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Empowering Women to Become Farmers Entrpreneurs: Case Study of an NGO-Supported Program in Bangladesh
 

Empowering Women to Become Farmers Entrpreneurs: Case Study of an NGO-Supported Program in Bangladesh

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    Empowering Women to Become Farmers Entrpreneurs: Case Study of an NGO-Supported Program in Bangladesh Empowering Women to Become Farmers Entrpreneurs: Case Study of an NGO-Supported Program in Bangladesh Presentation Transcript

    • Conference on New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture Mahabub Hossain and W. M. H. Jaim Empowering Women to Become Farmer Entrepreneur: Case Study of a NGO Supported Program in Bangladesh Date of presentation: 25 . 01 . 2011
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Women suffer from different types of powerlessness in social and economic sphere of life. Gender related indicators across countries show that Bangladeshi women are less empowered.
      • Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) ranked Bangladesh 120 out of 156 countries.
      • Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) ranked Bangladesh 81 out of 93 countries.
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform .
      • Studies also show that participation in credit programs (particularly micro-credit) is positively associated with a woman’s level of empowerment .
      • However, despite significant expansion in institutional credit provision to agriculture, small farmers in Bangladesh and elsewhere in South Asia continue to lack access to financial markets.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Micro-credit, Farmers and Women
      • Micro-credit programs of NGOs target women and the poorest section of the population (.05-0.49 acre).
      • Their farming activities are mostly confined in home based activities (homestead gardening, poultry rearing, livestock rearing, etc.).
      • Both female and male small farmers (.50-2.49 acres) are often screened out through eligibility restrictions of micro-credit.
    • INTRODUCTION
    • INTRODUCTION
      • However, there are a few instances of credit facilities to small farmers (including marginal farmers):
      • Marginal and Small Farm Crop Intensification Project funded by GTZ
      • FoSHol – CARE Project funded by EC
      • Projects funded by IFAD and implemented through NGOs (RDRS, BRAC, etc.) and PKSF.
    • INTRODUCTION
      • North-west Crop Diversification Project (NCDP) is one of the few initiatives for small farmers (specially female farmers’) development.
      • Main objectives of the project :
      • Diversifying cropping pattern
      • Encouraging small farmers, specially women to grow high value crops (HVCs) including some vegetables and spices.
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Important characteristics of NCDP:
      • It has involved NGOs (i.e. BRAC and RDRS) to facilitate access to credit to small farmers (.50 to 3.00 acres) for growing high value crops (HVCs), vegetables and spices.
      • It has organized female farmers for performing farm activities outside the boundary of their households .
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Main aim of the present paper is:
      • To assess the effectiveness of NCDP in reaching women small farmers to become farm managers and to be economically and socially empowered.
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Economic empowerment assessed through:
      • Evaluating effectiveness of NCDP for improving farm income of small farmers.
      • Investigating the level of participation of the women in economic activities and the determinant of their participation.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Social empowerment assessed through:
      • Extent of mobility of female farmers outside home.
      • ii) Participation of female farmers in intra-family decision making process.
    • METHODOLOGY
      • Among the NGOs operating in collaboration with NCDP, two NGOs namely BRAC and RDRS were selected purposively.
      • Two districts from north-west region of Bangladesh were selected randomly.
      • 30 female and 28 male farmers under BRAC and RDRS respectively were selected using multi-stage random sampling method.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform .
    • METHODOLOGY
      • To assess the nature of participation in economic activities (EAs), Participation Index (PI) was calculated using frequency counts for each of the EAs.
      • Frequency counts of score:
      • 2 = Frequently participated
      • 1 = Occasionally participated
      • 0 = Never participated
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • METHODOLOGY
      • EAs were categorized into 9 categories:
      • (i) Crop production activities,
      • (ii) Spices and vegetable production activities,
      • (iii) Poultry rearing,
      • (iv) Goat rearing,
      • (v) Cattle rearing,
      • (vi) Aquiculture activities
      • (vii) Wage labour,
      • (viii) Marketing activities and
      • (ix) Non-farm activities.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • METHODOLOGY
      • Probit model was used for Estimating Determinants of Female Participation in Economic Activities. The model is expressed as:
      • lnY = bo + b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + b 3 X 3 + b 4 X 4 + b 5 X 5 + U
      • Where,
      • Dependent Variable (Y) = Participation index of economic activities.
      • where Y i =0 if PI≤4 and Y i =1 if PI>4
      • Independent Variables = X 1 to X 5
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • METHODOLOGY
      • Women Empowerment Index (WEI) was constructed in consideration of women participation in household decision making process.
