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Innovations in Water Management for
Small Farmers in the Semi-arid Regions
Presentation to IFAD
May 20, 2013
Rome, Italy
C...
• The semi arid region of the world is home to some 800
million people, and they are amongst the poorest.
• They live on l...
Dryland farmers inhabit a very fragile and vulnerable
ecosystem, characterized by:
• Land degradation
• Poor soil fertilit...
• The consequence is a very poor and highly vulnerable
population suffering from famine and malnutrition, and
poor health....
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
ON DRYLANDS FOOD SECURITY
Potential impacts of
climate change
Current
12,643,378 km2
5°C, -10% rainfall in 2050
Future SAT
Area loss: 1,901,315 km2 ...
Short term seasonal rainfall variations often
attributed to climate change.
Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
20001990198019701960
800
600
400
200
0
Horizontal lines show mean (370mm) and s.d. (180mm) from mean
Trends in Seasonal ra...
26
27
28
29
30
1958 1968 1978 1988 1998
Year
MeanMaximumTemperaturesdegreesC.
17
18
19
20
21
MeanMinimumTemperaturesdegree...
Declining productivity attributed to
climate change and other ‘drivers of change’ are
usually responsible
0
100
200
300
40...
Monthly rainfall amounts are becoming more erratic
Difficult to predict onset of rains
Wheat Yield Gap - ICARDA
Increased water storage is an imperative
Water storage systems
vary in typology
 Increased incomes up to 77% in
India and up to 45% in Southeast
Asia of 3.7 million households
 Benefit/cost ratio 2:1
...
Potential for Irrigation Expansion in Africa
Source: You (2008)
Improved On Farm Water Management
IRRIG,
PRECIP
ET
Soil Water
Reservoir
Surface
runoff
Percolation
GW accretion
Upward GW
movement
Interflow
Active root zon...
Gro-Points
Capacitance probes
Hortau tensiometers
Permanent
TDR
Weather station
Gravimetric
sampling
Use of ICT to measure, store, analyze and retrieve
large volumes of data for soil and water management
Role of ground water systems
Ground Water Exploitation
• Has expanded irrigation
• Boosted local food production
• Increased small holder production sy...
• Protection of ecosystem viability
• Proper governance systems to reduce depletion
and pollution
• Establish institutiona...
Using municipal water and wastewater
services as a driver in irrigation development
Putting IWRM into practice – the irrig...
Innovations in Climate Change Mitigation
- Sequester carbon
- Reduce GHG emissions
- Improve soil productivity
• Colonise plant roots and
extend the root system
into the surrounding soil.
• By attaching to the
feeder roots, they exte...
• The plant enjoys improved nutrient and water uptake.
• More uniform growth, increased leaf size, more flowering and
incr...
Role of Biochar
• Improvement of soil structure
• Addition of organic matter
• Improved water and nutrient uptake
• New sm...
Conservation Agriculture
An integrated systems approach to water, soil,
carbon and fertilizer management
THE NEXT MAJOR CHALLENGE – Fertilizer Technology
• Biotechnology
• BNF
• Nanotechnology
Taking Advantage of the Latest Genomics Tools
To Combat Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
• Drought tolerance
• Heat tolerance
•...
$513,476,000
2013Funding
THANK YOU!
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
Innovations in water management for small farmers
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  1. 1. Innovations in Water Management for Small Farmers in the Semi-arid Regions Presentation to IFAD May 20, 2013 Rome, Italy Chandra A. Madramootoo Dean, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences McGill University Montreal, Canada
  2. 2. • The semi arid region of the world is home to some 800 million people, and they are amongst the poorest. • They live on less than $1US per day, and they lack access to capital and resources.
