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PM&E is a process where stakeholders at various levels (i.e., local people, policy makers, development agencies, implementing government ministries) undertake monitoring (measuring, recording, collecting information) and evaluation (analyzing and communicating information) of a particular project, program or policy, distribute control over the content (objectives, indicators), the process (methods, timing, workload, evaluation design) and the results (positive and negative changes, issues) of M and E, and collaborative in pinpointing and acting on corrective actions. (Oakley, 1988; World Bank 2008; Jackson and Kassam, p.3)
(a) International initiatives (i.e.,Millennium Development Goals [MDGs], Highly Indebted Poor Country [HIPC] Initiative, World Trade Organization [WTO] membership, the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Approach); and,
(b) internal schemes (i.e., decentralization, deregulation, bureaucratic downsizing) in public sector management
These occurrences have pushed to the forefront a critical developmental question:
Are desired results and outcomes in the sector and national levels being achieved by policies, programs, and projects implemented by governments? Because of these the need for a development paradigm evolved that accentuated results, partnership (government, private sector, and civil society), coordination, accountability, ownership, sustainability).
The need for “M&E of outcomes” at the national and global levels led to the birth of Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME), which builds on conventional M&E’s assessment of implementation quality of inputs and outputs (the “what, why and how”) by adding a greater focus on outcomes and impacts (the “so what”) for a country.
Micro level of Projects - RBME included elements that could help address the lack of real local participation in M&E:
i) added emphasis on stakeholder perceptions of change
ii) more qualitative progress information on outcomes
Participation within the PM&E Cycle Governments, FIs, local people Project Identification and Preparation Completion and “ End-Evaluation” Appraisal and Approval Becomes part of design and budget: capacity dev’t, intentional activities for local people Implementation Project management follow through: mentoring, counterparting PM&E Cycle Decide who participates Take action Share results (RQ 2) Analyze results Gather information Develop forms and indicators Establish goals Co-decision maker Co-developer Co-analyst Co-collector Participation
Enhanced project beneficiaries’ capacity to implement, monitor, & evaluate local development initiatives;
Enhanced feed backing mechanisms and systems at the community level;
Learn from experiences and replicate best practices
Enhanced effectiveness and efficiency (ensuring inputs are on time and at cost) in sub-project implementation at the community level because monitoring, analysis of data, and feed backing are being done in less time needed and undertaken by the beneficiaries and stakeholders themselves.
Consolidate feedback from the beneficiaries on the quality, quantity of services and interventions provided
Sustainability monitoring (ensuring O & M compliance) for completed community rural infrastructure projects
PM&E can be developed and used with community participations as long as its design fits with the information needs of the community.
Increases ownership of the project, a sense of accountability of the project results the communities, and could improve overall project activities and outcomes
Need for continuous capacity building – requires understanding of the tools but an overall understanding of community dynamics; needs regular capacity building training; fields exposures, on-the-job training
Community leaders are more effective facilitators
PM&E allows for better results, gives continuity and sustainability to projects beyond project life because the beneficiaries participated in designing the system based on criteria they have chosen rather than imposed indicators
The participatory M&E system should form part of the design of regular M&E systems of development projects funded by IFAD and other donors/funding institutions
Sufficient funds should be allocated to PM&E to allow flexibility to attain the desired result. The project funds estimated for M& E were insufficient. Funds for other M&E activities were sourced from grants (IFAD, ENRAP-IDRC)