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  • 1. I
  • 2. Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty 1
  • 3. Contents Foreword 5 Writing and publishing Acknowledgements 6 The importance of clear, simple writing B - 1 The new world of communications: 1 J Plain language guidelines B - 1 Everyone has a role 7 Plain language B - 1 Getting started 13 Jargon versus terminology: Writing accessibly B - 3 Editing and proofreading print materials B - 5 Contact B - 6IFAD’s visual identity 2 J Using storytelling to share knowledge B - 7 Presenting IFAD in the best light A - 1 Advantages of storytelling B - 71 J Corporate identity guidelines A - 1 Uses of storytelling at work B - 7 Visual identity policy A - 1 Potential uses of stories B - 8 IFAD’s logo A - 1 How to create a story B - 8 Contact A - 4 IFAD storytelling experience B - 82 J Graphic design guidelines A - 5 Contact B - 9 Typography A - 5 3 J Preparing ‘Stories from the field’ B - 10 Basic stationery items and templates A - 6 Criteria for stories B - 10 Tips on typography and effective design A - 17 Questions to ask project participants B - 11 Tips on hiring a graphic designer A - 17 Tips on writing B - 11 Tips on printing A - 18 ‘Key facts’ box B - 11 Contact A - 18 Details B - 113 J Photography at IFAD A - 19 Contact B - 11 The role of photography in communications A - 19 4 J Distributing IFAD products B - 12 IFAD’s photography policy A - 20 Print versus electronic publication B - 12 Themes for photograph coverage A - 20 Offset versus digital printing B - 12 Accessing photographs: Using the Planning distribution for print products B - 12 IFAD Image Bank A - 20 Requesting IFAD material B - 13 Acquiring photographs: Organizing Shipping information B - 13 a photo mission A - 22 Support to country offices and Photographer guidelines for photo missions A - 25 field colleagues B - 13 Contact A - 26 Mailing list B - 144 J Maps and Geographic Information Contact B - 14 System A - 27 IFAD map portfolio A - 27 Expanding GIS capabilities A - 27 How to request a map A - 28 Contact A - 29 3
  • 4. Contents Working with the media Speaking in public Getting the most from the media C - 1 Writing for public speaking E - 1 1 J Media opportunities C - 2 1 J Delivering a compelling presentation E - 1 Contact C - 2 Planning the presentation E - 1 2 J Tools for media outreach C - 3 Engaging with the audience E - 2 Press releases and media advisories C - 3 Delivering without mishaps E - 2 Press kits C - 3 Using visual aids and PowerPoint E - 3 Distribution of media materials C - 4 Contact E - 4 Contact C - 4 2 J Facilitating a meeting E - 5 3 J Holding a news conference C - 5 The basics E - 5 Contact C - 6 Ice breakers and energizers E - 6 Contact E - 6 4 J Organizing a media trip C - 7 Contact C - 7 5 J Handling media interviews C - 8 Interview formats C - 8 Working together Preparing for media interviews C - 8 Keeping each other in the loop F - 1 Broadcast interview do’s and don’ts C - 9 1 J Tools and methods of internal Tips for in-studio television interviews C - 10 communications F - 1 Tips for radio interviews C - 11 Choosing the best mode of communication F - 2 Contact C - 11 Pros and cons of communication tools F - 2 6 J Managing risks C - 12 Tips for written communication F - 3 Contact C - 12 Internal tools F - 3 7 J Broadcasting IFAD’s message C - 13 Contact F - 3 Working with television and radio C - 13 Creating your own video C - 13 Working with external video producers and Annexes production companies C - 16 Contact C - 17 J Annex I G - 1 Template for standard press release G - 1 J Annex II G - 2 Template for standard media advisory G - 2 IFAD on the internet J Annex III G - 3 The new front door D - 1 Glossary of social media terms G - 3 1 J Writing for the web D - 1 Contact G - 4 Reading online versus reading in print D - 1 J Annex IV G - 5 Preparing online content D - 2 After-action review methodology G - 5 Contact D - 4 J Annex V G - 6 2 J Using social media D - 5 Tips for writing e-mails G - 6 What is social media? D - 5 Guidelines for replying to and Techniques for using social media D - 5 forwarding e-mail G - 6 Social media etiquette D - 6 J Annex VI G - 7 Using IFAD’s official social media accounts D - 9 Who’s Who in IFAD Communications G - 7 IFAD social media channels D - 9 Contact D - 10 3 J Writing a memorable blog post D - 11 Blog from the heart D - 11 Captivate your readers D - 11 Help your readers D - 11 Contact D - 11 4
  • 5. ForewordThe need to reduce poverty and food insecurity standards to ensure that we speak with the samehas never been more urgent. While IFAD has long voice and maximize our collective communicationsbeen at the forefront of efforts to help poor rural efforts. In fact, every IFAD staff member has a rolepeople build better lives, today we work in an to play in communicating about the impact weincreasingly complex, competitive and changing have on the ground, the knowledge we have toenvironment. In response, we are transforming share, and above all our mission – the importancethe organization to do this work more effectively, of smallholder agriculture and the issues for whichefficiently and on a larger scale. we advocate.Communications is key to that job. And this toolkit That is where this communications toolkit comeshas been created to help us all get the job done. in. It is a first for IFAD, and my communications colleagues and I are thrilled to share it withWhether the task is helping smallholder farmers you. We hope that it demystifies some aspectslearn a new technique, persuading elected of communications and helps you feel betterofficials to adopt supportive policies or scaling equipped to do your job and contribute to helpingup successful initiatives, we must be able to deliver on IFAD’s commitment to bring 80 millionclearly and consistently convey our messages. people out of poverty by 2015. The practical tipsThe Strategic Framework recognizes that good and tools you’ll find in these pages consolidatecommunications help IFAD take advantage of the the knowledge of the Communications Division’snew opportunities resulting from the international in-house experts. The content also reflects yourcommunity’s increased focus on agriculture and responses to the question, “How can we helprural development. There is a growing demand for you?” – which we have been asking throughout theour services from new and old partners alike and organization over the past two years.from our own expanded country presence. Thismeans new audiences to inform, new activities to It’s no accident that the toolkit has been publishedpromote, new initiatives to advocate for. Everyone electronically and in a loose-leaf binder – this is ain IFAD is a part of this communications effort. living document. We will regularly revise and augment it as the need for new tools arises, as old onesWe work in a diverse and decentralized become obsolete and as IFAD develops and rollsorganization and we come from many countries, out a communications strategy which will providewith different languages and customs. Internal the framework for all our communications work.communications have become both moreimportant and more challenging. In addition, Speaking of that, we welcome your feedback ontechnology and social media are providing more the toolkit as a vital input for our work. Please letrapid and powerful ways to collaborate, while us know what works and what doesn’t, and whatalso requiring more individual responsibility in additional sections you would find useful. We lookpublicizing our work. forward to hearing from you!All of this raises the bar on communications. Itcalls for new ways of working, sharing knowledge Cassandra Waldonand collaborating. We need common norms and Director, Communications Division 5
  • 6. AcknowledgementsBob Baber coordinated the development of this it with patience and expertise through numerousfirst edition of the Toolkit for IFAD communications drafts to completion, putting all the written piecesfrom start to finish. His dedication in seeing the together to give the toolkit a unified voice. Andreaproject through to completion is to be commended. Wöhr deserves special mention for her graphicWithout him, it would not have come together. conceptualization of the toolkit. She too was on the project from day one, giving the toolkit its lookThe authors, who so generously shared their time and feel and ensuring its user-friendly design. Theand knowledge, are acknowledged with gratitude. expert advice provided in the early days of theTheir names appear throughout the text. project by our former publications coordinator, Anna Sherwood, was vital to starting the projectColleagues and project staff in the field and at off on the right path. And the toolkit would not beIFAD headquarters and, of course, the entire what it is without Janet Sharpe, who lent her timeCommunications team also contributed valuable and enthusiasm to the project in the home stretch,input, feedback and support. giving the end product its final polish.A special word of thanks is due to Catharine Way,who took on the project from the outset, steering 6
  • 7. The new world of communications:Everyone has a roleIFAD is operating in a world no one could have other Web2.0 tools – allow us to get our message outimagined at our founding just over three decades to more people, faster, more effectively and at lessago. The issues at the heart of our mandate are in cost. This expands our ability to advocate for poorthe headlines every day. The clock counting down rural people and work on their behalf. At the sameachievement of the Millennium Development Goals time, there are fewer controls, and no electronicis ticking fastest in the communities we serve. shredder. Every staff member is encouraged toThree quarters (and growing) of the world’s poor become a responsible part of the digital conversationpeople are our clients. The biggest-ever generation and the online development community.of young rural people will soon be confronting theglobal challenges of climate change, rising food This communications toolkit is aimed at staffprices and economic stagnation – and as they members in every unit and at every level of IFAD.begin to enjoy electronic links to the broader world, Its purpose is to help you in boosting the impactour ability to reach them will continue to improve. of our work through more effective outreach, The purpose of theWith this in mind, IFAD’s Strategic Framework engagement with a comunications toolkit2011-2015 variety of audiences is to help you boostemphasizes the important role of communications and knowledge-sharing the impact of ourand outreach in the pursuit of the organization’s – all in the interest of work and highlight ourmission: “IFAD will step up advocacy and highlighting IFAD’scommunication efforts around small-scale contributions to enabling contributions as weagriculture, rural development, and food security poor rural people to raise address the challengesand nutrition. It will continue to amplify the voices their incomes, improve of today and tomorrow.of poor rural men and women in relevant debates.” their food security and strengthen their resilience. The toolkit willToday we face a dynamic media and digital help you to take advantage of the opportunitiesenvironment. As we carry out IFAD’s mandate, offered by increased visibility and perform yourresponsibility for communications is not limited to communications tasks effectively and withthe Communications Division – it lies with every confidence. It is meant to be a living document,staff member in every office. As our presence with regular additions and revisions that will reflectexpands around the globe, so too does our ability changing conditions, new technologies and staffto publicize what we do and the impact it is having. needs. We welcome your suggestions to makeWith more eyes and ears in the field, we also it better.have greater capacity to alert headquarters aboutunfolding situations and opportunities. Why do we need to communicate?Technology has blurred job titles; today every role IFAD’s communications opportunities andhas a communications component. A whole range challenges are increasing and changing. This isof tools – including the internet and social media and a result of our growing number of country offices and expanding programme of work along with the international community’s heightened focus on agricultural development. These changes 7
