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  • IFAD is an organization of the United Nations dedicated to fighting rural poverty
  • During more than 30 years IFAD has implemented 829 projects in 115 countries Supporting 300 million rural poor For a total disbursement of 11,9 billion US dollars Only last year we started 33 new projects for 670.5 million US dollars
  • There are five hundred million smallholder farms worldwide supporting around two billion people, or one third of the world’s population. They: - Farm 80 % of the farmland in Asia and Africa. - Produce 80 % of the food consumed in the developing world - Feed one third of the global population. - Women are increasingly the farmers of the developing world, performing the vast majority of agricultural work and producing between 45 and 80 % of food crops. Women account for 65 per cent of household food production in Asia, 70-80 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa and 45 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean islands.
  • The world’s population is projected to grow from 6.8 billion to 9.1 billion by 2050. Production in the developing countries would need to almost double.
  • In this graphic you have summarized the main causes of poverty
  • Fighting poverty has become a priority By adopting the Millennium Declaration, 189 World Leaders committed themselves to address poverty in 2000 This resulted in the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals in 2000
  • Worldwide there is evidence of a direct linkage between improvement of livestock production and poverty reduction
  • The livestock sub-sector is essential to the livelihoods of about 1 billion of the world’s poorest people . For instance, livestock is essential for pastoral population livelihood. It accounts for 30% of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in developing countries; It grows faster than most other agricultural sub-sectors.
  • Few poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, goats, pigs… are the animals of the poorest: Even landless can keep them (sometime they are their only asset) SL reproduce fast SL efficiently transform roughages, shrubs, kitchen waste… into highly valuable food Manure is often the only input for crop production No need for big starting capitals Easily sold or bartered Highly mobile in case of crisis/disaster Socio-cultural value
  • These are the 8 Millennium Development Goals. All are important and interdependent .
  • IFAD is investing on Rural Poultry
  • Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than 1 USD a day Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
  • In developing country 1 out 4 children under five is underweight
  • Small Livestock: contribute to human nutrition providing food with high quality nutrients and micronutrients generate small income and provide the potential to ‘bank’ savings, which enhances the capacity to cope with shocks and reduces economic vulnerability In times of crises (i.e. drought, flooding, conflicts), play an important role as ‘mobile’ food asset
  • Small Livestock: contribute to human nutrition providing food with high quality nutrients and micronutrients generate small income and provide the potential to ‘bank’ savings, which enhances the capacity to cope with shocks and reduces economic vulnerability In times of crises (i.e. drought, flooding, conflicts), play an important role as ‘mobile’ food asset
  • The households practicing the traditional system had an average flock size of 2.5 local hens ( max. 5.7 hens ) which lay approximately 125 eggs per year and family ( max. 309 eggs ) . With very little or no direct financial investment for inputs this system produces an average family income per year from poultry of about 12-13 US$ ( max. about 30 US$ ) from eggs production, and an estimated 10-12 US$ ( max. about 30US$ ) from bird production ( pullets for restocking or cockerels, which can be sold, consumed or given as a gift ) . The improved management of the flocks resulted in an average flock size of 15.4 hens and an estimated average total yearly production of 2,410 eggs ( max. 2,830 eggs ) . Direct investments by the selected families for supplementary feed and animal health care of about 98.4 US$ resulted in products for sale or home consumption with an average net profit of approximately 144 US$ ( max. about 250 US$ ) only from eggs production. The average monthly income of Women Poultry Group leaders providing services (i.e. vaccination) was estimated at 28.5 US$ with a range for the individual VGLs from 23 US$ to 39.5 US$.
