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Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina
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Rural Social Bio Refineries. An option for Small Scale Cassava Based Bioenergy Projects by Bernardo Ospina

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  • 1. RUSBI (Rural Social Bio-refineries) An option for small-scale,cassava-based bioenergyprojects Bernardo Ospina Patiño Executive Director-CLAYUCA b.ospina@cgiar.org www.clayuca.org
  • 2. Acknowledgements Financialsupportfrom: MADR –Colombia Tropical FruitsProgram-CIAT (Fontagro Project) IFAD-ICRISAT-CIAT Project Technicalsupportfrom (Brasil): USI – Usinas Sociais Inteligentes UFRGS – Universidade Federal Río Grande do Sul
  • 3. RUSBI Technological components Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato 1 Technologi platform to obtain fermentable biomass 2 500 – 1000 liters/day 10 – 20 farmers families US$ 100.000 Agricultural Development Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol 3 Food Safety Energy Self-Sufficiency 4 Local uses for hydrated ethanol Technology platform for sustainable management of wastes and effluents 5
  • 4. Why RUSBI? What for? Hydrated ethanol (96% GL) Flex-fuel technology 20% more consumption per kilometer 20-30% cheaper CO2 reduction Clean-cooking stoves 1 liter hydrated ethanol = 4 hours cooking Low cost stoves Households health; deforestation Bio-electricity 4 liters hydrated ethanol = 1 hour electricity 110-220 v ; 8.5 kwa 400 light bulbs Crops processing at village level Improved quality of life in poor rural households
  • 5. Component 1. Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato Why? What did work? Varieties Solid scientific base (CGIAR Research and collaborators) Production technology (Sweet potato, sweet sorghum) Why not? What did not work? Easy access of farmers to improved varieties (sweet potato and sweet sorghum) “Restrictions”
  • 6. Component 2. Technologies platforms to obtain fermentable biomass Why? What did work? Technology platform (chipping, grating, drying, milling) Solid scientific base (CGIAR Research and collaborators) Why not? What did not work? More sophisticated technology More expensive On-going work Artificial drying system
  • 7. Production of refined cassava flour
  • 8. Component 3. Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol Why? What did work? Good Community of practice Good partners (USI-Brasil, UFRGS-Brasil, Ministery of Agriculture-Colombia, SoilNet-USA, Colombian Universities and others) Prototype Conversion process Process efficiency Quality Why not? What did not work? Still high Need to reduce dependency on imported inputs (enzymes, yeast) Neutral net energy balance Processing costs Energy balance
  • 9. Rural Social Bio-refineries
  • 10. Productioncosts of ethanol fromcassava
  • 11. CASSAVA ROOTS Washing + chipping Natural drying Milling + refining 7 Motors (0,25 - 5 HP) Hydrolysis + Fermentation (HFS) CASSAVA FLOUR Distillation 7 Motors (0,5 - 2 HP) HYDRATED ETHANOL
  • 12. Component 4. Local uses for hydrated ethanol Why? What did work? Uses as fuel, bioelectricity, clean cooking stove Good market potential Good quality of the hydrated ethanol for use as biofuel Equipments available (cars, stationary engines, clean cooking stoves) Why not? What did not work? Functioning problems Difficult maintenance On-going work Bioelectricity Station Engine
  • 13. Applications of hydrated ethanol
  • 14. Analytical data of cassava hydrated ethanol
  • 15. Component 5. Technology platform for sustainable management of wastes and effluents Why? What did work? Solid Scientific base (polymers) Good Results in bio-economic trials (good conversion rates) Efficient flocculation technology Animal feed products (design, fabrication, and consumption) Why not? What did not work? Quality of raw material coming from bio-refinery is not uniform Variability in the processing of animal feed products
  • 16. Waste management and effluent
  • 17. Summary 2.5 to 3 billionpeoplearoundtheworlddependontraditionalforms of bioenergytocooktheirfood (coal, wood, dry animal manure) 1.6 billionpeoplearoundtheworlddoesnot hace accesstoelectricity Lack of accestoenergyis a greatbarrierforeconomicdevelopment and growth,especially in isolatedareas in whichtheinstalation of electricgridsisveryexpensive Themajority of poorpeoplelive in rural areas; hungeralsoconcentrates in rural areas . Greaterinvestment and emphasisshouldbeput in agricultural and rural development , ifhungeristobereducedfaster In countries and regionswithlimitedaccesstomodernforms of energy, governments and development agencies supportforsmall-scalebiofuelproduction can improveaccesstoenergy. ,with positive effectson rural development,poverty and hungeralleviation.