  • 8. The new world of communications: Everyone has a role underscore the benefits that outreach brings to The three types of communications the operations we support in the field as our profile increases, as well as the opportunities to be part of Communicating with others the development dialogue that we will miss if we do What most people think of as ‘communications’ not communicate consistently and effectively. is external communications. Its purpose is to raise awareness about IFAD issues and activities IFAD plays an essential role in helping the world’s among people outside the organization and to 1 billion poor rural people to work their way out promote progressive change. It is also crucial to of poverty and live in dignity. What we do is crucial fundraising. External audiences range from our but not sufficient, and we do not work alone. core constituencies – such as project partners, Our contributions both guide and reinforce those policymakers, Member States, other United Nations of many other partners: governments, other United agencies and NGOs working in related fields – to Nations agencies, civil society groups including the media, donors, academics, parliamentarians NGOs, donors, the private sector, the media and and the general public. the general public. Informing them about our activities builds momentum and in turn uncovers There’s no limit to the communication tools at our new opportunities to increase our impact through disposal. Among the traditional ones are reports, collaboration. Communications supports replication press releases, brochures, funding proposals, of successes – so that what begins as ‘a project’ newsletters, donor reports, speeches by key gradually becomes ingrained as the new and better IFAD staff, and radio and television interviews way of doing things. Communications also keeps and educational programmes. Tools also include our issues, particularly rural poverty and food engagement in international policy dialogue security, in the public mind. and advocacy, global multimedia campaigns, commemoration of United Nations days, Communications builds trust and helps us remain collaborative activities among the three accountable. If we are open and accessible, it Rome-based agencies, and partnerships with becomes clear that we deliver on our promises. notables, surrogates and celebrities. A history of open and accurate communications is a priceless asset in confronting any controversies When the internet and other forms of electronic that may arise. With effective communications, our publishing first emerged they were used mainly as messages reach policymakers and decision makers another platform to disseminate electronic versions of in Member States, especially donors, reinforcing our traditional print materials. They still serve that useful ability to raise funds and expand our work. function, allowing us to provide documents to virtually unlimited audiences at negligible cost. But social media and other Web2.0 tools also offer entirely new opportunities for external communications. They allow us to share rural development and agriculture- related news in real time and post videos and photos of our work on a variety of new and popular platforms – most notably the IFAD social reporting blog, the IFAD Facebook site and our Twitter feed – vastly expanding our audience. 8
  • 9. The new world of communications: Everyone has a roleYet these new tools of distribution are only part of expanding the reach of our work, reinforcingthe story. The revolutionary aspect of digital media our important role in development and helpingis their role in ‘democratizing’ communications. us raise funds. Links between field offices helpNo longer does information come down from form a bond among people doing similar work in‘the top’. Now much of the conversation is distant locations. They are also crucial for sharingowned by the development community itself, and knowledge about what works, increasing ourorganizations like IFAD have to engage in that impact and relevance.conversation if they are to remain relevant. Protecting our reputationCommunicating among ourselves The higher profile IFAD has garnered in recentAs IFAD expands further into the field, internal years – as an international financial institution and acommunications is growing in importance. United Nations specialized agency providing fundsWith IFAD offices now located across the globe, to developing countries – raises the stakes withmaintaining a strong connection between regard to reputation management, the third leg ofheadquarters and the field is vital. It creates communications. The 24-hour news cycle and thea sense of belonging among the larger IFAD speed of electronic communications, both of whichcommunity, deepens the sense of ownership are enhanced with each successive advancementof our reform agenda, facilitates sharing of in digital media, increaseknowledge and lessons learned throughout the our vulnerability to risks. The three typesorganization, and rallies staff around our core It is vital for everyone in of communications:vision. Technology is helping greatly: Intranet the IFAD constellation externalaccess to IFAD’s internal electronic resources and to work consciously communicationsSkype help us stay connected, as do regional every day to promote our internalknowledge management tools. organization’s image and communications safeguard our reputation. reputationInternal communications is a three-way managementconversation, between headquarters and thecountry offices and among country officesthemselves. Communications from headquarters tofield offices keeps IFAD and project staff informedabout organizational initiatives. It also helps them toobtain information and assistance. Communicationsfrom the field to headquarters provides informationabout the concrete results of our activities and thepeople whose lives they transform. This informationis one of the most powerful tools we have for 9
  • 10. The new world of communications: Everyone has a role IFAD’s vision them bring smallholder agriculture into the forefront of Effective communication begins with a shared addressing national and global food security needs vision. IFAD’s vision is captured in the Strategic for decades to come. In order to achieve these goals, Framework 2011-2015. It highlights the fact that our it is critical to enable smallholders to create wealth by mandate – improving food security and nutrition, improving the overall economic environment of rural and enabling rural women and men to overcome areas, investing in basic infrastructure and financial poverty – has never been more relevant than it services, bettering their governance, and making is today, when nearly a billion rural people live on them decent places to live and to do business. less than US$1.25 a day and when there is a Policies and investments need to be directed at high prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in improving their technical skills, to enable them to some regions. become more market-oriented so they have an incentive to produce more food, and to help them Further, the Strategic Framework sharpens the overcome the enormous risks they face with regard organization’s focus on small-scale agriculture to climate change and environmental degradation. as a driver of economic growth and a crucial source of income and nutrition for many poor rural In sum, IFAD sees farming of any scale as a households. Across the globe there are about business. And businesses need clear links along 500 million smallholder farms, and they support the value chain – from production to processing, approximately two billion people – almost a third of marketing and consumption. IFAD works to foster the global population. In some countries agriculture the entrepreneurial capacity of smallholders so that is the main source of income for 70 per cent of the they can build thriving rural economies. rural population. IFAD sees young women and men as the farmers of Extensive collaboration has emerged in the tomorrow. But we know they will choose to stay in international community on agriculture, food and rural areas and put their energy into farming only if nutrition issues. It suggests new ways to work agriculture offers them a chance to profit from their together to mobilize more investment and increase labours and rural communities support a rewarding results on the ground – not only toward achieving life. To this end, IFAD’s programmes and projects Millennium Development Goal 1 of eradicating are guided by a dynamic vision in which small-scale extreme poverty and hunger, but also responding agriculture can respond to the growing demand to the challenge of feeding a global population that for food, while generating economic opportunities is expected to rise from 7 billion to 9 billion over for poor rural people. For a great number of small the next four decades. To meet that enormous farmers and livestock producers in developing challenge, agricultural production in developing countries, agriculture can provide a robust pathway countries will have to double from what it is out of poverty, as long as it is market-oriented, today. Smallholders, who manage the majority of environmentally sustainable, and resilient to risks, agricultural land in Asia and Africa and yet face the shocks and climate change. greatest risks on a range of environmental, technical and market issues, are critical to success. This vision is grounded in our belief that rural people can be powerful agents of change in their There is growing consensus that there must be communities and play crucial roles in overcoming wide-ranging and urgent action. This is the impetus rural poverty and hunger. behind IFAD’s vision. It offers us a roadmap to help developing countries move from mere poverty management to poverty eradication, and to help 10
  • 11. The new world of communications: Everyone has a roleUseful IFAD messages –– Rural children and youth account for a largeWhat you communicate is closely linked with what proportion of the population living in poverty,you do. However, underlying everyone’s work are the and young people represent a major assetmain issues that are at the core of IFAD’s mandate: for the prospects of rural economies and of Global poverty remains a massive and developing countries. predominantly rural phenomenon. –– Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities –– Seventy per cent of the developing world’s are disproportionately affected by poverty, 1.4 billion extremely poor people – about as a result of tenuous control over 1 billion – live in rural areas. natural resources and various forms of –– After rising to 1 billion in 2009, the number of marginalization, discrimination and exclusion. hungry people in the world is now estimated to be 925 million. Rural areas are rapidly changing – presenting new challenges for people who live there. Global food production will have to increase –– In many areas, the natural resource base 70 per cent by 2050 – and output in developing upon which agriculture and other rural countries will have to double – in order to feed the livelihoods depend is coming under 9 billion people who will inhabit the earth by then. increasing stress. –– Success in agriculture in the developing –– Climate change is already causing reduced world is the key to meeting global food water availability, increased temperatures, needs as the population grows and uncertain or shorter growing seasons, becomes more urbanized. diminishing arable land, and new pest and disease patterns. Smallholder farms in developing countries –– While increasing and more volatile global currently feed almost a third of the world’s food prices can bring profitable opportunities population, and they produce 80 per cent of the for small-scale farmers, they can also put food consumed in the developing world. pressure on those poor rural people who –– The world’s 500 million small farms support are net food buyers, with negative impact on about 2 billion people; they need long-term nutrition and on social welfare. investment in infrastructure such as roads, transport and information technology; Profound changes in agricultural markets are access to land and microfinance; and also bringing opportunity for many rural people. training and education. –– In particular, the growth of urban societies –– Smallholder farmers manage up to means a growing demand for high-value 80 per cent of the farmland in Africa and Asia. food, while markets themselves are extending their reach and becoming better organized. In most developing countries, rural women play a central role in agriculture and in rural economies. Agriculture is and will continue to be the main –– Women farmers tend to produce most of economic driver in rural economies. Success in the food that is consumed locally in rural agriculture remains a route out of poverty areas, despite the fact that in many areas for many rural people, as well as an important they have grossly inadequate access first step out of poverty for many others. to secure land tenure, inputs, credit, equipment and market opportunities. 11
