RUSBI (Rural Social Bio-refineries)<br />An option for small-scale,cassava-based bioenergyprojects<br />Bernardo Ospina Pa...
Acknowledgements<br />Financialsupportfrom:<br />MADR –Colombia<br />Tropical FruitsProgram-CIAT (Fontagro Project)<br />I...
RUSBI<br />Technological components<br />Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassa...
Why RUSBI?         What for?<br />Hydrated ethanol (96% GL)<br />Flex-fuel technology<br />20% more consumption per kilome...
Component 1. Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet ...
Component 2. 	Technologies platforms to obtain 		fermentable biomass <br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Technology platfo...
Production of refined cassava flour<br />
Component 3.	Technology platform for production 		of hydrated ethanol<br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Good Community of...
Rural Social Bio-refineries<br />
Productioncosts of ethanol  fromcassava<br />
CASSAVA ROOTS<br />Washing + chipping<br />Natural drying<br />Milling + refining<br />7 Motors (0,25 - 5 HP)<br />Hydroly...
Component 4. Local uses for hydrated ethanol<br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Uses as fuel, bioelectricity, <br />clean ...
Applications of hydrated ethanol<br />
Analytical data of cassava hydrated ethanol<br />
Component 5. Technology platform for sustainable management of wastes and effluents  <br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />S...
Waste management and effluent<br />
Summary <br /> 2.5  to 3 billionpeoplearoundtheworlddependontraditionalforms of bioenergytocooktheirfood (coal, wood, dry ...
       Support   Policies?<br />Blending  mandates (compulsory use of biofuels)<br />Compulsoryproduction of cars usingbio...
Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato<br />C...
Technologies platforms to obtain fermentable biomass <br />Component 2<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Promo...
Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol<br />Component 3<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Esta...
Local uses for  hydrated ethanol<br />Component 4<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Establish  a policyframewo...
Sustainable management of  wastes and effluents<br />Component 5<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Highvolumes...
CRP-RTB<br />
Thank you<br />
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Session 2.1 Rural Social Bio Refineries. An Option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina

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Session 2.1 Rural Social Bio Refineries. An Option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina

  1. 1.
  2. 2. RUSBI (Rural Social Bio-refineries)<br />An option for small-scale,cassava-based bioenergyprojects<br />Bernardo Ospina Patiño<br />Executive Director-CLAYUCA<br />b.ospina@cgiar.org<br />www.clayuca.org<br />
  3. 3. Acknowledgements<br />Financialsupportfrom:<br />MADR –Colombia<br />Tropical FruitsProgram-CIAT (Fontagro Project)<br />IFAD-ICRISAT-CIAT Project<br />Technicalsupportfrom (Brasil):<br />USI – Usinas Sociais Inteligentes<br />UFRGS – Universidade Federal Río Grande do Sul<br />
  4. 4. RUSBI<br />Technological components<br />Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato<br />1<br />Technologi platform to obtain fermentable biomass<br />2<br />500 – 1000 liters/day<br />10 – 20 farmers families<br />US$ 100.000<br />Agricultural Development<br />Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol<br />3<br />Food Safety<br />Energy Self-Sufficiency<br />4<br />Local uses for hydrated ethanol<br />Technology platform for sustainable management of wastes and effluents<br />5<br />
  5. 5. Why RUSBI? What for?<br />Hydrated ethanol (96% GL)<br />Flex-fuel technology<br />20% more consumption per kilometer<br />20-30% cheaper<br />CO2 reduction<br />Clean-cooking stoves<br />1 liter hydrated ethanol = 4 hours cooking<br />Low cost stoves<br />Households health; deforestation<br />Bio-electricity<br />4 liters hydrated ethanol = 1 hour electricity<br />110-220 v ; 8.5 kwa<br />400 light bulbs <br />Crops processing at village level<br />Improved quality of life in poor rural households <br />
