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Aditi Mukherji, Blanka Fuleki, Tushaar Shah, Diana Suhardiman, Mark Giordano and Parakrama Weligamage Irrigation reforms i...
Background <ul><li>What is PIM and IMT? </li></ul><ul><li>Starting in mid 1960s, reforms peaked in 1990s </li></ul><ul><li...
Rational for a systematic review <ul><li>Many governments and donors support IMT/PIM as an article of faith </li></ul><ul>...
Research questions <ul><li>How well have the impacts and outcomes of IMT/PIM in Asia been documented so far and what have ...
6 Step Research Method
Indicators of success Name of the indicator Scoring system Outcome indicators Irrigation service fee collection rate 1= if...
Distribution and location of cases
Methodological critique of cases Very few studies that combine before after and with-without 1/3 rd  of them are short ter...
Distribution of success/failure as per CSS Region Success Failure S Asia 18 20 E Asia 7 2 SE Asia 12 24 C Asia 4 14
Finding patterns in success: Success by type Lift and pump schemes succeed marginally more
Success by size of system Schemes serving lesser number of farmers succeed marginally more Small schemes succeed marginall...
Success by complexity Simple schemes succeed marginally more
Success by crops grown Non-paddy systems succeed significantly more than paddy systems
Rehabilitated systems fare better than non-rehabilitated ones
Cases where full O&M is transferred fare better
PIM, when implemented on ground by government  staff are more likely to fail
Multivariate analysis: Logit regression Correctly predicts 76.1% of the cases coefficient std. error t-ratio slope Constan...
A conceptual fault in IMT/PIM policy? <ul><li>One to one correlation and regressions have shown that there is almost no pa...
Courtesy: Randolph Barker
Rise of atomistic irrigation and its implications for PIM/IMT
Rise of the atomistic irrigation in South Asia.. This calls for entirely different paradigm of water management Whither PI...
PIM/IMT will be difficult to sustain because surface irrigation as a technology of water mobilization and application is b...
Best bet for farmer-participatory irrigation management. Larger farms, better levy crop prices and ‘ right’ capitalization...
Some of the arguments in this section are developed in  this book..
What then are the ways forward? <ul><li>More, rather than less government intervention in poorer and rice based irrigation...
Thank You [email_address]
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Irrigation reforms in Asia: A systematic review of 108 case studies of IMT/PIM

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Irrigation reforms in Asia: A systematic review of 108 case studies of IMT/PIM (Aditi Mukherji)

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Transcript of "Irrigation reforms in Asia: A systematic review of 108 case studies of IMT/PIM "