  • 12. The new world of communications: Everyone has a role For agriculture to lead the way in further In terms of the value of IFAD’s work, the reducing rural poverty and meeting global food overarching messages are: security challenges, the ultimate aim must –– IFAD is a specialized United Nations be the development of smallholder farming agency and international financial institution systems that are: with more than 30 years of experience in –– Productive combating rural poverty. –– Integrated into markets –– Investing in IFAD brings results. The –– Environmentally sustainable success of our projects and approaches –– Resilient to risks, shocks and climate change. has been validated time and again by external evaluations. IFAD works with poor rural people to enable –– IFAD-supported projects work to them to grow and sell more food, increase their make a long-term difference and help incomes, and determine the direction of their lift people out of poverty. We work in own lives. difficult situations, including conflict- –– Since 1978, IFAD has invested more than affected areas, and with marginalized and US$14 billion in grants and low-interest disenfranchised populations. loans to developing countries, empowering –– IFAD seeks to influence policy at the national about 400 million people to break out and the international level for the benefit of poverty. of smallholders and the landless. We also work to build the capacity of the farmers At the programme and project level, IFAD is themselves to engage in policy processes, stepping up its efforts to: for example through the Farmers’ Forum. –– Enhance environmental sustainability and –– Partnership is the heart of our work. The resilience in small-scale agriculture. governments of Member States own and –– Promote win-win contractual arrangements implement the projects that we support. to help small agricultural producers seize We work hand in hand with poor rural people lower-risk opportunities in agricultural and their organizations, United Nations value chains. agencies, international financial institutions, –– Support the development of technologies NGOs and the private sector. for sustainable intensification of small-scale –– New solutions to the challenges facing agriculture. smallholders are knowledge-intensive. –– Increase the capacity of financial institutions IFAD is committed to developing innovations to provide a range of inclusive services to and sharing knowledge on rural poverty by poor rural people. strengthening our innovation and knowledge –– Promote the capabilities of rural women and management capacity. men, including young people. –– IFAD is committed to transparency and –– Capitalize on opportunities to use renewable accountability in all our programmes, energy sources at the farm and community as well as in our internal and external levels, and promote low-cost technologies communications efforts. using local resources to provide energy at the village level. 12
  • 13. Getting startedThe ‘key three’: Message, different audiences. Initiating a project that aims toaudience, budget encourage women’s groups to open bank savingsIn any communications endeavour, the first accounts would call for quite different messages forsteps are figuring out what you want to say, who different audiences. For example:needs to receive the message and how much For potential participants in the savings groups:money you can spend in the process. Avoid the Joining the savings group will help you savetemptation to hurriedly ‘throw something enough money to send your children to school.together’ when the need to get a message across For the bank manager: Helping our savingsemerges. Working through these steps will help group open accounts will add to your depositsyou clarify your purpose and will result in a more and develop long-term customer loyalty,useful end product. while demonstrating the bank’s commitment to the community.Clarify the message For a potential donor: A similar project resultedWhat do you want to say? What are you trying in women saving an average of xx per month,to accomplish? To start, make sure your idea and rates ofis consistent with IFAD’s corporate goals by secondary school Clarify the messageconsulting the list of main issues in the preceding enrolment among Identify the targetsection. If your idea fits in with any of those their daughters audienceconcepts, it is probably worth communicating. were xx per cent Prepare a budget(Communications Division staff can also help you higher than amongto identify and frame a message.) daughters of women who did not participate. With your contribution, we can extend thisDetermining precisely what you want to say is a success to more communities.crucial first step. It sounds obvious, but people oftenfail to clarify the main point, leading to messages Once you have pinpointed the appropriatethat are muddy or vague. It is helpful to write down audience, the next step is choosing the appropriatethe key message(s) or tell it to a colleague. If you media. Sometimes it is obvious – for instance,cannot explain it simply, you probably have not yearly financial results are always reported in theclarified it sufficiently. Some people use the ‘elevator Annual Report. For a major new partnership, amessage’ technique: The key message should be short press release is appropriate. To report asuccinct enough that you can explain it to someone major project success at an international meeting, aon an elevator ride. speech and a simple brochure might be called for. Using the variety of media available, and especiallyIdentify the target audience by exploiting Web2.0 channels, our messagesIFAD has an enormous range of potential can reach and influence countless people in moreaudiences, from poor rural participants in our diverse audiences than ever before.projects to heads of state. Communicationsare effective only if they reach the appropriateaudience. Ask yourself who is the person who canmake use of or act on your message. Within anyone issue, different messages are appropriate for 13
  • 14. Getting started Prepare a budget Your communications budget will help determine the means. Production costs add up quickly. Knowing your audience and message will help in determining how sophisticated a product you need. You will want to develop a precise budget that accounts for each step of the process – writing, editing, design, proofreading, printing and distribution (for a print product). Be as accurate as possible in estimating how many copies you will need, but avoid undercounting: It is a lot more expensive to print 3,000 copies twice than to print 6,000 copies once. Be sure to include a ‘distribution plan’ in the budget – shipping materials can be another costly line item. The most expensive product is the one left gathering dust on a shelf because there was no plan or budget for getting it to the intended audience. The distribution plan should also identify the audience for hard copy versus electronic distribution – you may find that an electronic publication will suffice for your audience, saving funds for another communications activity. For more details see the Graphic Design guidelines and Distributing IFAD products sections that follow. 14
  • 15. IntroductionPlease take a moment of your time to give usyour valuable feedback. Return your completedsurvey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you.2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 104. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the IFAD’s visual identity section
  • 16. IFAD’s visual identity
  • 17. IFAD’s visual identityPresenting IFAD in the best light message about our focus and determination.The old saying that there is only one chance That message is supported by the photographsto make a good first impression is as true for of our work, which put a powerful face on ruralorganizations as it is for individuals. IFAD’s poverty and demonstrate our compassion as wellpublished materials – in print, online, display and as our commitment to poor rural people.broadcast formats – speak for the organizationjust as staff members do. Research confirms that The guidelines in this section cover corporatea clear and consistent identity helps build and identity, graphic design style, photography,maintain an organization’s reputation. Regularly and maps and Geographic Information System.reinforced graphic symbols can convey and All staff members play an important role inunderscore institutional strengths. bringing IFAD’s cohesive identity to life in all communications in all formats. Following theIFAD’s consistent image, supported by our strong, guidelines will also help you to communicateclear and simple graphic style, also sends a your message in a more professional manner.1 J Corporate identity guidelinesVisual identity policyThe power of a strong visual identity can only berealized through consistent application over time,so IFAD policy requires that the official logotypeis the only sanctioned symbol for use across theorganization. No other symbols or marks may beused in conjunction with the official IFAD visualidentity or in place of it.IFAD’s logo Enabling poor rural peopleThe IFAD logo, or symbol, is the core elementof our visual identity. It should be seen on every toEconomic Co-operationpoverty overcome and Development represent IFAD’s three founders (Organisation forproduct that comes out of IFAD, from letterheads [OECD], Organization of the Petroleum Exportingto job advertisements to reports to merchandise Countries [OPEC] and developing countries),to the website. which contribute symbolically to the growth of the grain.The IFAD logo, used since the organization’sfounding, is a pictogram aimed at projecting the The symbol is incorporated with the name toimage of international cooperation for agricultural form the IFAD logotype. The IFAD logotype isdevelopment. It comprises a stylized ear of provided in various formats, appropriate forgrain supported by three stalks. The stalks specific usage needs.1 2 3 4 A - 1Corporate identity guidelines
  • 18. IFAD’s visual identity The IFAD logotype must always be reproduced Recommended size from a digital master reference, available from the Consistency in the size of the logotype is important Graphic Design Services Unit. The file is available in when producing communications. Here are the EPS, GIF and JPEG format. Ensure the appropriate recommended sizes for reproduction in the DL artwork format is used. format and across the various A series formats: –– DL - logo height: 13 mm File formats: –– A5 - logo height: 13 mm –– EPS: all professionally printed applications –– A4 - logo height: 13 mm –– GIF: online usage –– A3 - logo height: 22 mm –– JPEG: desktop programmes The logotype must be clearly visible and To further clarify IFAD’s mission, a secondary reproduced consistently. For this reason, the logo element, the IFAD tag line – ‘Enabling poor rural can never be reproduced smaller than 13 mm. people to overcome poverty’ – has been added. The EPS files containing the logotype guarantees To allow flexibility when applying the IFAD logotype the production integrity of the logo when it is scaled to communication materials of differing formats and up or down in size and helps to avoid distortion in sizes, three variations on the arrangement of the the logo proportions. components are available. Language versions The logotype is available in each of the four official IFAD languages – Arabic, English, French and Spanish. A version is also available that Logo Name incorporates the tagline in all four languages in a single arrangement. Tagline Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty 13 mm Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty Font size: 8 pt 1 2 3 4 A - 2 Corporate identity guidelines
