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Innovations in water management for small farmers

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  • 1. Innovations in Water Management for Small Farmers in the Semi-arid Regions Presentation to IFAD May 20, 2013 Rome, Italy Chandra A. Madramootoo Dean, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences McGill University Montreal, Canada
  • 2. • The semi arid region of the world is home to some 800 million people, and they are amongst the poorest. • They live on less than $1US per day, and they lack access to capital and resources.
  • 3. Dryland farmers inhabit a very fragile and vulnerable ecosystem, characterized by: • Land degradation • Poor soil fertility • Scarcity of water • Erratic rainfall patterns • Drought • Deforestation • High temperatures • Loss of natural habitats and vegetation
  • 4. • The consequence is a very poor and highly vulnerable population suffering from famine and malnutrition, and poor health. • They are prone to environmentally induced illnesses and low economic productivity. • Migration, social upheaval, and regional political instability
  • 5. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DRYLANDS FOOD SECURITY
  • 6. Potential impacts of climate change Current 12,643,378 km2 5°C, -10% rainfall in 2050 Future SAT Area loss: 1,901,315 km2 (15%) Area gain: 3,322,187 km2 (26%) Net expansion of extended SAT area by 11%
  • 7. Short term seasonal rainfall variations often attributed to climate change. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
  • 8. 20001990198019701960 800 600 400 200 0 Horizontal lines show mean (370mm) and s.d. (180mm) from mean Trends in Seasonal rainfall totals / days, Makindu, Kenya. Number of rain days - October to December 20001990198019701960 50 40 30 20 10 Number of days with more than 0.85mm Number of days with more than 15mm
  • 9. 26 27 28 29 30 1958 1968 1978 1988 1998 Year MeanMaximumTemperaturesdegreesC. 17 18 19 20 21 MeanMinimumTemperaturesdegreesC. max fmax min fmin Trends in maximum and minimum temperature Makindu, Kenya.
  • 10. Declining productivity attributed to climate change and other ‘drivers of change’ are usually responsible 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Rainfall(mm) MaizeYield(t/ha) Maize Yield Rainfall Machakos district in Kenya
  • 11. Monthly rainfall amounts are becoming more erratic Difficult to predict onset of rains
  • 12. Wheat Yield Gap - ICARDA
  • 13. Increased water storage is an imperative
  • 14. Water storage systems vary in typology
  • 15.  Increased incomes up to 77% in India and up to 45% in Southeast Asia of 3.7 million households  Benefit/cost ratio 2:1  Internal rate of return 27%  Watershed productivity up 2x to 3x Water Harvesting and Community Watersheds
  • 16. Potential for Irrigation Expansion in Africa Source: You (2008)
  • 17. Improved On Farm Water Management
  • 18. IRRIG, PRECIP ET Soil Water Reservoir Surface runoff Percolation GW accretion Upward GW movement Interflow Active root zone Capillary fluxes Subsurface drainage Return flows (Q,L) Return flows (Q,L) Leaching Fraction Capillary fringe Improving soil water storage Managing the soil water reservoir
  • 19. Gro-Points Capacitance probes Hortau tensiometers
  • 20. Permanent TDR Weather station Gravimetric sampling
  • 21. Use of ICT to measure, store, analyze and retrieve large volumes of data for soil and water management
  • 22. Role of ground water systems
  • 23. Ground Water Exploitation • Has expanded irrigation • Boosted local food production • Increased small holder production systems • Contributed to inadequate management of the resource
  • 24. • Protection of ecosystem viability • Proper governance systems to reduce depletion and pollution • Establish institutional, monitoring, permitting and pricing mechanisms • Assessment of the resource • Enhancing recharge • Use of surface water control systems to replenish ground water • Sustainable management to achieve economic and social well being Establishing a Framework for Groundwater Management and Protection
  • 25. Using municipal water and wastewater services as a driver in irrigation development Putting IWRM into practice – the irrigation sector working in unison with the water and sanitation sector
  • 26. Innovations in Climate Change Mitigation - Sequester carbon - Reduce GHG emissions - Improve soil productivity
  • 27. • Colonise plant roots and extend the root system into the surrounding soil. • By attaching to the feeder roots, they extend the effective absorbing area available to plants. • Mycorrhizal filaments can explore volumes of soil hundreds to thousands of times greater than roots themselves. BIOPROSPECTING - Mycorrhizae Fungi
  • 28. • The plant enjoys improved nutrient and water uptake. • More uniform growth, increased leaf size, more flowering and increased vegetable yield. Water/Mycorrhizae Benefits with Maize in Jordan
  • 29. Role of Biochar • Improvement of soil structure • Addition of organic matter • Improved water and nutrient uptake • New small business ventures
  • 30. Conservation Agriculture An integrated systems approach to water, soil, carbon and fertilizer management
  • 31. THE NEXT MAJOR CHALLENGE – Fertilizer Technology • Biotechnology • BNF • Nanotechnology
  • 32. Taking Advantage of the Latest Genomics Tools To Combat Biotic and Abiotic Stresses • Drought tolerance • Heat tolerance • Salt tolerance • Pest and diseases
  • 33. $513,476,000 2013Funding
  • 34. THANK YOU!