hailstorms (3.0)
    Weather-induced hazards
    1.Pests (4.0)
    (Flash floods, landslides)
    Hazard ranking:
    scale of 1-5; 5= maximum impact;
    (Av. of all villages)
  • 16. Community perceptions: Support systems(Resource base)
    Annual average: annual average of all districts
  • 17. Community perceptions: Major impacts
    Uttarakhand:
    Delayed and reduced snowfall:
    Impact on winter crops
    Increased pests (particularly white grub)
    New crop opportunities
    Delayed rainfall, prolonged dry spells:
    Sowing delayed, yield effected
    Seedlings wilt
    Reduced forage
    Increased pests
    Early maturing of some crops; new cropping opportunity
    Severe water scarcity (drinking & irrigation)
    Nepal:
    Delayed and reduced snowfall:
    Impact on winter crops – wheat
    Increased pests (particularly white grub)
    Delayed rainfall, prolonged dry spells:
    Sowing delayed, yield effected
    Seedlings wilt
    Reduced forage
    Increased pests
    Early maturing of some crops; new cropping opportunity
    Storms
    Vegetable and fruit plants effected
    Food scarcity, water shortage
    NE India
    Delayed rainfall, increased hot temperatures, increased water scarcity:
    Sowing, germination of crops effected; increased pests;
    yields reducing
    Storms, Hailstorms
    horticulture crops (cash & vegetable crops) effected
    Food and income effected
  • 18. Community perceptions: Resource availability (resource base)
    Annual average: annual average of all districts
  • 19. Community responses: Coping & adaptive mechanisms
    Uttarakhand:
    • Cropping delayed (15 days – 1 month)
    • 20. Covering sown seeds with litter, FYM
    • 21. Polyhouses for vegetables (Aajeevika)
    • 22. Alternative crops (coping):
    Rice – pulses, soya, sesame, coarse grains (mandua/ragi) or madira(fodder)
    Mandua – madira or ginger, soya, urad (pulse) or potato
    • Crop replacements (adaptive)
    Wheat – ginger, tumeric, mustard
    Maize – cauliflower, peas, soya, vegetable climbers
    Cereals – potato
    Groundnut – ginger
    Cereals – horticulture
    Aloe vera (Aajeevika)
    • New opportunities (due to warmer weather):
    Groundnut, beans
    Peas, cauliflower (after potato harvest – additional income)
    Nepal:
    • Cropping delayed (1 month)
    • 23. Wet maize seeds prior to sowing; deep sow seeds
    • 24. Dry seed beds (rice) – wet seeds, germinate, transplant
    • 25. Crop rotation – Horsegram/ blackgram/ sesame
    • 26. Mixed cropping – maize, beans; millet, blackgram
    • 27. Alternative crops (coping):
    Millet – maize, upland rice, black gram, chino, mustard, Philunge (beans)
    Wheat, barley - buckwheat
    Buckwheat – turnip, mustard, green leafy vegetables,
    • Crop replacements (adaptive)
    Wheat, barley – potato
    Apple - potato
    Groundnut – blackgram & horsegram
    Maize – banana
    Rice – maize/ginger
    • Varietal replacements
    Wheat: Daudkhani by Jhuse
    Rice: Chhiti/Jwali by Laidiya/Rui/Anjana
    Marso, DarnalibyMunyasonali/Jhyali
    NE India
    • Cropping delayed
    • 28. Seeds dibbled (deep sown); seeds soaked, broadcast
    • 29. Early harvest (to avoid storms/hailstorm)
    • 30. Cropping season shift (summer to winter)
    • 31. Systems shift – WRC to shifting cultivation
    • 32. Bamboo matting mesh to avoid siltation of fields due to flash floods
    • 33. Use of Pomelo (citrus) peals, Samsneng, Magvit, bamboo shoot extract, So-ik, jarmanand l-upo against pests;
    • 34. hang crab carcass against rice bug
    • 35. Use of dwarf or early maturing varieties (against hailstorms);
    • 36. Banana intercropping with areca and litchi
    • 37. Alternative crops
    Sesame, soyabeans, rice beans, cowpea
    • Alternative varieties:
    Rice -Sapa, Methungia, Amosa, Chuibok, Soksu, Naka
    Millet – Alika
    Short duration and dwarf varieties grown to avoid loss from hailstorms
  • 38. Community responses: Adaptive mechanisms
    Uttarakhand:
    Livestock:
    Reduced numbers (fodder, forage shortage)
    Large ruminants to small animals (goats)
    Occupational shifts:
    Farming to carpentry, masonry
    Wage earning (roadside eateries, wage labour)
    Migration: Seasonal migration or long-term
    Water-harvesting
    Oak regeneration, catchment protection
    Institutional arrangements
    Water sharing
    Labour sharing arrangements
    Nepal:
    Livestock:
    Reduced numbers (fodder, forage shortage)
    Large ruminants to small animals (goats)
    Occupational shifts:
    Farming to carpet weaving, carpentry
    Wage earning
    Seasonal migration (lean months – to India)
    Long-term – Gulf, SE Asia or Korea
    NE India
    Livestock:
    Preference for smaller ruminants (goats), poultry
    Farming to sand mining (rivers)
    Farming to weaving
    Seasonal wage earning in mines, plantations, road building
    Wage earning from MREGA
  • 39. Community perceptions: Institutional dependency
    Uttarakhand:
    Neighbours
    Relatives
    Pradhan (Elected Headman)
    Gram Sabha/Panchayat
    SHGs
    PDS
    Atta Chakki (village mill)
    Aajeevika
    Swajal
    Block office
    PHC/hospital
    Bank
    KrishiVigyan Kendra (Agriculture Centres)
    Nepal:
    Mothers groups
    LFUGs (project groups)
    Village Women Development Committee
    CFUG (Community Forest User Groups)
    Moneylender
    Shopkeeper
    Vaidya (Traditional ayurvedicpractioner)
    Agro-vet centres
    DADO/DLSO
    DDC
    DFO
    NGOs
    INGOs
    WFP/PAF/USAID
    NE India
    Neighbours
    Relatives
    Clan
    Youth groups (Sengsamlang)
    Women’s groups (Sengkynthei)
    Traditional Village Institutions (Dorbar, Sardar, Nokma, Mahari)
    Church
    SHGs
    NaRMG (NERCORMP)
    MRDS
    Village Employment Council
    Area Employment Council
    Traditional Institutions (Syiems, Nokma Council)
    Market/Traders
    Agriculture, Horticulture & Vet. Dept.
    PWD
    Health
    District Commissioner
    MDC
  • 40. Changes : Responding to immediate and long-term needs
    Water stress and impacts:
    Knowledge transfer and capacity building for soil nutrient & water management
    Stress tolerant crop varieties – strengthening TPs & blending with modern science; PARs of stress tolerant varieties; Seed Banks & Exchange
    Enhance access to knowledge and technical outreach: cross exchange between practitioners, community led outreach
    Strengthening NRM: water harvesting, recharge and catchment management
    Need for enhancing income generating options
    Risk assessment of existing value chains for climate induced risk reduction
    Capitalise on emerging opportunities – value chain development
    Off-farm opportunities – expand and develop
    Improve financial services, especially risk insurance
    Skill development in off-farm sectors
  • 41. Changes: Some long-term implications
    Food security:
    Reduced yields, particularly of staples (WRCs)
    Replacement of foodgrains by commodity/cash crops (conversion of areas under foodgrains to non foodgrain crops/activities)
    Increased arable land left fallow (inadequate labour/returns)
    Labour shift – agriculture to non-farm, migration
    Reduction of livestock numbers
    Shift from larger livestock to smaller ruminants (implications for milk, milk products: income thereof)
    Inadequate draught animals for ploughing
    Shift from farming to non-farming sectors
    Increased feminisation of agriculture
    Implications for foodgrain, milk and milk products availability – food security..?