Session 2.1 Rural Social Bio Refineries. An Option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
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  • 1.
  • 2. RUSBI (Rural Social Bio-refineries)
    An option for small-scale,cassava-based bioenergyprojects
    Bernardo Ospina Patiño
    Executive Director-CLAYUCA
    b.ospina@cgiar.org
    www.clayuca.org
  • 3. Acknowledgements
    Financialsupportfrom:
    MADR –Colombia
    Tropical FruitsProgram-CIAT (Fontagro Project)
    IFAD-ICRISAT-CIAT Project
    Technicalsupportfrom (Brasil):
    USI – Usinas Sociais Inteligentes
    UFRGS – Universidade Federal Río Grande do Sul
  • 4. RUSBI
    Technological components
    Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato
    1
    Technologi platform to obtain fermentable biomass
    2
    500 – 1000 liters/day
    10 – 20 farmers families
    US$ 100.000
    Agricultural Development
    Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol
    3
    Food Safety
    Energy Self-Sufficiency
    4
    Local uses for hydrated ethanol
    Technology platform for sustainable management of wastes and effluents
    5
  • 5. Why RUSBI? What for?
    Hydrated ethanol (96% GL)
    Flex-fuel technology
    20% more consumption per kilometer
    20-30% cheaper
    CO2 reduction
    Clean-cooking stoves
    1 liter hydrated ethanol = 4 hours cooking
    Low cost stoves
    Households health; deforestation
    Bio-electricity
    4 liters hydrated ethanol = 1 hour electricity
    110-220 v ; 8.5 kwa
    400 light bulbs
    Crops processing at village level
    Improved quality of life in poor rural households
  • 6. Component 1. Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato
    Why?
    What did work?
    Varieties
    Solid scientific base
    (CGIAR Research and collaborators)
    Production
    technology
    (Sweet potato,
    sweet sorghum)
    Why not?
    What did not work?
    Easy access of farmers to improved varieties
    (sweet potato and sweet sorghum)
    “Restrictions”
  • 7. Component 2. Technologies platforms to obtain fermentable biomass
    Why?
    What did work?
    Technology platform
    (chipping, grating, drying, milling)
    Solid scientific base
    (CGIAR Research and collaborators)
    Why not?
    What did not work?
    More sophisticated technology
    More expensive
    On-going work
    Artificial drying system
  • 8. Production of refined cassava flour
  • 9. Component 3. Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol
    Why?
    What did work?
    Good Community of practice
    Good partners
    (USI-Brasil, UFRGS-Brasil,
    Ministery of Agriculture-Colombia, SoilNet-USA,
    Colombian Universities and others)
    Prototype
    Conversion process
    Process efficiency
    Quality
    Why not?
    What did not work?
    Still high
    Need to reduce dependency on imported inputs (enzymes, yeast)
    Neutral net energy balance
    Processing costs
    Energy balance
  • 10. Rural Social Bio-refineries
  • 11. Productioncosts of ethanol fromcassava
  • 12. CASSAVA ROOTS
    Washing + chipping
    Natural drying
    Milling + refining
    7 Motors (0,25 - 5 HP)
    Hydrolysis + Fermentation (HFS)
    CASSAVA FLOUR
    Distillation
    7 Motors (0,5 - 2 HP)
    HYDRATED ETHANOL
  • 13. Component 4. Local uses for hydrated ethanol
    Why?
    What did work?
    Uses as fuel, bioelectricity,
    clean cooking stove
    Good market potential
    Good quality of the hydrated ethanol for use as biofuel
    Equipments available
    (cars, stationary engines, clean cooking stoves)
    Why not?
    What did not work?
    Functioning problems
    Difficult maintenance
    On-going work
    Bioelectricity Station Engine
  • 14. Applications of hydrated ethanol
  • 15. Analytical data of cassava hydrated ethanol
  • 16.
  • 17. Component 5. Technology platform for sustainable management of wastes and effluents
    Why?
    What did work?
    Solid Scientific base
    (polymers)
    Good Results in bio-economic trials
    (good conversion rates)
    Efficient flocculation technology
    Animal feed products
    (design, fabrication, and consumption)
    Why not?
    What did not work?
    Quality of raw material coming from bio-refinery is not uniform
    Variability in the processing of animal feed products
  • 18. Waste management and effluent
  • 19. Summary
    2.5 to 3 billionpeoplearoundtheworlddependontraditionalforms of bioenergytocooktheirfood (coal, wood, dry animal manure)
    1.6 billionpeoplearoundtheworlddoesnot hace accesstoelectricity
    Lack of accestoenergyis a greatbarrierforeconomicdevelopment and growth,especially in isolatedareas in whichtheinstalation of electricgridsisveryexpensive
    Themajority of poorpeoplelive in rural areas; hungeralsoconcentrates in rural areas . Greaterinvestment and emphasisshouldbeput in agricultural and rural development , ifhungeristobereducedfaster
    In countries and regionswithlimitedaccesstomodernforms of energy, governments and development agencies supportforsmall-scalebiofuelproduction can improveaccesstoenergy. ,with positive effectson rural development,poverty and hungeralleviation.