  • 19. IFAD’s visual identity Enabling poor rural people to overcome povertyEnabling poor rural peopleto overcome poverty Oeuvrer pour que les populations rurales pauvres se libèrent de la pauvretéOeuvrer pour que lespopulations rurales pauvresse libèrent de la pauvreté Dar a la población rural pobre la oportunidad de salir de la pobrezaDar a la población ruralpobre la oportunidadde salir de la pobreza Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty Oeuvrer pour que les populations rurales pauvres se libèrent de la pauvreté Dar a la población rural pobre la oportunidad de salir de la pobreza1 2 3 4 A - 3Corporate identity guidelines
  • 20. IFAD’s visual identity Colour Surrounding space requirements The logotype may only be reproduced as: To maximize its visual presence the logotype –– 100% black requires a surrounding area clear of any graphic –– symbol 50% black and logotype 100% black element or text. This clear space should always be –– reversed as 100% white from any equal to the width of the logo. field/background Logo When choosing text and background colour for width an information product, it is important to choose Logo colours that will project the information clearly and width effectively and will complement the chosen images. Also important is good contrast between text and background colour. Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty Logo width Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty Integrating partner logos The IFAD logo can be used in conjunction with another logo or emblem to suggest an association Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty between IFAD and other organizations, projects or initiatives. When the logo is used with other logos or emblems, sufficient space must be left around the IFAD logo to clearly demonstrate it as a separate and distinct organization. Web standards Enabling poor rural people The IFAD logotype must appear on all IFAD to overcome poverty web pages. A standardized web banner allows consistent branding across all IFAD websites. Contact Mark Forrest, Manager, Graphic Design Services,The IFAD logo Communications Divisionis the core element e-mail:  ; ;of our visual identity. Tel: +39 06 5459 2216It should be seenon every productthat comes out of IFAD. 1 2 3 4 A - 4 Corporate identity guidelines
  • 21. IFAD’s visual identity2 J Graphic design guidelinesTypography In-house communicationsIFAD’s typographic style is strong, clear and simple. For Microsoft users, Arial, Times New Roman andDistinctive, well-designed typography strengthens Verdana are the fonts used for materials producedand adds character to our communications. in-house (such as letters, memorandums, faxes). However, there are additional typefaces and computerPrint and display communications fonts packaged with Microsoft and Apple softwareFor these types of communications, the applications and many PostScript computer printersITC Giovanni and Helvetica Neue font families have that may also be used for internal communications.been chosen as the primary typefaces. The twotypefaces allow for flexibility and creative expression Introductory text, paragraphs and quotations can bein text and display. Their consistent and extensive highlighted to serve as a summary of the content oruse enhances and builds the IFAD identity and is an key messages.integral part of the corporate visual identity. Body copy is most legible and visually pleasing when it is justified left and unjustified right. Wherever possible, avoid justifying text (aligningITC Giovanni it to the margins on the right and the left).ITC Giovanni italic Unnecessary graphic elements should beITC Giovanni avoided as they distract from the message. Avoid typographic clutter.ITC Giovanni bold italic Allowing sufficient white or clear space enablesHelvetica Neue light important text to stand out on the page.Helvetica Neue light italic Times New RomanHelvetica Neue bold Times New Roman italicHelvetica Neue bold italic Times New Roman Bold Times New Roman Bold italic Arial regular Arial italic Arial bold Arial bold italic Verdana regular Verdana italic Verdana bold Verdana bold italic1 2 3 4 A - 5 Graphic design guidelines
  • 22. IFAD’s visual identity Basic stationery items Word templates for the following IFAD stationery and templates items can be accessed from the style menus in Basic stationery items have been carefully Microsoft Word installed on IFAD computers or from developed to create a cohesive identity system. : Templates are designed to enable consistent, –– Letterheads time-efficient and economical in-house and –– Memorandums out-sourced production. Typing formats are an –– Faxes integral part of their design. –– Back-to-office reports 1 2 3 4 A - 6 Graphic design guidelines
  • 23. IFAD’s visual identity1 2 3 4 A - 7 Graphic design guidelines
  • 24. IFAD’s visual identity Additionally, artwork templates have been –– Business cards developed for many corporate and promotional print Headquarters requests can also be made materials. The following templates are available by through divisional front offices directly to the request from Graphic Design Services: print shop. Regional offices can obtain artwork from Graphic Design Services and cards can be printed either at headquarters or by the regional offices themselves. –– Envelopes and corporate folders –– Compliments slips –– Invitation cards 1 2 3 4 A - 8 Graphic design guidelines
  • 25. IFAD’s visual identity1 2 3 4 A - 9 Graphic design guidelines
  • 26. IFAD’s visual identity –– Notepads –– Workshop agendas –– Press releases –– Certificates –– Badges –– Posters 1 2 3 4 A - 10 Graphic design guidelines
  • 27. IFAD’s visual identity1 2 3 4 A - 11 Graphic design guidelines
  • 28. IFAD’s visual identity –– Publications and flyers The logotype variations allow for creative and IFAD uses a variety of templates for publications versatile layout and type alignment solutions. and factsheets. Guidance and master artwork The IFAD logotype and the office address should is available from Graphic Design Services. appear on the back of multipage publications. The IFAD logotype must appear on the front, Consider whether your publication requires preferably at the upper left corner, of all printed an ISBN or ISSN number. (See Distributing IFAD communications. Alternatively it can be at the products for guidance.) lower right of the page. 1 2 3 4 A - 12 Graphic design guidelines
  • 29. IFAD’s visual identity1 2 3 4 A - 13 Graphic design guidelines
  • 30. IFAD’s visual identity –– Promotional items Below are acceptable uses of the IFAD visual identity system on merchandise and branded products. The preferred colours for products displaying the IFAD logotype are white, grey or black. 1 2 3 4 A - 14 Graphic design guidelines
  • 31. IFAD’s visual identity1 2 3 4 A - 15 Graphic design guidelines
  • 32. IFAD’s visual identity –– PowerPoint presentations –– Advertisements A template has been produced to ensure The design, size and format of advertisements visual consistency, and it should be used for all should be determined by the publication presentations. Images should reflect our work in which they appear and the amount of and present people with dignity and integrity. information to be communicated. Copy should (See Using visual aids .) be as concise as possible and set in upper and lower case, justified on the left and ragged on the right. 1 2 3 4 A - 16 Graphic design guidelines
  • 33. IFAD’s visual identityTips on typography and Copy on images. Setting text on an image caneffective design make it difficult to read. The background mustPrint materials need to be legible and visually always be even in tone and allow good contrast;interesting to draw in the reader. Although it it can be retouched if impossible to design something that is Design. Effective and accessible designaccessible to everyone, we must aim to make is clean, simple and uncluttered with goodour communications appeal to as many people visual possible while also being creative and visuallydistinctive. We recommend the following: Type size. Minimum type size for body copy Tips on hiring a graphic designer is 11 points. However, smaller typefaces are Before you start to talk with designers, determine permissible if appropriate for a targeted audience. the scope of the work: Capital letters. These are harder to read than Assess your objectives, target audiences lowercase letters, so it is best to minimize their use. and the important messages you wish to Italics. They are also more difficult to read, communicate. (For advice, see Planning especially for partially sighted people, and distribution for print products .) should be used only for foreign terms. Determine how much text you have (in words) For adding emphasis, use bold type or a and how elaborate a publication you want or strong colour. need, based on the audience and the purpose. Leading. This is the vertical space between Will a simple text document suffice, or do you one line of type and the next from baseline to need to illustrate the text with photographs, baseline. If leading is too wide or too narrow, charts and other art? What about colours? the text is difficult to read. As a basic rule, the Keep in mind that the more elaborate a leading should be a minimum of 2 point sizes publication, the higher the cost. larger than the type size. Determine an appropriate budget and set aside Word spacing, letter spacing and horizontal funds to engage the designer. The amount will scaling. Changing the space between letters depend on the scope and extent of the work or words and altering the proportions of the and on the designer’s experience and skill as letters (horizontal scaling) should be avoided, as well as the firm’s size and reputation – a one- too little or too much space between letters or person freelance shop is usually less expensive words can make text illegible. than a full-service firm. Design development with Alignment. The most legible text is aligned at the a well-known company can be expensive. left margin, and left ragged or unjustified to the Identify and meet with appropriate designers. margin on the right. Fully justifying text (aligning it Ask yourself the following questions: to the margins on the left and the right) results in –– Can they show you high-quality, relevant horizontal scaling, which is hard to read. examples of their work? Contrast. There should always be high tonal –– Do they have good graphic communication contrast between the text and the background development and production experience? it is printed on. Contrast is greatest in –– Are they familiar with international combinations of dark and pale colours. development work? Have they produced Reversing out copy. This is text in which documents in foreign languages? light letters appear on a dark background. –– Do they have the time and resources to The background colour should be as dark as complete your task satisfactorily? possible. White copy reversed out of a very dark colour or black is the most legible. Careful attention should be paid to type size and light weights of type to ensure copy is always legible.1 2 3 4 A - 17 Graphic design guidelines
  • 34. IFAD’s visual identity After choosing a designer, develop a clear Tips on printing agreement for the performance of work. This Evaluate whether a document really needs to should detail the budget and exactly what it be printed. Could the information be distributed includes, all deliverables, scheduled production digitally? (See Print versus electronic distribution .) landmarks and deadlines. Be clear about how If printing is necessary, then think green when many proofs it includes and additional charges sourcing printing companies and paper stocks – for changes. Making significant changes paper is now available that is from 50 to during production is expensive; charges 100 per cent recycled, unbleached and accumulate rapidly. uncoated. For printing, non-toxic water-based Finalize all text before beginning artwork. inks are also available. Be open to new ideas – graphic designers can If you are printing smaller quantities, consider be highly creative and provide unexpected digital printing as an economic alternative. solutions that will improve the distinctiveness You can also save paper by using standard and appeal of a project. press sheet sizes and synchronizing projects that use the same paper stock. Note: The Communications Division maintains a list of recommended local printing companies. Contact Mark Forrest, Manager, Graphic Design Services, Communications Division e-mail:  ; ; Tel: +39 06 5459 2216 1 2 3 4 A - 18 Graphic design guidelines