  1. 1. Aditi Mukherji, Blanka Fuleki, Tushaar Shah, Diana Suhardiman, Mark Giordano and Parakrama Weligamage Irrigation reforms in Asia: A systematic review of 108 case studies of IMT/PIM Presented at IFAD Rome 18 th April 2011
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>What is PIM and IMT? </li></ul><ul><li>Starting in mid 1960s, reforms peaked in 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>More than 57 countries have embarked on some kind of irrigation reform involving IMT/PIM </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, comprehensive review of impact of IMT/PIM is scanty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vermillion 1997 and FAO 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our review of 108 documented cases makes it the most comprehensive review </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rational for a systematic review <ul><li>Many governments and donors support IMT/PIM as an article of faith </li></ul><ul><li>Our job is to provide evidence for the same </li></ul><ul><li>What is a systematic review? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a summary of what works, where and for whom. A systematic review differs from a literature review in that it tends to be more evidence oriented and create a uniform template against which all evidence can be measured and compared. This uniform template, often called the review protocol, is publicly available and therefore can be replicated by other researchers in future. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research questions <ul><li>How well have the impacts and outcomes of IMT/PIM in Asia been documented so far and what have we learnt from those studies? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we evaluate the impact and outcomes of IMT/PIM and differentiate the successful cases from ‘not so successful’ ones? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the conditions under which successful WUAs in public irrigation systems are found? Are those conditions replicable? </li></ul><ul><li>How well grounded are the conceptual underpinnings surrounding the IMT/PIM discourse? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the ways forward? </li></ul>
  5. 5. 6 Step Research Method
  6. 6. Indicators of success Name of the indicator Scoring system Outcome indicators Irrigation service fee collection rate 1= if it has gone up 0= no change or declined Financial viability of WUA 1= if it has improved 0= no change or deteriorated Functional condition of infrastructure 1= if it has improved 0= no change or deterioration Equitable distribution of water 1= if it has gone up 0= no change or declined Reliability and adequacy in water distribution 1= if it has gone up 0= no change or declined Popular awareness and participation in WUA activities 1= if it has gone up 0= no change or declined Reduction in frequency of disputes 1= Yes 0= No or got worse Impact indicators Crop related impacts (production, yields, cropping pattern, cropped area) 1= If any one of these registered an increased after transfer 0= Otherwise Livelihoods and household parameters (income, wage, employment, poverty reduction, reduction in forced migration) 1 = if any of these have gone up after transfer 0=Otherwise
  7. 7. Distribution and location of cases
  8. 8. Methodological critique of cases Very few studies that combine before after and with-without 1/3 rd of them are short term assessments
  9. 9. Distribution of success/failure as per CSS Region Success Failure S Asia 18 20 E Asia 7 2 SE Asia 12 24 C Asia 4 14
  10. 10. Finding patterns in success: Success by type Lift and pump schemes succeed marginally more
  11. 11. Success by size of system Schemes serving lesser number of farmers succeed marginally more Small schemes succeed marginally more
  12. 12. Success by complexity Simple schemes succeed marginally more
  13. 13. Success by crops grown Non-paddy systems succeed significantly more than paddy systems
  14. 14. Rehabilitated systems fare better than non-rehabilitated ones
  15. 15. Cases where full O&M is transferred fare better
  16. 16. PIM, when implemented on ground by government staff are more likely to fail
  17. 17. Multivariate analysis: Logit regression Correctly predicts 76.1% of the cases coefficient std. error t-ratio slope Constant -2.83790 1.63066 -1.740 STORAGE 0.118054 1.33783 0.08824 0.0292580 SIZE 0.359527 0.757043 0.4749 0.0888251 CROP 1.69093 0.885667 1.909** 0.388653 NEWREHAB 0.233163 0.965311 0.2415 0.0581703 IMPLMNT 2.01105 0.846505 2.376* 0.457774 LVLTR 0.0510247 0.776525 0.06571 0.0126965 ELECT 0.147760 0.783830 0.1885 0.0366978
  18. 18. A conceptual fault in IMT/PIM policy? <ul><li>One to one correlation and regressions have shown that there is almost no pattern in success that may be replicated across locations </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a problem of poor implementation or is there a conceptual fault with the entire paradigm? </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike FAO (2007) and others, we do not attribute this to implementation failure but to a conceptual failure which is manifest in several IMT policy paradoxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is assumed that high-performance WUAs can be developed by an unreformed, inefficient, and often corrupt agency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In many cases farmers did not have a choice about whether or not they were interested in IMT, despite the fact that the policy supposedly promotes increased farmer decision-making in irrigation management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For many farmers, participation became the goal rather than the means of IMT, in spite of the fact that farmers are interested in receiving adequate and reliable supplies of water in order to increase yields and are not interested in participation for the sake of it. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Courtesy: Randolph Barker
  20. 20. Rise of atomistic irrigation and its implications for PIM/IMT
  21. 21. Rise of the atomistic irrigation in South Asia.. This calls for entirely different paradigm of water management Whither PIM/IMT? Contours of irrigation is fast changing Net irrigated area under surface irrigation (000’ha) Net irrigated area served by groundwater (000’ ha) 1993-4 2000-1 % change 1993-4 2000-1 % change Andhra Pradesh 2523 2269 -10.1 1678 1829 +9 Bihar & Jharkhand 1762 986.8 -44.0 2029 2111.5 +40.7 MP & Chattisgarh 2140 1279.1 -40.2 1535 2300.9 +49.9 Punjab 1283.4 1168.7 -8.9 2622 2438 -7.1 Rajasthan 1815 1439 -20.7 2702 3450 +27.7 UP & Uttaranchal 3837 2106.6 -45.1 5630 8493 + 50.8 Pakistan Punjab 4240 3740 -11.8 8760 10340 +18 Sind 2300 1960 -14.8 140 200 +42.9 Bangladesh 537 480 -10.7 2124 3462 +63 All areas 22709 17215 -24.2 28437 35762 +25.8
  22. 22. PIM/IMT will be difficult to sustain because surface irrigation as a technology of water mobilization and application is being crowded out by atomistic irrigation. Strategy? Reinvent surface systems to support atomistic irrigation Socio-technical Preconditions that support Surface Irrigation 1. Nature of the state 1.1 Local authority structures : 1.2 State interest in irrigation: 1.3 Ease of Forced Labor: 2. Nature of Agrarian society 2.1 Irrigated cropping pattern 2.2 Ease of exit from farming 2.3 Agrarian institutions 3. Demographics 3.1 Population pressure on farm land 4.State of irrigation technology 4.1 Availability and Affordability of water lifting and transport Future of surface irrigation? FAVORABLE CONTINGENCIES STRONG REVENUE/LEVY HIGH HOMOGENEOUS LOW FEUDAL/STATIST LOW LOW BRIGHT South Asia Weak Welfare Impossible Diverse; High Egalitarian Very high; intensification and diversification. High BLEAK
  23. 23. Best bet for farmer-participatory irrigation management. Larger farms, better levy crop prices and ‘ right’ capitalization will promote PIM. Socio-technical Preconditions that support Surface Irrigation 1. Nature of the state 1.1 Local authority structures : 1.2 State interest in irrigation: 1.3 Ease of Forced Labor: 2. Nature of Agrarian society 2.1 Irrigated cropping pattern 2.2 Ease of exit from farming 2.3 Agrarian institutions 3. Demographics 3.1 Population pressure on farm land 4.State of irrigation technology 4.1 Availability and Affordability of water lifting and transport Future of surface irrigation? CONTINGENCIES STRONG REVENUE/LEVY HIGH MONO CROPPING LOW FEUDAL/STATIST LOW LOW CENTRAL ASIA STRONG Welfare +Taxes+ Exports? ??? COTTON/WHEAT; HIGH taxes; LOW? STATIST? lOW; LOW? GOOD
  24. 24. Some of the arguments in this section are developed in this book..
  25. 25. What then are the ways forward? <ul><li>More, rather than less government intervention in poorer and rice based irrigation economies. Train and re-orient irrigation bureaucracies towards service orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage irrigation entrepreneurship (or franchisee for distribution, PPP) model in reasonably dynamic economies. Here again, re-orientation of irrigation bureaucracy is critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from farmer’s initiatives and incorporate them in design of new irrigation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from outside the irrigation sector. For example, electricity sector reforms in India. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thank You [email_address]
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