  6. 6. Component 1. Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato<br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Varieties<br />Solid scientific base<br />(CGIAR Research and collaborators)<br />Production<br />technology<br />(Sweet potato,<br />sweet sorghum)<br />Why not?<br />What did not work?<br />Easy access of farmers to improved varieties<br />(sweet potato and sweet sorghum)<br />“Restrictions”<br />
  7. 7. Component 2. Technologies platforms to obtain fermentable biomass <br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Technology platform<br />(chipping, grating, drying, milling)<br />Solid scientific base<br />(CGIAR Research and collaborators)<br />Why not?<br />What did not work?<br />More sophisticated technology<br />More expensive<br />On-going work<br />Artificial drying system<br />
  8. 8. Production of refined cassava flour<br />
  9. 9. Component 3. Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol<br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Good Community of practice<br />Good partners<br />(USI-Brasil, UFRGS-Brasil, <br />Ministery of Agriculture-Colombia, SoilNet-USA, <br />Colombian Universities and others)<br />Prototype<br />Conversion process<br />Process efficiency<br />Quality<br />Why not?<br />What did not work?<br />Still high<br />Need to reduce dependency on imported inputs (enzymes, yeast)<br />Neutral net energy balance<br />Processing costs<br />Energy balance<br />
  10. 10. Rural Social Bio-refineries<br />
  11. 11. Productioncosts of ethanol fromcassava<br />
  12. 12. CASSAVA ROOTS<br />Washing + chipping<br />Natural drying<br />Milling + refining<br />7 Motors (0,25 - 5 HP)<br />Hydrolysis + Fermentation (HFS)<br />CASSAVA FLOUR<br />Distillation<br />7 Motors (0,5 - 2 HP)<br />HYDRATED ETHANOL<br />
  13. 13. Component 4. Local uses for hydrated ethanol<br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Uses as fuel, bioelectricity, <br />clean cooking stove<br />Good market potential<br />Good quality of the hydrated ethanol for use as biofuel<br />Equipments available<br />(cars, stationary engines, clean cooking stoves)<br />Why not?<br />What did not work?<br />Functioning problems<br />Difficult maintenance<br />On-going work<br />Bioelectricity Station Engine<br />
  14. 14. Applications of hydrated ethanol<br />
  15. 15. Analytical data of cassava hydrated ethanol<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Component 5. Technology platform for sustainable management of wastes and effluents <br />Why?<br />What did work?<br />Solid Scientific base<br />(polymers)<br />Good Results in bio-economic trials<br />(good conversion rates)<br />Efficient flocculation technology<br />Animal feed products<br />(design, fabrication, and consumption)<br />Why not?<br />What did not work?<br />Quality of raw material coming from bio-refinery is not uniform<br />Variability in the processing of animal feed products <br />
  18. 18. Waste management and effluent<br />
  19. 19. Summary <br /> 2.5 to 3 billionpeoplearoundtheworlddependontraditionalforms of bioenergytocooktheirfood (coal, wood, dry animal manure) <br />1.6 billionpeoplearoundtheworlddoesnot hace accesstoelectricity<br />Lack of accestoenergyis a greatbarrierforeconomicdevelopment and growth,especially in isolatedareas in whichtheinstalation of electricgridsisveryexpensive<br />Themajority of poorpeoplelive in rural areas; hungeralsoconcentrates in rural areas . Greaterinvestment and emphasisshouldbeput in agricultural and rural development , ifhungeristobereducedfaster<br />In countries and regionswithlimitedaccesstomodernforms of energy, governments and development agencies supportforsmall-scalebiofuelproduction can improveaccesstoenergy. ,with positive effectson rural development,poverty and hungeralleviation. <br />
  20. 20. Support Policies?<br />Blending mandates (compulsory use of biofuels)<br />Compulsoryproduction of cars usingbiofuels<br />Tax incentives<br />Governmentpurchasingpolicies<br />Support forbiofuel compatible infrastructure and policies<br />Research and development ( bioenergycrops, conversiontechnologydevelopment, wastes and residueshandling)<br />Subsidies duringinitialmarketdevelopment<br />Stimulate rural activitiesbasedonbiomassenergy<br />