  • 18. Support Policies? Blending mandates (compulsory use of biofuels) Compulsoryproduction of cars usingbiofuels Tax incentives Governmentpurchasingpolicies Support forbiofuel compatible infrastructure and policies Research and development ( bioenergycrops, conversiontechnologydevelopment, wastes and residueshandling) Subsidies duringinitialmarketdevelopment Stimulate rural activitiesbasedonbiomassenergy
  • 19. Competitive and sustainable production technologies for three energy crops: cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato Component 1 Constraints Potentialsolutions Concept of growingbio-energycropsNeedtopromotescaling-up, grass-rootsis new forsmall-scalefarmersgroupsvalidation and adjustment of promising(sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) approachesbasedon tropical, easyto produce, bio-energycrops( cassava, sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) Difficultforsmall-scalefarmerstohaveUnlockthewealth of geneticresourcesaccesstoimprovedgermplasmavailable at CGIAR Centers (CIAT, CIP, (sweetpotato, sweetsorghum) with ICRISAT) and other non-CGIAR Centers potentialtobeused as bioenergycrops. (Embrapa, CATAS) Lack of institutionalsupport (financing, Promote incentives and supporttotechnicalassistance, marketinformation, small-scalescaleagriculture and IFES orientedpolicies) bioenergyproduction as twostrategicpolicies at country level
  • 20. Technologies platforms to obtain fermentable biomass Component 2 Constraints Potentialsolutions Promotingpolicies and strategiesthat identify and selectareas of uniqueinterest fordevelopment of IFES approaches Integrate IFES developmentintoexisting rural developmentpolicies and programmes Lack of infrastructure, especially in rural, marginal areas (roads, electricenergy) Highcost of equipmentsforconditioningEstablishspecifictypes of supportforthebioenergycropsinto fermentable biomasssmall- scale, poorfarmers-based IFES (washing, peeling, grating, drying, refining) approachesBrazilexample: creditlinesforinvestment in bioenergyinfrastructure (10 years, 3 years free, interestrates of 2% per year). Lack of know-howbyfarmersgroupsPromote transfer of technologies, and technicalpersonnelexpertise and experiencesabout IFESapproaches, within and betweencountries
  • 21. Technology platform for production of hydrated ethanol Component 3 Constraints Potentialsolutions Establishspecificfinancingprogramsfor establishment of bioenergyinfrastructure (subsidisedcredits, incometaxreduction cash subsidies linkedtoproductionlevels) Highcost of equipments Lack of technical and specializedBuildcapacity of technicalpersonnelon support (technicalknowhow, technical, and managerialskills maintenance, spareparts) Lack of know-howbyfarmersgroupsBuildcapacity and educatefarmersgroups (technical, managerial and administrativeskilss)
  • 22. Local uses for hydrated ethanol Component 4 Constraints Potentialsolutions Establish a policyframeworktopromote and supportdecentralized, local production and uses of hydratedethanol Lack of an “officialpolicy“ thatincludes hydratedethanol as part of thebio-energy portfolio Small-scale of theprocessisusuallyassociatedPromote use of hydratedethanol inwithnot-competitivepricecomparedwithremote,marginal rural areaswherefossiltraditionalfossil fuel fuelprices are highduetotransportcosts Lack of financingopportunities and Implement a. “FinancingDevelopmentmechanismstofacilitateaccess of poorestApproach” .Subsidies grantedforsectors of rural populationstobioenergybioenergyproduction and uses BUT approachestransparent and linkedtodevelopmentpolicies Lack of local know-how and capacityforImplementcapacitybuildingprogramsoperation, monitoringandmaintenance of forhelpingfarmers and agriculturalconversionsystem( boilers, engines, stoves, technicalassistance and extensiondistillery) officers, tobuildtheknow-howrequiredforsustainablebioenergyproduction
  • 23. Sustainable management of wastes and effluents Component 5 Constraints Potentialsolutions Highvolumes of wastes and effluents produced, withhighcontamination potential 1 literbiofuel = 10-15 liters vinasses1 Developconversionprocessesthathelpto reduce theamount of effluentsgenerated NeedforstorageinfrastructureforDevelopalternative uses for non-treatedmanagement of theeffluentsgeneratedeffluents (irrigation, animal feeding, cropfertilization) Highcost of currenttechnologiesforDevelopalternative, cheaper sustainablemanagement of wastes and technologiesforwastemanagement residues(polymer-basedsolidfloculation; (i.e.MoringaOleiferaseeds as solid Biogasgeneration) floculant, waterclarificationtechnology)
  • 24. CRP-RTB
  • 25. Thank you

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