  • 35. IFAD’s visual identity3 J Photography at IFADThe role of photography Documentary, The main rule of IFADin communications showing poor rural photography is toFrom the minute we wake up in the morning we are women and men in safeguard people’sbombarded with images – the list is endless. A few our project areas. dignity and humanityexamples are smartphones, the internet, newspapers, These photographs while creating a windowtelevision and billboards. Images are used to sell help to draw the into their lives.products, sway public opinion and report news audience into ourevents. They shrink borders and globalize culture. publications andImages are effective because they capture people’s displays, and to illustrate our projects.attention and leave a lasting impression. Abstract, for graphic design elements in publications and displays, such as close-upFor IFAD, images are a tool for raising global pictures of grain.awareness of rural poverty and how we fight it. Portraits, showing Governing CouncilPhotography is essential to our work because of its sessions, loan signings, high-profile meetingsinherent role in presenting information and evoking and IFAD-sponsored emotional response from readers. It is used asan advocacy tool to bring to life poor rural peopleand to draw attention to initiatives that help them.The types of photographs we use are:1 2 3 4 A - 19 Photography at IFAD
  • 36. IFAD’s visual identity IFAD’s photography policy –– Food security, nutrition and food prices The main rule of IFAD photography is to safeguard –– Food production and processing people’s dignity and humanity while creating a –– Gender equality and women’s empowerment window into their lives. The issues that concern –– Water and land management poor rural people must be at the forefront of our –– Climate change mitigation advocacy work. The photographs we commission –– Rural financing and microcredit must focus principally on them, not on IFAD. –– Young people and employment, including The photographs must always: young entrepreneurs –– Portray subjects with dignity and humanity, –– Rural infrastructure never as objects of pity –– Local and global markets through value –– Increase awareness of pro-poor issues as chain enhancement defined by poor rural people –– Training, education and literacy –– Help persuade donors and the private sector to –– Anti-desertification and reforestation invest in poverty reduction –– Early disaster recovery –– Avoid harming, exploiting or endangering the –– Community development subjects or the groups they represent –– Innovation and improved technologies –– Be of high technical quality (ideally taken by –– Migration to urban areas and return to accomplished professional photographers) rural areas. –– Contain complete caption information. It is crucial to exercise care when publishing or Accessing photographs: Using the distributing images of vulnerable people or groups. IFAD Image Bank The guiding principle should be ‘do no harm’. The Image Bank is a tool for If they do not want to be photographed, their the storage and retrieval of the IFAD photographic wishes must be respected. Photographs of children, collection. Additions to the collection, which especially those showing them working, should currently numbers over 14,000 images, are made not be the main subject. It is also important not regularly. The colour photograph collection dates to offend any political, social or cultural group or from 1986. appear to align IFAD with any such group. This calls for sensitivity in all picture choices. What messages The photo editor manages the Image Bank and are ‘appropriate’ depends on the context in which can edit and recommend appropriate images for photographs are used. Publishing photographs out use in-house or for partner institutions. Most of of context or using misleading content in connection the photographs have been taken by professional with them is not acceptable. photographers. However, amateur work is acceptable if it meets high standards, and if the Note: Whenever possible, verbal consent should be photographer is known to IFAD and has granted obtained from the person being photographed. IFAD unconditional licence release. IFAD photographs are distributed free to United Nations organizations, government agencies, Themes for photograph coverage NGOs and development organizations dedicated At the core of IFAD’s work are a number of themes to agriculture and rural development. that are frequently addressed in publications and presentations. These make a useful working Users must register with the IFAD Image Bank, framework and should always be explored for story and from the site they can make requests to and photographic opportunities. They include: download and publish photographs. The photo editor grants permission, after ensuring that their use is non-commercial and is consistent 1 2 3 4 A - 20 Photography at IFAD
  • 37. IFAD’s visual identitywith IFAD’s usage standards. Exceptions for Can I have more than one lightbox?commercial use are made for scholastic use and Yes. If you want to create a new lightbox, clickfor scientific publications. on ‘View contents’ of your light box, then select ‘Manage lightboxes’ at the top of your lightbox Note: Whenever an IFAD photograph is page. You will have the option to add, rename, published, credit must be given to IFAD and the copy, delete or share your lightboxes. You can photographer, and a copy of the publication must also quickly create more lightboxes by clicking be sent to the photo editor. on the little arrow next to ‘My lightbox’ and entering a new name in ‘Create new’. Remember to always create and select the appropriateHow to use the Image Bank: FAQs lightbox before saving any images. Can you just send me the pictures? Why is my search bringing up No – because the Image Bank is a safer and unrelated images? more efficient way to store, display and distribute The search function is set to pick up both images to staff and development partners. Once keywords and words found in the caption field. you get accustomed to using it, you will see that If you want to restrict your search to the keyword the Image Bank helps you stay organized, saves field, you can either you time and keeps heavy image files off your select a keyword field The Image Bank computer and out of your e-mail inbox. from a searched is a tool for the storage How do I register? image (they are and retrieval of the IFAD Go to and click on all hyperlinked) or photographic collection ‘Register’ at the upper right-hand corner of put the word in the and holds more than the screen and fill in the short form. If you keyword field in 14,000 photographs. are an IFAD staff member, you do not need advanced search. to register but simply log in with your LAN ID Do I need to download images to share and password. with my colleagues and contacts? How do I log in? No. You can share a lightbox with IFAD staff and Click on ‘Log in’ at the upper right-hand corner of other registered users. To do this, log in, save the screen. Type in your username and password. images to the preferred lightbox, click on ‘View What is a lightbox? contents’ of your lightbox, then click on ‘Manage A ‘lightbox’ is a way of organizing a collection lightboxes’. You will be able to share them with of viewable images that you can share with other registered users by selecting ‘Share’, colleagues or save for future use. In the past, it click on ‘Add users’, fill in one or more fields was a lighted box or tabletop on which slides and click on ‘Find’. Select the user and click on and negatives were spread out for viewing. ‘Add selected users’. You can also grant ‘Edit’ How do I find and save images? privileges to the user so they can add or delete Once you are logged in, you can either browse images in the lightbox. the collection or search by keyword. To search, Can I upload my own photographs type a keyword in the search box, and a of IFAD projects? ‘word suggest’ will appear offering words and Yes. Please send a message to the Image Bank word combinations to help with your search. administrator through the ‘Contact us’ link on the Remember to set the ‘Current filter’ on the left left hand of your screen, requesting permission side of the screen to the type of photograph you to upload photographs. want before beginning your search. I saved images to my lightbox but they have If you want to save images in a group, you can gone missing. What happened? select them by clicking on ‘Add to my lightbox’. You probably saved images without logging The image will automatically be saved to ‘My in. Once you are logged in, your work is lightbox’ with the tab on the left side of the screen. automatically saved.1 2 3 4 A - 21 Photography at IFAD
  • 38. IFAD’s visual identity Is there any way to remove the manager, regional economist and local project staff. IFAD watermark? Clear objectives and deliverables should guide each Yes. You need to save images in your lightbox assignment. If the photo mission is part of a bigger and then request download permission. project, ideas on story content, approach, mood Once you receive a message that your request and audience should be thoroughly discussed has been approved you can download unmarked with colleagues. Good feedback will help provide images to your desktop. the terms of reference. Things to think about are: Is there a charge for publishing an Whether the chosen project is a good IFAD image? candidate for photography. Projects IFAD photographs are distributed free to United that involve growing crops or selling products Nations organizations, government agencies, in markets, for instance, are usually NGOs and development organizations dedicated more photogenic than those that primarily to agriculture and rural development. involve meetings. The time of year and the growing cycle. Note: When making a request to download images, Planting and harvesting are more photogenic always include the reason for the request, the name than fallow fields. and type of publication, and the subject of the The stage of the project. The middle and article or chapter. later stages often have more to show than the beginning. This research should result in several story ideas Acquiring photographs: Organizing or angles to guide the photographer’s work. a photo mission The photographer uses this information as a IFAD regularly acquires new digital images to starting point and supplements it with additional reflect our current priorities, projects and issues research before going out to the field. The photo that concern poor rural people. Images are usually editor also provides background information and acquired from photo missions that involve a basic field contacts. professional photographer visiting and documenting projects, or contracted photographers performing Hiring a photographer typical photojournalistic functions. These include Photography requires vision, skill, training, sensitivity researching and delivering story options and and experience. Like many creative professions, providing complete photo essays along with images photography is subjective, and no two people that give an overview of project activities in the will approach a subject the same way. The photo area. These projects are generally well under editor reviews the work and background of way or near closing so the images can capture potential photographers and interviews them for the well-developed activities and structures. assignment. Effort is made to hire photographers from or based in developing countries. Sometimes Researching the story amateurs are used, but professional photographers The first step in the photo mission is researching should be hired for project photography. the story. This is usually done by the photo editor, sometimes in collaboration with the editorial, web The photo editor can offer advice before hiring a or video teams as well as the country programme photographer and drawing up terms of reference, but remember the following: Establish a budget. Set aside funds to hire a professional photographer. The amount will depend on the scope of the work; it will be comparable to hiring an international consultant. 1 2 3 4 A - 22 Photography at IFAD