  • 20. Support Policies?
    Blending mandates (compulsory use of biofuels)
    Compulsoryproduction of cars usingbiofuels
    Tax incentives
    Governmentpurchasingpolicies
    Support forbiofuel compatible infrastructure and policies
    Research and development ( bioenergycrops, conversiontechnologydevelopment, wastes and residueshandling)
    Subsidies duringinitialmarketdevelopment
    Stimulate rural activitiesbasedonbiomassenergy
  • 21. Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato
    Component 1
    Constraints
    Potentialsolutions
    Concept of growingbio-energycropsNeedtopromotescaling-up, grass-rootsis new forsmall-scalefarmersgroupsvalidation and adjustment of promising(sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) approachesbasedon tropical, easyto produce, bio-energycrops( cassava, sweetpotato, sweetsorghum)
    Difficultforsmall-scalefarmerstohaveUnlockthewealth of geneticresourcesaccesstoimprovedgermplasmavailable at CGIAR Centers (CIAT, CIP, (sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) with ICRISAT) and other non-CGIAR Centers potentialtobeused as bioenergycrops. (Embrapa, CATAS)
    Lack of institutionalsupport (financing, Promote incentives and supporttotechnicalassistance, marketinformation, small-scalescaleagriculture and IFES orientedpolicies) bioenergyproduction as twostrategicpolicies at country level
  • 22. Technologies platforms to obtain fermentable biomass
    Component 2
    Constraints
    Potentialsolutions
    Promotingpolicies and strategiesthat
    identify and selectareas of uniqueinterest
    fordevelopment of IFES approaches
    Integrate IFES developmentintoexisting
    rural developmentpolicies and programmes
    Lack of infrastructure, especially in rural, marginal areas (roads, electricenergy)
    Highcost of equipmentsforconditioningEstablishspecifictypes of supportforthebioenergycropsinto fermentable biomasssmall- scale, poorfarmers-based IFES (washing, peeling, grating, drying, refining) approachesBrazilexample: creditlinesforinvestment in bioenergyinfrastructure (10 years, 3 years free, interestrates of 2% per year).
    Lack of know-howbyfarmersgroupsPromote transfer of technologies, and technicalpersonnelexpertise and experiencesabout IFESapproaches, within and betweencountries
  • 23. Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol
    Component 3
    Constraints
    Potentialsolutions
    Establishspecificfinancingprogramsfor
    establishment of bioenergyinfrastructure
    (subsidisedcredits, incometaxreduction
    cash subsidies linkedtoproductionlevels)
    Highcost of equipments
    Lack of technical and specializedBuildcapacity of technicalpersonnelon
    support (technicalknowhow, technical, and managerialskills
    maintenance, spareparts)
    Lack of know-howbyfarmersgroupsBuildcapacity and educatefarmersgroups (technical, managerial and administrativeskilss)
  • 24. Local uses for hydrated ethanol
    Component 4
    Constraints
    Potentialsolutions
    Establish a policyframeworktopromote and
    supportdecentralized, local production and
    uses of hydratedethanol
    Lack of an “officialpolicy“ thatincludes
    hydratedethanol as part of thebio-energy
    portfolio
    Small-scale of theprocessisusuallyassociatedPromote use of hydratedethanol inwithnot-competitivepricecomparedwithremote,marginal rural areaswherefossiltraditionalfossil fuel fuelprices are highduetotransportcosts
    Lack of financingopportunities and Implement a. “FinancingDevelopmentmechanismstofacilitateaccess of poorestApproach” .Subsidies grantedforsectors of rural populationstobioenergybioenergyproduction and uses BUT approachestransparent and linkedtodevelopmentpolicies
    Lack of local know-how and capacityforImplementcapacitybuildingprogramsoperation, monitoringandmaintenance of forhelpingfarmers and agriculturalconversionsystem( boilers, engines, stoves, technicalassistance and extensiondistillery) officers, tobuildtheknow-howrequiredforsustainablebioenergyproduction
  • 25. Sustainable management of wastes and effluents
    Component 5
    Constraints
    Potentialsolutions
    Highvolumes of wastes and effluents
    produced, withhighcontamination
    potential 1 literbiofuel = 10-15 liters
    vinasses1
    Developconversionprocessesthathelpto
    reduce theamount of effluentsgenerated
    NeedforstorageinfrastructureforDevelopalternative uses for non-treatedmanagement of theeffluentsgeneratedeffluents (irrigation, animal feeding, cropfertilization)
    Highcost of currenttechnologiesforDevelopalternative, cheaper
    sustainablemanagement of wastes and technologiesforwastemanagement
    residues(polymer-basedsolidfloculation; (i.e.MoringaOleiferaseeds as solid
    Biogasgeneration) floculant, waterclarificationtechnology)
  • 26. CRP-RTB
  • 27. Thank you