      • The rating values of decision makers:
          • 1 = decision is taken by male alone
      • 2 = decision is taken jointly by male and female
      • 3 =decision is taken by female alone.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment
      • Aspects for Evaluating Effectiveness of NCDP and to Assess Economic Empowerment of Small Farmers
      • Socio-economic profile of farmers
      • Crop Diversification of NCDP Farmers
      • Farm income and marketable surplus of the farmers
      • Credit and training support received by the farmers
      • Changes in economic condition of the farmers
      • Participation of women farmers in economic activities
      • Determinants of women’s participation in economic activities
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Socio-economic characteristics of selected small farmers Particulars Female Farmers Male Farmers Illiterate Average years of schooling 40% 3 11% 6 Agriculture as main occupation 17% 96% Female members participation in agriculture 71% 44% Average farm size (acres) 1.26 2.09 Farm size distribution Below .50 acre (Marginal farmers) .50 to 3.00 acre (Small farmers) 3.01 to 5.00 acre (Large farmers) 27% 66% 7% 4% 75% 21%
    • FINDINGS : Economic Empowerment
      • Findings in relation to crop diversification:
      • Proportion of rice area of NCDP farmers is less compared to national average implying diverting land for non-rice crops.
      • The project was successful mostly in allocating proportionately more land under HVCs like maize and potato.
      • However, it had little success in allocating more land for vegetables and almost no success in expansion of spices area.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • FINDINGS : Economic Empowerment
      • Gender difference in land allocation :
      • Production of vegetables by the females has got more importance than males.
      • On the contrary, production of potato has got more importance by the male farmers.
      • The gender difference in allocating crop land was due to nature of jobs performed for production activities.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment
      • Annual income from crop production per household:
      • Female farmers: Tk. 91,500
      • Male farmers: Tk.1,28,873.
      • The difference was mainly because of differences in total cropped area of female farmers (2.42 acres) compared to male farmers (4.27 acres).
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • FINDINGS : Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform % of products marketed by the small farmers Products Female farmers Male Farmers Aman paddy 44% 51% Boro paddy 56% 63% Potato 78% 97% Maize 100% 100% Jute 100% 100% Vegetables > 90% > 90%
    • FINDINGS : Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Per acre profitability from alternative cropping patterns Cropping patterns Net return over full cost (Taka) Return over cash cost (Taka) Aman-Maize-fallow 21,157 44,020 Aman-Potato-maize 28,705 64,780 Aman-Boro-fallow 33,301 54,966
    • FINDINGS : Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform investments since joining NCDP (in Taka) Type of Investment Female farmers Male farmers Improving housing condition 48,133 56,178 Consumable household assets 15,723 15,506 Farm assets 32,790 45,198 Land purchase 29,967 13,400 Land mortgage-in 12,929 17,179 Business 4,300 23,036 Service* 6,667 - Children’s education (yearly) 7,548 8748
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Credit support from NCDP Farmer category First year (in Taka) At present (in Taka) Change (no. of times) Female 5,700 17,192 3.02 Male 4,964 19,000 3.83
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment
      • Training support and need assessment
      • Training was given mostly for the production of maize and the duration of training was for only one day.
      • Gender specific demand for more training:
        • Female farmers: Maize and vegetables.
        • Male farmers: Maize, potato and rice.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Extent of participation of female farmers in EAs (Total number of farmers = 30) Economic activities (EAs) Never Occasionally Frequent i) Crop production activities 5 13 12 ii) Vegetables and spices production activities in fields 13 6 11 iii) Poultry rearing 6 3 21 iv) Goat rearing 11 3 16 v) Cattle rearing 6 3 21 vi) Aquiculture 30 0 0 vii) Wage labour 27 2 1 viii) Marketing activities 30 0 0 ix) Non-agricultural activities 28 1 1
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Personal income of the female farmers from different economic activities Activities Average / household (Tk.) % of total income Production activities in field crops 2,127 26 Production activities for spices and vegetables in field 1,050 13 Poultry rearing 877 11 Goat rearing 908 11 Cattle rearing 1,727 21 Aquiculture 0 0 Wage labour 740 9 Non-agricultural activities 647 8 Total 8,076 100
    • FINDINGS: Economic Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Determinants of women’s participation in economic activities: Estimates of Probit Function Explanatory variables Coefficient Z-ratio Years of education of head of family (X 1 ) 0.360 1.884* Years of education of female farmer (X 2 ) 0.131 . 804 Total family members of active age group (X 3 ) 1.070 1.122 Area under high value crop (X 4 ) 0.046 2.089** Farm size at present (X 5 ) -0.013 -2.011** Intercept -7.317 -1.616 χ 2 34.071*** Note: *** denotes P≤0.01, **denotes 0.01<P≤0.05 and * denotes 0.05<P≤0.10  
    • FINDINGS: Social Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Mobility of NCDP female farmers outside home Reasons for mobility Degree of mobility outside home (% of females) Never Occasionally Frequently Purchasing inputs from non-local shops 67% 30% 3% Selling products 97% 3% 0% Attending meetings/workshop 13% 70% 17% Depositing loan installments 0% 13% 87% Shopping/travelling, etc. 3% 87% 10%
    • FINDINGS: Social Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Participation of women in decision making process Decision making parameters Decision is taken by: Average Women Empowerment Index (WEI) Male alone Male and female jointly Female alone Agriculture related 1.86 Selection of crops and variety 3 27 0 1.90 Management of production 3 27 0 1.90 Purchasing inputs 2 28 0 1.93 Cattle and poultry rearing 1 27 2 2.03 Sell of crop / cattle and poultry 0 30 0 2.00 Homestead gardening 0 15 3 2.17 Post harvest operations of crops 1 29 0 1.97