  3. 3. Dryland farmers inhabit a very fragile and vulnerable ecosystem, characterized by: • Land degradation • Poor soil fertility • Scarcity of water • Erratic rainfall patterns • Drought • Deforestation • High temperatures • Loss of natural habitats and vegetation
  4. 4. • The consequence is a very poor and highly vulnerable population suffering from famine and malnutrition, and poor health. • They are prone to environmentally induced illnesses and low economic productivity. • Migration, social upheaval, and regional political instability
  5. 5. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DRYLANDS FOOD SECURITY
  6. 6. Potential impacts of climate change Current 12,643,378 km2 5°C, -10% rainfall in 2050 Future SAT Area loss: 1,901,315 km2 (15%) Area gain: 3,322,187 km2 (26%) Net expansion of extended SAT area by 11%
  7. 7. Short term seasonal rainfall variations often attributed to climate change. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
  8. 8. 20001990198019701960 800 600 400 200 0 Horizontal lines show mean (370mm) and s.d. (180mm) from mean Trends in Seasonal rainfall totals / days, Makindu, Kenya. Number of rain days - October to December 20001990198019701960 50 40 30 20 10 Number of days with more than 0.85mm Number of days with more than 15mm
  9. 9. 26 27 28 29 30 1958 1968 1978 1988 1998 Year MeanMaximumTemperaturesdegreesC. 17 18 19 20 21 MeanMinimumTemperaturesdegreesC. max fmax min fmin Trends in maximum and minimum temperature Makindu, Kenya.
  10. 10. Declining productivity attributed to climate change and other ‘drivers of change’ are usually responsible 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Rainfall(mm) MaizeYield(t/ha) Maize Yield Rainfall Machakos district in Kenya
  11. 11. Monthly rainfall amounts are becoming more erratic Difficult to predict onset of rains
  12. 12. Wheat Yield Gap - ICARDA
  13. 13. Increased water storage is an imperative
  14. 14. Water storage systems vary in typology
  15. 15.  Increased incomes up to 77% in India and up to 45% in Southeast Asia of 3.7 million households  Benefit/cost ratio 2:1  Internal rate of return 27%  Watershed productivity up 2x to 3x Water Harvesting and Community Watersheds
  16. 16. Potential for Irrigation Expansion in Africa Source: You (2008)
  17. 17. Improved On Farm Water Management
  18. 18. IRRIG, PRECIP ET Soil Water Reservoir Surface runoff Percolation GW accretion Upward GW movement Interflow Active root zone Capillary fluxes Subsurface drainage Return flows (Q,L) Return flows (Q,L) Leaching Fraction Capillary fringe Improving soil water storage Managing the soil water reservoir
  19. 19. Gro-Points Capacitance probes Hortau tensiometers
  20. 20. Permanent TDR Weather station Gravimetric sampling
  21. 21. Use of ICT to measure, store, analyze and retrieve large volumes of data for soil and water management
  22. 22. Role of ground water systems
  23. 23. Ground Water Exploitation • Has expanded irrigation • Boosted local food production • Increased small holder production systems • Contributed to inadequate management of the resource
  24. 24. • Protection of ecosystem viability • Proper governance systems to reduce depletion and pollution • Establish institutional, monitoring, permitting and pricing mechanisms • Assessment of the resource • Enhancing recharge • Use of surface water control systems to replenish ground water • Sustainable management to achieve economic and social well being Establishing a Framework for Groundwater Management and Protection
  25. 25. Using municipal water and wastewater services as a driver in irrigation development Putting IWRM into practice – the irrigation sector working in unison with the water and sanitation sector
  26. 26. Innovations in Climate Change Mitigation - Sequester carbon - Reduce GHG emissions - Improve soil productivity
  27. 27. • Colonise plant roots and extend the root system into the surrounding soil. • By attaching to the feeder roots, they extend the effective absorbing area available to plants. • Mycorrhizal filaments can explore volumes of soil hundreds to thousands of times greater than roots themselves. BIOPROSPECTING - Mycorrhizae Fungi
  28. 28. • The plant enjoys improved nutrient and water uptake. • More uniform growth, increased leaf size, more flowering and increased vegetable yield. Water/Mycorrhizae Benefits with Maize in Jordan
  29. 29. Role of Biochar • Improvement of soil structure • Addition of organic matter • Improved water and nutrient uptake • New small business ventures
  30. 30. Conservation Agriculture An integrated systems approach to water, soil, carbon and fertilizer management
  31. 31. THE NEXT MAJOR CHALLENGE – Fertilizer Technology • Biotechnology • BNF • Nanotechnology
  32. 32. Taking Advantage of the Latest Genomics Tools To Combat Biotic and Abiotic Stresses • Drought tolerance • Heat tolerance • Salt tolerance • Pest and diseases
  33. 33. $513,476,000 2013Funding
  34. 34. THANK YOU!
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