Improving Agricultural Productivity and Food Security-CropsPresentation Transcript
Improving Agricultural Productivity and Food Security-Crops
Michael Baum Acting Director of Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Program; Biotechnologist The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5466 Aleppo, Syria I
Global mandate Barley Lentil Faba Bean Water- use efficiency
Regional mandate Chickpea Bread Wheat Durum Wheat Rangeland and Small Ruminant Nutrition Improvement Forage Legumes
BIGM Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Program IWLM Integrated Water and Land Management Program DSIPS Diversification and Sustainable Intensification of Production Systems Program SEPR Social, Economic and Policy Research Program Programs at ICARDA Breeding Programs supported by: Genetic Resources Section (GRS) Biotechnology Laboratory Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Seed Section Seed Health Laboratory (SHL) Grain Quality Laboratory International Nurseries (IN) Staff: 110 + dailies Biodiversity & Crop Improvement: wheat, barley, legume Poverty & Livelihoods, Analysis& Impact Assessment
Genetic resource section (GRS) & genebank genetic diversity of wheat, barley, food legumes, pasture forage species from diverse origins for use in research and plant breeding collect/acquire conserve characterize evaluate document distribute 133,026 accessions are conserved in ICARDA genebank. 63% are wild relatives and landraces. Most of them collected in CWANA region. 80% of ICARDA accessions is safety duplicated in Svalbard Seed Vault (Norway) 100% is the aim Medium term storage: 2 o -4 o C Long term storage: -20 o C
Application of biotechnology to enhance the speed and efficiency of plant breeding
Marker assisted selection
Application of gene technology for genetic enhancement
Production of GM plants in chickpea, lentil, wheat and barley.
Current Major Projects: “ The Centre of Excellence Program” between Tottori University and ICARDA, 2007-2011. Breeding cereals for stress tolerance. “ Developing drought and heat tolerant wheat germplasm and its utilisation for the drylands of Central and West Asia and North Africa”, BMZ, Germany. “ Biotechnology Development in the Arab World: Establishment of a Containment Facility at ICARDA” AFESD, Kuwait, 2007-2009.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Virology
Field Surveys and Diagnosis:
Pest monitoring and diversity characterization
Host Plant Resistance
Cereal Pathology Food Legume Pathology Entomology Plant health system established using host plant resistance, biological control mechanism and pathogenicity monitoring and surveillance against diseases and insects Ma’Rib, Yemen
BGRI Protocols established in Ethiopia, Yemen, and Egypt for Pathogenicity surveys.
New sources of resistance identified for Stem rust, yellow rust, Sunn pest, Russian wheat aphid, Wheat stem saw fly and Barley yellow dwarf virus.
IPM pilot sites for Sunn pest and Hessian fly.
Biological control of Sunn pest using isolates of the fungus Beauveria bassiana
Molecular characterization of Wheat streak mosaic virus. Seed transmission and yield loss studied.
Strengthened seed systems through increased private sector participation and alternative delivery systems
Alternative seed delivery systems by establishing technically feasible and economically viable VBSEs in Afghanistan (17), Eritrea (1) and Pakistan (4) in remote or marginal areas.
Produced and marketed 3,853 t of seed of wheat, rice, mung bean and potato reaching 60,000 households (500,000 people).
Accelerated seed multiplication of UG99 resistant wheat varieties to counter threat in at risk countries: Egypt, Ethiopia, Pakistan.
Fast-track release of UG resistant varieties
Creating awareness for policy advocacy
Polarizing UG resistant varieties to farmers
Accelerating pre-release seed multiplication
Effective regional seed network as a forum to encourage collaboration and create regional seed market.
Enhanced capacity of national agricultural research, seed programs, development agencies and extension services to better manage seed supply systems.
Seed Section ICARDA is the only CGIAR Center with a dedicated Seed Section working with breeding programs.
Seed Health Laboratory SbP identifications SHL is wildly recognized as a reference laboratory of CWANA Field inspection
Monitoring the health status and safe movement of
germplasm and breeding lines for seed exchange.
Ensuring seed health quality of seeds produced and distributed.
Research on seed borne pathogens.
Capacity building and information dissemination.
100% of incoming and outgoing germplasm are tested against seed borne pathogens. For example in 2008 13,000 accessions of all incoming and outgoing genetic material tested for seed borne diseases, and pests. 1,650 accessions cleaned from viruses. 3,350 accessions cleaned from fungi.
International Nurseries Sending segregating populations, elite lines, yield trials and disease nurseries to NARS for testing and further selection in local environments. Received 108 requests for 1,856 trial sets, from more than 500 researchers contacted in 2008. Sets of nurseries and special dispatches sent to 51 countries. 39 39 Grass pea (Lathyrus) 76 13 63 Faba bean 208 44 67 97 Lentil 108 25 26 Segregating populations 34 34 Crossing blocks 460 105 149 146 Barley 245 121 99 Chickpea 1,316 356 232 586 Total 79 37 42 Durum wheat 209 46 163 Bread wheat Total Sets Stress Nurseries Observation Nurseries Yield Trials Crop
Major products of Project 1: Conservation and Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity in Dry Areas Collection, acquisition, regeneration, documentation and ex situ conservation of genetic resources of ICARDA mandate crops. Gene mining and eco-tilling activities. Agro-morphological and molecular characterization and evaluation of ex situ collections for traits relevant for use in germplasm enhancement. Pre-breeding activities Identification and use of wild relatives, landraces and other genetic stocks to broaden the genetic base of cereals and legumes. Distribution and exchange of genetic resources Promoting in situ /on-farm conservation of agrobiodiversity. Institutional strengthening and capacity building , Characterization of small ruminant breeds and changes in the production systems affecting genetic diversity.
Major products of Project 2: ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program (ICWIP) for Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) Stress tolerant (drought, heat and cold) wheat germplasm adapted to variable environments of CWANA. Rust resistant wheat germplasm especially against stem rust race Ug99 and its variants in addition to yellow and leaf rusts. Enhanced wheat germplasm for water use efficiency. Integrated pest management options for the control of diseases, insect pests. Conservation agriculture practices implemented for wheat based production systems. Capacity building of NARS programs.
Major products of Project 3: Barley Improvement
New strategy developed to better served drylands, cold areas and favorable/irrigated conditions.
Participatory approach is under development with several NARS.
Stress tolerant (drought, salinity, and cold) germplasm for food security and crop diversification. Barley germplasm with superior end-use (malt) and nutritional quality for improved nutrition, health, and farm income. New traits through gene discovery for crop diversity. (Generation Challenge Program). Improved methodologies and tools for genetic improvement (i.e. participatory plant breeding and doubled haploids). Integrated pest management options for the control of barley diseases and insect pests. Production of seed to enhance the availability and use of improved barley varieties. Capacity building in NARS programs.
Major products of Project 4:Food Legume Improvement Lentil, Kabuli chickpea, faba bean and grasspea Products developed through consultation with and analysis of the needs of NARS. Stress tolerant (diseases, pests, drought and cold) cool-season legumes for food security, and crop intensification and diversification. Bio-fortified lentils (Harvest Plus CP) and low-toxin/toxin-free grasspea for improved nutrition and health. New traits through allele/gene mining for key traits (Generation Challenge Program). Improved methodologies and tools for genetic improvement (pre-breeding, advanced biometry, international crop information system, etc.). Integrated pest management options for the control of diseases and insect pests. Strengthening seed delivery systems. Capacity building in NARS programs.