  • 39. IFAD’s visual identity Assess photographers. Consult with the photo Licensing editor to identify one or more photographers Freelance photographers are considered who have professional experience in the independent contractors. They automatically international development and/or humanitarian own the copyright to their photographs, which field, and at least three years of experience are their intellectual property, unless there is a working with print and digital media. Review contract stating the contrary. IFAD’s right to use their work to make sure their style fits your the photographs in perpetuity is guaranteed by communications objectives (remember that a contract while allowing the photographer to promoting dignity and respect is fundamental). retain ownership and sell them. The contract also Interview them to assess their skills, approach specifies that the photographs cannot be used in and flexibility to deal with potentially difficult a way that contradicts the best interests of poor circumstances, and to identify any special people and IFAD. requirements or limitations. Discuss the scope of work. Have a detailed Developing the terms of reference and contract conversation with the photographer about the Based on the information collected while scope of the work. Specify the communications researching the story and discussing the scope objectives and identify a focal person on the of work with the photographer, the next step is to ground who will work directly with them. prepare the terms of reference. This is done either Be clear about the type of photographs you need, by or in collaboration with the photo editor. At a describe specific projects to be photographed, minimum, the terms of reference must include: and discuss frankly any difficulties that might –– The number of days, broken down by days for be encountered. IFAD photographs should travel, the mission itself and post-production work. be suitable for all types of print and electronic –– An itinerary showing the specific activities to be products (banners, posters, publications, covered, how many days are to be spent at each reports, the website), but if you know in advance location and the travel time between sites. about specific applications for them, let the –– A preliminary shot list and approximate number photographer know. Ask for a mix of vertical and of photographs expected. horizontal shots. Agree on the fee, timing, locations. Be clear The Human Resources Division uses the terms of about how many days the fee covers, what reference to draw up the contract. In addition to it includes (travel, post-production) and the fee, a fixed amount is included for expenses how many projects or locations you need based on the United Nations daily subsistence to be photographed. allowance for the location. The hiring officer Provide a preliminary shot list. Although it will provide the licensing rights agreement to is impossible to know everything about the the photographer with the terms of reference project, try to provide a shot list of the images before the assignment begins. The photographer you expect and the quantity. This will make the must sign and return it before submitting the work easier for everyone and will help to avoid photographs. Without a signed licensing rights misunderstandings later. agreement, the photographs will not be accepted and the photographer will not be paid.1 2 3 4 A - 23 Photography at IFAD
  • 40. IFAD’s visual identity Travel details Cropping images Medical certificate and insurance. Cropping images to tighten the composition, Photographers are required to submit a medical add impact or exclude distracting elements certificate before a contract can be prepared. is acceptable. Cropping that changes the They are medically insured while under contract context and main focus of the photograph is not with IFAD, as per standard practice. acceptable. Although photographs can serve as Visas. Photographers are responsible for design elements, the content and message of the acquiring their own travel visas. The photo editor photograph should remain intact. can provide an official letter stating their purpose in the country. Manipulating digital images Travel advance. At the discretion of the photo Digital images are downloaded onto a computer editor, a travel advance can be provided after and can be transformed in many ways. It is the photographer has signed the contract. impossible to guarantee that a digital photograph is Security clearance. For all official travel, the original. To retain authenticity and truthfulness, photographers must obtain a travel security IFAD does not manipulate digital images, except clearance from the United Nations Department of for occasional removal of product labels or other Safety and Security through the Travel Request elements such as cigarettes or plastic bags. Information Processing (TRIP) system. For more information, contact: Photo credits Security problems while travelling. If a Photographs are automatically protected by photographer feels at serious risk during the copyright and the photographer must be given mission, they should contact the photo editor to credit when a photograph is used. Accurate change or cancel the mission. crediting of photographs also aids in identifying and accessing them for future use. Published IFAD Captioning photographs photographs must be credited to deter copyright Photographers must provide captions for all infringement and give due credit to both IFAD and photographs. Captions should: the photographer. The credit format is: ©IFAD/ –– provide details beyond what can be seen photographer’s full name. If it is not possible to put in the photograph the credit directly next to the photograph, it should –– be informative, interesting and engaging be inserted on the last page of the publication, or –– include the first and last names of subjects a hyperlink should be made to the IFAD website or –– include the date and location, even Image Bank. if approximate –– include quotes from subjects, if possible, as they make the story more captivating. 1 2 3 4 A - 24 Photography at IFAD
  • 41. IFAD’s visual identityPhotographer guidelines for Images to includephoto missions Photographs of people going about their dailyThis section can be distributed to photographers lives, filling one quarter to one third of the a separate document. These shots should be natural, not posed. (See themes for photograph coverage above.)Technical guidelines A balance of women and men working side by side. First and foremost, always depict poor rural Group shots of training sessions and people with dignity and respect. IFAD does not meetings (farmers’ groups, women’s groups, use ‘shocking’ photographs or exploit people’s credit cooperatives). suffering. Try to show people’s strength and pride. Vertical close-ups (head and shoulders) of Discuss what you need to see with your field attractive or characteristic local individuals. contact person before you get started as well as These photographs should be both ‘head any limitations or conditions. (If you have been on’ and ‘three quarters’ (semi-profile). hired by the IFAD photo editor, you will have terms Include photographs of the subject looking of reference that include a detailed shot list.) into the camera. Photograph subjects as they are engaged in Landscape photographs with farmers and/ an activity or going about their daily business, or livestock; try to avoid excessive landscapes not simply standing in front of the camera. without a human element of significant size. Portraits should include the person’s Close-ups of livestock and crops/produce, environment and should be taken in the context such as grain, plants and seedlings, for general of work or daily life. illustrative purposes. Close-ups of hands Keep project vehicles and staff out of the holding harvest, farming tools or money frame unless they serve a specific purpose in (to illustrate credit). the photograph. Pictures that give context to the country/society If your needs are not being met, tell the project in which the project is situated, such as the land staff immediately. (Staff facilitating your visit (dry or rainfed), markets, group gatherings or are experienced in organizing technical visits other situational or social aspects. but may not be practised in spotting good More than one option for each subject where photographic opportunities.) possible. And sufficient ‘clean’ space must be Make an effort to photograph in the early provided for incorporating headlines or text. morning or late afternoon, to avoid harsh Pictures of children should be avoided lighting. Communicate this requirement to (especially working) except in specific contexts the project staff so they can be available at such as schools, homes or health centres. appropriate times. If you see an interesting situation at the ‘wrong’ time of day, try to return Captioning basics later or early the next morning. Make notes on all photographs taken during the Be careful when photographing people wearing mission. Keep in mind who, when, where, what, sun hats or visors to avoid underexposing why and how: their eyes/faces. Who are the people photographed, when When photographing people or animals, avoid and where? This must include full name shooting down on them, which makes them (when possible, have the subjects write their appear short and squat. name in capital letters), age, family size, Avoid photographing people wearing marketing occupation and connection to the project. emblems (Nike, Coca-Cola) or smoking cigarettes. What are the subjects doing in the photograph? Remove all added features that will appear in How have they benefited from the photographs such as date or time. IFAD-supported project? Why are the subjects in need of financial or other assistance? How will the subjects carry on improving their lives?1 2 3 4 A - 25 Photography at IFAD
  • 42. IFAD’s visual identity Additional captioning guidelines Minimum technical parameters for digital files Quotes and personal stories are important. –– TIFF, JPEG, PSD or RAW format They must be used with names. –– 300 dpi Names of locations are essential (even if it is –– Expandable to 35 megabytes (for amateur the nearest village). photographers, exceptions are made allowing Give additional background information 4 megabytes) describing problems and solutions wherever –– 365 mm x 245 mm possible. Elements such as names of crops, seedlings, tools, irrigation methods, handicraft items and vaccinations are important. Contact Use travel time with the project staff to check Susan Beccio, Photo Editor, spelling of proper names and geographical Communications Division locations. Project staff can be helpful in e-mail:  Tel: +39 06 5459 2479 ; providing additional information for captions. Labelling image files Image files should be numbered (no text should Example of a contract for release be used in the file name) and captions should and licence to use photographs be embedded as metadata using basic Adobe Photoshop XMP format as follows: I hereby declare myself to be the owner of the –– Document title: Country, name of project, copyright of the attached photograph(s) and month, year grant to the International Fund for Agricultural –– Author: Photographer’s full name Development (IFAD), its successor(s), assignee(s), –– Description: Caption that includes proper licencee(s) and anyone acting with IFAD’s consent, names, name of village, action, some a non-exclusive, free of charge, perpetual licence background information to use the attached photograph(s), singularly or in –– Description writer: Photographer’s full name conjunction with other photographs, for publishing, –– Keywords: At least five keywords to describe promotion, display or internet use throughout the photograph world, by incorporating them in all domestic and –– Copyright status: Copyrighted foreign publications, promotional campaigns, or for –– Copyright notice: ©IFAD/Photographer’s full name other business purposes. –– Copyright info URL: Further, I hereby agree to release and hold harmless IFAD and any of its staff from and against any claims, damage or liability arising from or related to the use or reproduction of the photographs, by IFAD or by third parties, with or without IFAD’s consent, and I agree to be bound by the above conditions. Signed ____________________________ Date ______________________________ 1 2 3 4 A - 26 Photography at IFAD