  • Target: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Inability of families to meet the costs of schooling is often the main reason why children cannot attend school or drop out at an early stage Selling SL and their products provides one of the few possibilities for poor households to generate cash income to meet yearly school fees Children with access to quality food (proteins and vitamins) have better health and take full advantage of the education they receive However, children often are responsible for taking care of SL resulting in low or no school attendance
  • MDG 3 Women are the main caretakers of SL – especially where animals are kept near the house. They process livestock products The ownership of SL gives them control over this asset and contributes to their empowerment Income from livestock products helps women to meet their immediate family needs Keeping SL enhances their status/self-esteem at household and community level especially in conservative societies. However, the daily burdens increase: fetching water, herding, milking, processing and carrying the fodder.
  • MDG4 target is to reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
  • The consumption of even small quantities of milk, milk products, meat and eggs is essential for reducing child mortality and improving healthy child development Livestock products not only provide proteins, minerals and energy, but are also a key source of vitamin A Poor households can cover health expenses and purchase medicines with incomes generated from their livestock However, the close contact between badly managed chicken and children can result zoonosis
  • Consumption of milk, milk products and occasionally meat contribute significantly to the nutritional status of women Goat milk is highly digestible for children and very often substitute maternal milk Income generation from livestock owned by women can also help to improve maternal health
  • Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
  • 14 million children
  • In HIV/AIDS affected household, young people (orphans) can better handle SL rather than large animals Using compatible infrastructures for human and animal health (i.e. cold chain for vaccines) may result in cost savings and better effectiveness
  • Rural poultry is environmentally sound Rural poultry reduces insect pest (ticks!) Manure from poultry contributes to increase vegetable production
  • TARGET Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Address the special needs of the least developed countries
  • Specific actions and policies are required to reduce transaction costs and barriers to market access which presently hamper poor (producers and consumers) to benefit from global livestock trade and growing demand for livestock products
  • From what we have seen by keeping SMALL LIVESTOCK is it possible for poor resource persons to: Unfortunately despite progress has been, it is uneven and, without additional efforts, several of the MDGs are unlikely to be achieved in many countries
  • There is still reluctance from international/national donors and decision makers to support the development of SL sector Effective and consistent national pro-poor policies are crucial to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the increasing demand for livestock products and poverty-focused agendas of several countries Participatory adaptive research is needed to identify appropriate technologies/models which are pro-poor, sustainable, economically viable and environmentally sound to increase SL productivity Adapted Extension and Training for capacity building (e.g. Livestock Farmer Field School approach), not excluding women. Market led approach by SL producers supported by effective services (breeding, veterinary services, credit, processing, marketing, extension/training, etc.), infrastructures and strong SL producers institutions Personal commitment from “like minded” people to advocate for pro-poor development to achieve the MDGs through the promotion of the SL sector
  • There is still reluctance from international/national donors and decision makers to support the development of SL sector Effective and consistent national pro-poor policies are crucial to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the increasing demand for livestock products and poverty-focused agendas of several countries Participatory adaptive research is needed to identify appropriate technologies/models which are pro-poor, sustainable, economically viable and environmentally sound to increase SL productivity Adapted Extension and Training for capacity building (e.g. Livestock Farmer Field School approach), not excluding women. Market led approach by SL producers supported by effective services (breeding, veterinary services, credit, processing, marketing, extension/training, etc.), infrastructures and strong SL producers institutions Personal commitment from “like minded” people to advocate for pro-poor development to achieve the MDGs through the promotion of the SL sector
  • IFAD is prepared to work together with national/international institutions committed to pro-poor livestock to: Develop a business-like approach to sensitise national policy, decision makers and donors about the effectiveness of rural poultry development to reduce poverty. This entails: Identifying rural poultry development projects , models and approaches (i.e. Bangladesh model developed by the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and the Government of Bangladesh) that “work” and characterise their key success factors for up-scaling. Gathering socio-economic data to demonstrate the return in terms of poverty reduction for each 1 USD invested in poultry production. Identifying examples of effective national policies enhancing food security and supporting smallholder poultry farmers business. Developing regional/national project proposals for substantial investments in the rural poultry sector in partnership with the private sector.