    • FINDINGS: Social Empowerment Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform Decision making parameters Decision is taken by: Average WEI Male alone Male and females Female alone Non-agriculture related 1.83 Cash management 2 28 0 1.93 Education of children 1 27 0 1.96 Land purchase and sell 1 22 0 1.96 Traveling and recreation 2 28 0 1.93 Casting vote in election 2 28 0 1.93 Agri. and Non- agriculture 1.85 Number of female farmers’ household = 30 Empowerment Status: Not empowered, if WEI i ≤ 1.5 and Empowered if WEI i > 1 .5
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • Usually by the term farmer, we understand male farmers specially in Asian countries. It is also well recognized that women activities are mostly confined in home-based production activities.
      • The study showed if the women farmers can be organized under common platform and if credit and training supports are provided they are likely to became successful farmer entrepreneur like male.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • However, gender specific differences in selection of crops/vegetables should be recognized as women are involved in production activities which are more labour intensive but less labourious.
      • Credit from NGOs should not be confined within landless / marginal farmers (< .50 acre) and also not only for the women.
      • This should also include small farmers (both males and females) who are capable of effective utilization of credit for agricultural production .
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • For successful implementation of crop diversification programme, more training on the production of high value crops as well as vegetables and spices is urgently required.
      • To make spices profitable and competitive with other crops, more research is needed to develop high yielding new varieties.
      • More extension services is also needed for already developed varieties.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • To reduce crop production risk, particular attention should be given to insect and pest management which the farmers think as greatest threat for their production.
      • Further, to cope with production risk, introducing crop insurance may be thought of as demanded by some farmers.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • Crop production activities particularly for the production of HVCs like maize and potato generated considerable income for both male and female small farmers which have made them economically empowered and capable of investing money for different purposes.
      • However, gender differences were found in investment activities. While male farmers invested more for possessing farm assets female farmers on the other hand, invested more for purchasing land implying female farmers’ interest in farming.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • As the demand for NCDP credit for small farmers has substantially increased over time, the maximum ceiling of the credit (Tk. 50,000) may be increased for those who are interested.
      • Further, like BRAC, RDRS may also think of receiving monthly installments from the farmers instead of weekly installments.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • There exists gender differences in participation in different economic activities. While females were more involved in livestock and poultry rearing activities, involvement of males were more in crop production activities.
      • Participation in non-farm activities was also found to be dominated by males, implying limited non-farm opportunities created for rural women.
      • A few female farmers worked as wage labourer at low wage compared to male implying deprivation in wage payment for women.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • Functional analysis showed that area under high value crops has a significant impact on participation of women in economic activities.
      • However, farm size has significant negative relationship with respect to participation of female farmers in economic activities which implies that female participation in different economic activities is discouraged from economically better-off families.
      • Education of household head also had positive impact on participation of women in farming.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • Mobility of the small female farmers outside home has increased due to involvement in NCDP, particularly for depositing loan installments and attending meetings of the concerned NGOs.
      • This implies that involvement of women in projects like NCDP supported by NGOs contributed women to become socially more empowered.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • Women Empowerment Index showed that women under NCDP were reasonably empowered in intra-family decision making process both for agriculture and non-agricultural activities as well as in overall economical activities.
      • In this study women were found to be empowered above the level of average which is due to the fact that concerned NGOs motivated them to take decision jointly (by both male and female).
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
    • CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      • The overall findings indicated that the project was successful in reaching women to become farm managers and to be economically and socially empowered.
      • Such an initiative may be encouraged in order to improve socio-economic condition of the women small farmers in Bangladesh as well as in similar other developing countries.
      • However, this calls for urgent attention to gender-specific constraints in production and marketing.
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform
      • Thank You
      Some studies in South Asia find that economic empowerment has been the entry point for overall empowerment of women if they are organized under a common platform