  • 43. IFAD’s visual identity4 J Maps and Geographic Information SystemIFAD has a detailed geospatial database covering Expanding GIS capabilitiesall of our ongoing and closed activities. Project area IFAD is keen to extend its GIS capabilities to monitormaps for all IFAD-funded projects and programmes project impact. We encourage country programmeare also available on the website. managers and field staff to contribute relevant Want to show the results GIS information to the and outcome of yourIFAD map portfolio corporate database. project? Map it using GIS.The Geographic Information System (GIS) Unitproduces maps for: For example, use GIS to show:–– Country strategic opportunities Activities at the project level. If your project programmes (COSOPs) has a GIS component, please inform staff–– President’s reports about IFAD’s GIS service and ask them to–– Design documents contact us. This will ensure that GIS-related–– Evaluation reports (country programme, data produced at the project level are included interim, mid-term, completion) in the corporate geospatial database.–– Thematic reports IFAD activities on Google Maps. IFAD–– Website activities are also present on Google Maps at–– Print publications–– PowerPoint presentations–– Multimedia products–– Exhibits–– Posters1 2 3 4 A - 27 Maps and Geographic Information System
  • 44. IFAD’s visual identity How to request a map –– President and/or senior management travel Complete the map request form at http://intradev/ –– Publication form/map/index.asp. Please send your request –– PowerPoint presentation 20 days before your deadline. Producing maps –– Multimedia presentation requires time, and requests are dealt with on a –– Poster first-come, first-served basis. –– Exhibit –– Website For each map, please indicate: What language(s) is required. Country and region: If you have a description of The specific type of information needed the area, such as a list of provinces or districts, on the map, such as towns, villages, please provide this information. If you do not roads, rivers, markets, project activities, have this information but require it, please say so. household concentration. What the map is required for, such as: –– A document (COSOP, President’s report, Note: If you are not sure what you require, please design document, country programme consult with the GIS Assistant. evaluation, interim evaluation, mid-term review, completion evaluation) 1 2 3 4 A - 28 Maps and Geographic Information System
  • 45. IFAD’s visual identitySamples of maps produced by the unit–– Country offices–– Rwanda thematic map–– Project area map–– Thematic mapContactSophie De Vos, GIS Assistant,Communications Divisione-mail: ; Tel: +39 06 5459 2870  1 2 3 4 A - 29 Maps and Geographic Information System
  • 46. IFAD’s visual identity Please take a moment of your time to give us your valuable feedback. Return your completed survey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, 1. Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you. 2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No 3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 10 4. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the IFAD’s visual identity section
  • 47. Writing and publishing
  • 48. Writing and publishingThe importance of clear, “Also important are logical sequencing of the actionssimple writing and coordination among all the participants.”While speeding through the morning e-mail,who has not been forced into slow motion by a In a ‘knowledge organization’ like IFAD, wheresentence like this: employees are valued for the output of their minds,“It is however also worth noting the crucial the ability to write clearly is probably listed near theimportance of effective and timely sequencing of top of almost every job description. No matter howactivities as well as the potentially negative impact creative your ideas, they will not go anywhere if youthat the two diverse processes can have on each cannot communicate them.other if separate and unique initiatives are notcoordinated amongst all the various actors involved.” Clear, simple and direct writing saves time and money, prevents errors and helps others do theirThe drag on your brain feels almost physical as you work. Applying the tips in this section – on usingstop to deconstruct the meaning word by word. plain language, avoiding jargon, and editing andYou would already be onto the next e-mail if the proofreading your work – will make your writing moreauthor had simply written: accessible. And it will still be every bit as substantive.1 J Plain language guidelinesPlain language –– Use simpler synonymsPlain language makes a text clearer and more Say facts, details instead of particularsreadable. It does not reduce the complexity or the Say use instead of utilizesubstance of the topic. –– Avoid jargon in texts intended for general audiencesUse plain words –– Use technical terminology appropriately in–– Replace abstract language with concrete words technical materials, and define specialized terms–– Avoid stringing together or overusing words or include a glossary such as amenities, aspects, concepts, devices, –– Avoid unnecessarily formal language and elements, facilities, factors, functions, inputs, ‘officialese’ or ‘bureaucratese’ operations, outputs, processes, resources, –– Be consistent in use of terms sectors, structures, systems, variables –– Use gender-neutral language –– Minimize use of acronyms and abbreviations Note: See The A to Z of Alternative Words at: –– Minimize use of Latin words and phrases. and chapter 2 of the Oxford Guide to Plain English1 2 3 4 B - 1Language guidelines
  • 49. Writing and publishing Use the active voice and action verbs Use assertions rather than negations: Use the active voice rather than the passive, and A project proposal will be approved only if it name the agent(s) carrying out the action(s): meets the following criteria… The Executive Board [the agent] instead of approved [active voice] the grant proposal A project proposal will not be approved unless it in December 2004. meets the following criteria… instead of Put parallel ideas in parallel grammatical form: The grant proposal was approved in December The main objectives of the regional 2004. strategy are: –– empowering poor rural people See section 3 for more details. –– enabling poor rural women and men to take instead of advantage of market opportunities More details are provided in section 3. –– promoting policy dialogue –– developing partnerships and coalitions Use verbs in place of nouns formed from verbs –– learning from experience and disseminating –– Evaluate instead of carry out an evaluation of knowledge –– Consider instead of give consideration to instead of –– Solve instead of provide a solution to The main objectives of the regional strategy are: Revise overly long or confusing sentences –– empowerment of poor rural people Aim for an average sentence length of –– enable poor rural women and men to 20 to 25 words. take advantage of market opportunities Focus on one idea in each sentence. –– promoting policy dialogue Eliminate superfluous words and phrases, –– the development of partnerships such as moreover and thus, and remove and coalitions unnecessary preambles. –– to learn from experience and Clarify ambiguous wording and constructions to disseminate knowledge Use only one dependent clause in a sentence (a dependent clause does not express a Avoid using modifiers such as: complete thought [it sounds incomplete] and it –– ‘Key’ role cannot stand alone as a sentence). –– ‘In-depth’ assessment –– ‘Active’ participation Note: Often dependent clauses begin with words such –– ‘Proactive’ engagement as after, although, as, because, before, if, in order to, –– ‘Overall’ goal since, though, unless, until, when, whether and while. –– ‘Intensive’ training –– ‘A broad range of’... –– ‘Closely’ examining –– ‘Local’ community –– ‘Very’ anything 1 2 3 4 B - 2 Language guidelines
  • 50. Writing and publishingCut out obvious or implied statements Resources Eliminate any phrases that are not necessary to Many of the pointers in these guidelines are adapted understand the meaning: from the following sources, which we encourage Strategies need to reflect the realities you to consult: of the community –– How to write clearly, The European Commission instead of Translation Service: In order to be effective, strategies need to reflect the realities of the community. –– Oxford Guide to Plain English, by Martin Cutts, (Would anyone want ineffective strategies?) Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2004 (not available online) A meeting was convened with NGOs –– Plain English Campaign: instead of A meeting was convened with relevant NGOs. –– The Plain Language Association InterNational: (Would NGOs irrelevant to the meeting be invited?) –– Plain Language Commission: the length of paragraphs Aim for an average paragraph length of three to four sentences. Jargon versus terminology: Cover one topic in each paragraph. Writing accessibly Move lengthy supporting material to appendixes. Jargon has been around for a long time. An early United Nations manual said, “jargons... have grownCreate a reader-friendly format like weeds until the flowers of information are hidden Provide a summary paragraph at the beginning not only from laymen but even from specialists in of any text of more than two pages. other branches.” (A Guide to Writing for the United Use descriptive headings and subheadings. Nations, 1965.) Use bullet point vertical lists; use numbered vertical lists to convey order of priority or steps It is important to distinguish between jargon and in a sequence. terminology. Any technical field (such as economics, Present complex information in other medicine or law) has a necessary and unavoidable reader-friendly formats, such as tables or charts. body of terminology; negotiated instruments, treaties and governing body documents alsoProofread the text have agreed language that cannot be changed. Proofread the text to eliminate errors in grammar Such terminology can be a useful shorthand among and spelling and to ensure that style and format specialists in the field. are consistent. Read the text aloud – it will help you identify any The term ‘jargon’, however, has taken on a pejorative sentences or passages that are still unclear and edge and usually refers to a tendency to employ need revision. terms and phrases that are unnecessary, offputting, Ask someone else to read your draft. inaccessible, pseudoscientific, depersonalizing, unclear or all of the above. Frequently, institutional shorthand used within an organization for convenience sounds like jargon when put into public information and advocacy products.1 2 3 4 B - 3Language guidelines
  • 51. Writing and publishing Whether a term or phrase is jargon or terminology can depend on context; it could be said that jargon Avoid Use is an approach to language, more than a list of address deal with, resolve words. Here are a few examples: engage involve Rural populations: This term is appropriate if the enhance improve context is statistical; if not, rural people is clearer, going forward from now on simpler and less dehumanizing. key overused – use main, significant, All relevant stakeholders: It would be unusual major to speak of irrelevant stakeholders, so relevant liaise contact, be in touch with adds an extra and unnecessary word. outcome results Human resources: Is the text referring to a scope out plan, investigate, assess human resources department or the field seek to work to of human resources? Otherwise, workers, take forward overused – use develop, take employees, staff of the project are clearer and charge, continue, implement more human. utilize use Resources, including human: This phrase lumps stakeholders Specify when possible – who, people together with machines, office supplies exactly? Or “all those involved”, and money – jargon at its worst. “everyone with an interest in Multisectoral cooperation: Who or what is the issue” cooperating? Specify if possible, cooperation buy-in commitment, agreement between the agricultural and transport sectors, ownership avoid figurative uses or between agricultural producers, regulators value-added (v) avoid figurative uses and health officials, for example. added value (n) Externalities: External to what? It could mean strategic may sometimes be replaced with factors beyond our control, or unrelated events, targeted, precise, focused, defined, etc.; often it can be eliminated or outside influences that had an impact on the forward (v) should only be used for mail results, or many other things – but the reader will and messages, not ‘forwarding not know. the initiative’, ‘forwarding the programme’ The following table gives a few words that inform Needs an object – i.e. “he informed are often used jargonistically – that is, where the meeting about the results”, simpler and more direct forms of expression not “he informed about the results”. Or rephrase with describe, tell, could be substituted. say, report revisit (the issue, return to, take up again the problem, etc.) As the last example shows, replacing jargon does not always mean taking out long words and using shorter ones; sometimes non-jargonistic writing takes up more space, but it conveys more meaning, reality or detail. 1 2 3 4 B - 4 Language guidelines