Presentation dhaka2 Presentation dhaka2 Presentation Transcript

  • Family Poultry development towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals Photo Prof. Dr. Gouranga Ch. Chanda Antonio Rota IFAD Senior Technical Adviser Livestock and Farming Systems 7th International Poultry Show and Seminar Dhaka, 25-27 March, 2011 
  • International Fund for Agriculture Development - IFAD Enabling the rural poor to overcome poverty 
    • 860 projects in 117 countries
    • Supported 371 million rural poor
    • Total IFAD disbursement: USD 11,9 billion
    • USD 808.4 million in 33 new projects in 2010
    IFAD at work From 1979 to 2009 : 
  • Smallholder farming
    • 500 million smallholder farms worldwide supporting around 2 billion people. They:
      • Farm 80% of the farmland in Asia and Africa
      • Produce 80% of the food consumed in the developing world
      • Feed 1/3 of the global population
      • Women are increasingly the farmers of the developing world, producing between 45% and 80% of household food
  • Food Security and Production
    • The world’s population is projected to grow from 6.8 billion to 9.1 billion by 2050
    • Agriculture production in the developing countries would need to almost double
  • Factors determining rural poverty  Lack of assets, land and water Lack of access to financial services & technology Risk and vulnerability Lack of political representation for rural poor Conflicts and Crises Inappropriate government policies Poor integration with local, regional & international markets Lack of skills and weak organizations
  • Fighting poverty
    • Fighting poverty has become a priority
    • 189 World Leaders committed themselves to address poverty in 2000
    • Millennium Development Goals
  • Role of livestock
    • Worldwide there is evidence of a direct linkage between improvement of livestock production and poverty reduction
  • Livestock Sector
    • The livestock sector is essential to the livelihoods of about 1 billion of the world’s poorest people
    • It accounts for 30% of the agricultural GDP in developing countries
    • It grows faster than most other agricultural sub-sectors
    (WB, 2009) 
  • Consumption of livestock products in developing countries 
  • Meat production in developing countries 
    • Poultry , rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, goats, pigs… are the animals of the poorest. Why?:
      • Even landless can keep them (sometime they are their only asset)
      • Reproduce fast
      • Efficiently transform roughages, shrubs, kitchen waste… into highly valuable food
      • Produce manure which is often the only input for crop production
      • No need for big starting capitals
      • Easily sold or bartered
      • Highly mobile in case of crisis/disaster
      • Socio-cultural value
    Small Livestock (SL) 
  • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Achieve universal primary education
    • Promote gender equality and empower women
    • Reduce child mortality
    • Improve maternal health
    • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    • Ensure environmental sustainability
    • Develop a global partnership for development
  • IFAD Projects with rural poultry development component Project with a Rural Poultry Development component – on going Project with a Rural Poultry Development component – completed 
  • MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than 1 USD a day
    • Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
    • Halve , between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
    TARGET 
  • Source: World Bank 2009 Living with $ 1.25 a day 
  • Child malnutrition Source: World Bank 2009 
  • MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Small Livestock:
    • Contribute to human nutrition providing food with high quality macro and micronutrients
    • Generate small income and provide the potential to ‘bank’ savings, which enhances the capacity to cope with shocks and reduces economic vulnerability
    • In times of crises (i.e. drought, flooding, conflicts), play an important role as ‘mobile’ food asset
  • MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (nutrition)
    • Poverty leads to a human diet that is lacking in diversity:
      • Low in vitamin A, vitamin B-12, riboflavin, calcium, iron and zinc
      • Causes anemia, poor growth, rickets, impaired cognitive performance, blindness, neuromuscular deficits, and in the worst cases death.
      • Foods of animal origin are particularly rich sources of all six of these nutrients, and relatively small amounts of these foods can improve the quality of the total diet substantially (Murphy and Allen, 2003).
    • 40-50% of eggs and poultry produced is self-consumed.