  21. 21. Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato<br />Component 1<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Concept of growingbio-energycropsNeedtopromotescaling-up, grass-rootsis new forsmall-scalefarmersgroupsvalidation and adjustment of promising(sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) approachesbasedon tropical, easyto produce, bio-energycrops( cassava, sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) <br />Difficultforsmall-scalefarmerstohaveUnlockthewealth of geneticresourcesaccesstoimprovedgermplasmavailable at CGIAR Centers (CIAT, CIP, (sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) with ICRISAT) and other non-CGIAR Centers potentialtobeused as bioenergycrops. (Embrapa, CATAS)<br />Lack of institutionalsupport (financing, Promote incentives and supporttotechnicalassistance, marketinformation, small-scalescaleagriculture and IFES orientedpolicies) bioenergyproduction as twostrategicpolicies at country level<br />
  22. 22. Technologies platforms to obtain fermentable biomass <br />Component 2<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Promotingpolicies and strategiesthat<br />identify and selectareas of uniqueinterest<br />fordevelopment of IFES approaches<br />Integrate IFES developmentintoexisting<br />rural developmentpolicies and programmes<br />Lack of infrastructure, especially in rural, marginal areas (roads, electricenergy)<br />Highcost of equipmentsforconditioningEstablishspecifictypes of supportforthebioenergycropsinto fermentable biomasssmall- scale, poorfarmers-based IFES (washing, peeling, grating, drying, refining) approachesBrazilexample: creditlinesforinvestment in bioenergyinfrastructure (10 years, 3 years free, interestrates of 2% per year).<br />Lack of know-howbyfarmersgroupsPromote transfer of technologies, and technicalpersonnelexpertise and experiencesabout IFESapproaches, within and betweencountries<br />
  23. 23. Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol<br />Component 3<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Establishspecificfinancingprogramsfor<br />establishment of bioenergyinfrastructure<br />(subsidisedcredits, incometaxreduction<br />cash subsidies linkedtoproductionlevels)<br />Highcost of equipments<br />Lack of technical and specializedBuildcapacity of technicalpersonnelon<br />support (technicalknowhow, technical, and managerialskills<br />maintenance, spareparts)<br />Lack of know-howbyfarmersgroupsBuildcapacity and educatefarmersgroups (technical, managerial and administrativeskilss)<br />
  24. 24. Local uses for hydrated ethanol<br />Component 4<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Establish a policyframeworktopromote and<br />supportdecentralized, local production and<br /> uses of hydratedethanol<br />Lack of an “officialpolicy“ thatincludes<br />hydratedethanol as part of thebio-energy<br />portfolio<br />Small-scale of theprocessisusuallyassociatedPromote use of hydratedethanol inwithnot-competitivepricecomparedwithremote,marginal rural areaswherefossiltraditionalfossil fuel fuelprices are highduetotransportcosts<br />Lack of financingopportunities and Implement a. “FinancingDevelopmentmechanismstofacilitateaccess of poorestApproach” .Subsidies grantedforsectors of rural populationstobioenergybioenergyproduction and uses BUT approachestransparent and linkedtodevelopmentpolicies<br />Lack of local know-how and capacityforImplementcapacitybuildingprogramsoperation, monitoringandmaintenance of forhelpingfarmers and agriculturalconversionsystem( boilers, engines, stoves, technicalassistance and extensiondistillery) officers, tobuildtheknow-howrequiredforsustainablebioenergyproduction<br />
  25. 25. Sustainable management of wastes and effluents<br />Component 5<br />Constraints<br />Potentialsolutions<br />Highvolumes of wastes and effluents<br />produced, withhighcontamination<br />potential 1 literbiofuel = 10-15 liters<br />vinasses1<br />Developconversionprocessesthathelpto<br />reduce theamount of effluentsgenerated<br />NeedforstorageinfrastructureforDevelopalternative uses for non-treatedmanagement of theeffluentsgeneratedeffluents (irrigation, animal feeding, cropfertilization) <br />Highcost of currenttechnologiesforDevelopalternative, cheaper<br />sustainablemanagement of wastes and technologiesforwastemanagement<br />residues(polymer-basedsolidfloculation; (i.e.MoringaOleiferaseeds as solid<br />Biogasgeneration) floculant, waterclarificationtechnology)<br />
  26. 26. CRP-RTB<br />
  27. 27. Thank you<br />
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