    Data from Dr. Frands Dolberg 
  • Poultry used for poverty alleviation helps increase equity of consumption of other (animal) products: Bangladesh. MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (nutrition) Data from Dr. Frands Dolberg  1.2 Grain 3.0 Milk 2.0 Meat (beef and goat) 1.2 Fish 2.4 Chicken meat 2.5 Eggs Increase in consumption by factor: Food item
  • MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (impact)
    • Impact of the Village Poultry Programme
    • Afghanistan:
    • Profitability 91.0 %
    • Interest to keep Poultry 95.7%
    • Family egg consumption 88.9%
    • Chicken meat consumption 67.7%
    • Egg selling 87.5%
    Data from FAO, 2006 
  • MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (impact)  23-40 USD per month n.a. Avg. income per month for Women Poultry Group Leader providing services (i.e. vaccination) n.a. 10-12 USD Avg. income per month from chicken 144 USD (max. 250 USD) 12-13 USD (max. 30 USD) Avg. income per month from eggs 2410 eggs (max. 2830 eggs) 125 eggs (max. 309 eggs) Avg. eggs per year 15.4 hens 2.5 hens (max. 5.7 hens) Flock size Improved Poultry Traditional Poultry Afghanistan
  • Comparison of profitability of different rural poultry enterprises Bangladesh: (Taka per year) Data from Dr. Meherunnesa Chowdhury Sumy Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (impact) BCR: Benefit Cost Ratio  8.41 3.09 3802.14 2933.94 527.88 1396.08 4329.99 Poultry Worker 2.43 2.08 20349.67 17999.04 13606.74 15957.37 33956.41 Mini Hatchery 1.24 1.11 16184.43 7636.77 65130.73 73678.23 81315.00 Model Breeder 5.99 3.86 17529.04 16326.83 4568.21 5770.42 22097.25 Key Rearer 1.60 1.51 37947.09 34336.87 62313.36 65923.58 100260.45 Chick Rearer BCR (Cash Cost) BCR (Full cost) Gross margin Net Return Cash cost Gross cost Gross Return Components
  • MDG 2. Achieve universal primary education
    • Inability of families to meet the costs of schooling is often the main reason why children cannot attend school or drop out at an early stage
    • Selling SL and their products provides one of the few possibilities for poor households to generate cash income to meet yearly school fees
    • Children with access to quality food (proteins and vitamins) have better health and take full advantage of the education they receive
  • MDG 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
    • Women are the main caretakers of SL – especially where animals are kept near the house.
    • They are often responsible for processing livestock products
    • The ownership of SL gives them control over this asset and contributes to their empowerment
    • Keeping SL enhances their status/self-esteem at household and community level
    • Incremental increases in household income controlled by women have a demonstrated multiplier effect in enhancing family well-being
    • The increase of daily burdens by keeping poultry is negligible.
  • MDG 4. Reduce child mortality UN MDG Report 2010 
  • MDG 4. Reduce child mortality
    • The consumption of even small quantities of milk, milk products, meat and eggs is essential for reducing child mortality and improving healthy child development
    • Poor households can cover health expenses and purchase medicines with incomes generated from their poultry
    • However, the close contact between badly managed chicken and children can result zoonotic diseases
  • Data from IFPRI L.C.Smith, L.Haddad (1999) through Dr. Frands Dolberg MDG 4. Reduce child mortality 
  • MDG 5. Improve maternal health
    • Consumption of milk, eggs and occasionally meat contribute significantly to the nutritional status of women
    • Income generation from livestock owned by women can also help to improve maternal health
  • MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 
  • MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 
    • In HIV/AIDS affected household, young people (orphans) can better handle SL rather than large animals
    • Using compatible infrastructures for human and animal health (i.e. cold chain for vaccines) may result in cost savings and better effectiveness
    MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 
  • MDG 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
    • Rural poultry is environmentally sound
    • Rural poultry reduces insect pest (ticks!)
    • Manure from poultry contributes to increase vegetable production
  • MDG 8. Develop a global partnership for development
    • Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system.
    • Address the special needs of the least developed countries
    Targets 
  • Net Export Net Import 2015: -2,360 2030: -3,520 2015: -2,950 2030: -4,000 2015: -80 2030: -410 2015: 1,770 2030: 2,770 2015: -280 2030: -740 North America Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa European Union (15) Transition Countries South Asia East Asia Oceania Near East / North Africa 2015: -1,900 2030: -1,090 Source: FAO 2002 Projected Net Trade In Meat (thousand MTs) 
  • MDG 8. Develop a global partnership for development
    • Specific actions and policies are required to reduce transaction costs and barriers to market access which presently hamper poor (producers and consumers) to benefit from global livestock trade and growing demand for livestock products
  • Conclusions Double the daily income of USD 1? Generate employment? QUESTION: By keeping SMALL LIVESTOCK is it possible for poor resource persons to: Improve (child) nutrition? Contribute empowering women? Improve (child) health?
    • YES
    • YES
    • YES
    • YES
    • YES
    Ensure environmental sustainability?
    • YES
    Unfortunately without additional efforts, several of the MDGs are unlikely to be achieved in many countries 
    • International and national institutions, policy and decision makers are still reluctant to support the development of the SL sector
    • WHAT DO WE NEED TO MAKE A REAL CHANGE?
      • Raise the awareness of decision-makers in national governments and donor agencies about the effectiveness of rural poultry as a tool for poverty reduction.
      • Effective and consistent national pro-poor policies which are crucial to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the increasing demand for livestock products and poverty-focused agendas of several countries;
      • Livestock farmers institutions which can help to voice their needs and facilitate the provision of services and inputs to the farming communities;
      • Participatory adaptive research which is needed to identify appropriate technologies/models which are pro-poor, sustainable, economically viable and environmentally sound;
      • Adapted Extension and Training for capacity building, especially for women;
      • Market led approach by producers supported by effective/accessible/qualitative services (breeding, veterinary services, credit, processing, marketing, extension/training, etc.) and infrastructures;
      • Personal commitment from “like minded” people to advocate for pro-poor development to achieve the MDGs through the promotion of the SL sector.
    Conclusions 
    • What IFAD is doing to support rural poultry?
    • Promoting rural poultry as an effective tool for poverty reduction, for food security and gender empowerment.
    • Strengthening the International Network for Family Poultry Development – INFPD
    • Funding Investment Projects that improve capacity building at all level; access to credit and market; bio-safety as a mean for reducing the impact of diseases and public health risks.
    • Supporting research and up-scaling of successful models and technologies (i.e. Mini-hatcheries technology).
    Conclusions 
  • Proposed Actions
    • IFAD is prepared to work together with national/international institutions committed to pro-poor livestock to:
    • Develop a business-like approach to sensitise national policy, decision makers and donors about the effectiveness of rural poultry development to reduce poverty. This entails:
      • Identifying rural poultry development projects , models and approaches (i.e. Bangladesh model developed by the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and the Government of Bangladesh) that “work” and characterise their key success factors for up-scaling.
      • Gathering socio-economic data to demonstrate the return in terms of poverty reduction for each 1 USD invested in poultry production.
      • Identifying examples of effective national policies enhancing food security and supporting smallholder poultry farmers business.
      • Developing regional/national project proposals for substantial investments in the rural poultry sector in partnership with the private sector.
  • Thank you Antonio Rota ( [email_address] ) IFAD, Senior Technical Adviser Livestock and Farming Systems Policy and Technical Advisory Division Via Paolo di Dono 44 00142 Rome, Italy Tel. +39  06 5459 2680 Fax + 39 06 5459 3680 Please join the Community of Practice for Pro-Poor Livestock Development www.cop-ppld.net 