  • 52. Writing and publishingEditing and proofreading Fact-checking is the responsibility of the originator,print materials unless agreed otherwise, and takes place beforeWhether it is a flyer or a lengthy technical book, the manuscript comes to the editor. Whileany manuscript goes through a number of distinct manuscript editors may point out obvious factualeditorial stages and distinct kinds of editing before it errors, such as errors in mathematical calculationscan be printed. or questionable proper names, originators should ensure that all facts and figures have been verifiedTechnical editing before handing on a manuscript for editing.As the name suggests, technical editing is principallycontent-oriented and demands substantial A central editorial principle is that corrections madebackground knowledge on the part of the editor. at one stage must be retained at the followingQueries may be raised about the style, detail, stages, and that errors corrected stay corrected.factual accuracy, appropriateness and agreement This can be more difficult than it sounds. It alsowith organizational policy. Technical editing is requires rigorous document control – with thecarried out in close consultation with the author. advent of electronic editing and publishing, it is important to have only one discrete and clearlySubstantive editing labelled draft (rev1, rev2, rev3) at a given time.Can involve extensive rewriting, reorganizationand examination of the concept of the work and Circulating a manuscript at an advanced stagewhether it ‘does its job’ of communicating to the for ‘review’ can invite substantive changes thattarget audience. This kind of editing almost always may undo or negate editorial work already done.requires querying the author about: (i) changes the Therefore, when several technical bodies, expertseditor would like to suggest that require the author’s or units have a stake in the same work, it is mostapproval (for example, to make sure the meaning is efficient (and less costly) to get their input andnot changed); and (ii) unclear sentences or sections clearance of the material upstream. Rethinking orthat the editor cannot fix with the information/ rewriting a work that is already in layout is expensiveknowledge at his or her disposal. Substantive and causes delays, and it also carries a great riskediting also involves removing excess words and of inadvertently introducing new errors.improving syntax to bring out the message of thetext more clearly. Galley proofreading Takes place at the end of the production cycle,Copy-editing just before the document goes to press.Refers to correction of the manuscript in terms of Galley proofreading is more straightforward andgrammar, spelling, punctuation and agreement with ‘mechanical’ than editing, because by the timeIFAD house style (which can be found in the English a product has been designed and laid out, itsReference Manual, available on the intranet). It also structure, style, content, technical accuracy andincludes correction or querying of any substantive congruence with policy should all have beenmatters that may have slipped through previous worked out.readings of the manuscript. First proof. Identifies any errors or inconsistencies caused when a document isIn fact, these categories of editing often overlap converted from a word processing program toand are sometimes collapsed together, for example a design program. It also catches any remainingif the text is short or has little technical content. It errors (such as in grammar or spelling) andis therefore important for originators to give clear inconsistencies (such as style) that were notterms of reference to the editor; for the editor, it picked up during important to have a clear idea of what level ofediting is expected.1 2 3 4 B - 5Language guidelines
  • 53. Writing and publishing Second proof. Checks the corrections after Line-break hyphenation is correct they have been inserted and looks for any –– Line-break hyphens are minimized, and formatting problems or new errors that may avoided completely in ragged (unjustified) have resulted. text, except for hyphenated compounds. –– Any substantive or technical corrections –– Words are not divided at the end of a column made to the text on galley proof should or page. first be verified with and signed off by the –– Abbreviations, numbers and contractions originator and/or author. are not divided. –– The originator and/or author should check Widows and orphans are eliminated. the content of photographs as they relate to Pagination is continuous. the text. References/bibliography are complete and –– The originator and/or budget holder are the style, sequence and layout for entries usually asked to sign off on the final galley for are consistent. press, unless agreed otherwise. Contact information is correct and included on the back page or cover. Proofreading checklist Month and year of printing is indicated on the Review proofs to ensure that: back page or cover. Content is complete and reflects the final version of the source document. Copyright notice and any other standard Contact disclaimers have been included. Bruce Murphy, Manager, Writing and Publications, Table of contents accurately reflects contents Communications Division and page numbers. e-mail:  ; ; Placement, sequence/numbering and layout of Tel: +39 06 5459 2693 sections, boxes, tables, figures, maps, photos, footnotes and endnotes are correct. Style and presentation are consistent for headings and subheadings; titles of boxes, tables and figures; and captions. Formatting is consistent in terms of typeface, italics and bold, text alignment, paragraph spacing, leading, tabulation and bullet points. Style, spelling, grammar and punctuation are correct and consistent, and typographical errors have been eliminated. Cross references in the text to page or chapter numbers, boxes, tables and figures are correct. 1 2 3 4 B - 6 Language guidelines
  • 54. Writing and publishing2 J Using storytelling to share knowledgeStorytelling can be broadly defined as orally Make communication more human – theycommunicating ideas, beliefs, personal experiences use everyday language and elicit anand lessons. It has been used as one of the most emotional response.prevailing forms of communication throughout Nurture a sense of community and helphistory and has great potential as a teaching and to build relationships.learning tool. Storytelling is one of the best ways Are enjoyed and shared by people because theyto make the leap from information to knowledge, enliven and entertain.and it is an effective way to capture and transfertacit knowledge. When used effectively, it offersnumerous advantages over more traditional Uses of storytelling at workcommunication techniques. Storytelling helps to: Ignite organizational change. Experience hasAuthor and consultant Steve Denning introduced shown that storytelling can be highly effective asstorytelling as a knowledge management tool an agent of change even in organizations thatat the World Bank in the late 1990s. Denning resist it. Telling a story stimulates people to thinkaspired to organizational transformation, using about the implicationsstory-centred knowledge management to create a as it illustrates the Inspire your audience.common knowledge framework that would drive change in a way that Tell them adecision-making. abstract descriptions compelling story. do not. Communicate. When listeners hear the story,Advantages of storytelling they recreate it in their mind and it becomes partThe benefits of stories are that they: of their own idea. Communicate ideas holistically, conveying a Capture tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge can rich yet clear message – they are an excellent be multilayered and multidimensional, making way to communicate complicated ideas in an it difficult to articulate. Stories allow people to easy-to-understand form. express and share tacit knowledge in rich and Enable people to convey tacit knowledge that meaningful ways. might otherwise be difficult to articulate. Embody and transfer knowledge. A simple Provide the context as well as the knowledge story can convey a complex idea, not only by itself, which increases the likelihood of accurate transmitting information as a message, but by and meaningful knowledge transfer. actively involving the listener in creating the Are an excellent vehicle for learning because idea. Furthermore, as a story is told and retold, they generate interest, which abstract principles it changes, so the knowledge embodied in it is and impersonal procedures rarely do. constantly being developed and built upon. Are memorable – their messages remain and Inspire innovation. The use of storytelling are passed on. in innovation and knowledge creation can Provide a living example of how to do something encourage people to move away from linear and why it works, so people are more open to thinking towards a more multidimensional the message. view. This helps them to see new connections Lead to direct action – they help close the gap between things and to marry scientific logic with between knowing how to do something and a more creative or intuitive approach. actually doing it.1 2 3 4 B - 7 Using storytelling to share knowledge
  • 55. Writing and publishing Build community. Stories bring people together These elements are also used to create a story and foster a sense of community. Storytelling in an organizational setting. A message to be is non-hierarchical. It unlocks feelings and communicated can be broken down into these emotions as well as thought processes, and elements and developed into a story that will then hence it helps to build relationships and trust. convey the message in a memorable way. Enhance technology. People often find it difficult to communicate about technology. To see how an IFAD programme was written Users sometimes have trouble articulating as a story, look at ‘Establishing food security their needs and expectations, while experts by improving maize production’ www. sometimes have difficulty ‘talking in plain English’. When there is a gap in language and tags/malawi/malawi_foodsecurity . The story understanding, storytelling can provide a bridge, includes characters (members of the Sakwata by communicating the real essence of what Village Development Committee), a challenge each party is trying to get across. (pulling the community out of extreme poverty), Support individual growth. Storytelling action (learning improved cultivation techniques), is a skill that draws on a number of other a turning point (when the farmers harvested a important skills, mostly relating to interpersonal surplus of maize) and resolution (being able to invest communication. The development of in improvements in their lives and increasing the these skills is a crucial component of most number of participants). knowledge management programmes. IFAD storytelling experience Potential uses of stories Stories from the field –– Team or community-building exercises index.htm [also see Preparing ‘stories from the –– Breaking down barriers between field’ section] multidisciplinary or multicultural teams Stories emerging from regional newsletters –– Workshop warm-ups –– Making a difference in Asia and the Pacific –– Trip debriefs –– Personal project reviews newsletter.htm –– Monitoring systems (See Most Significant –– Progress in East and Southern Africa Change method annexd/Annex_D-3DEF.pdf .) newsletter.htm –– Rural perspectives – sharing experiences from Latin America and the Caribbean How to create a story In any medium, a good story has: newsletter.htm –– Characters –– Rural Echoes in Near East and North Africa –– A challenge to be faced –– Action pn/newsletters.htm –– A turning point when change happens –– FIDAction in West and Central Africa –– A resolution electronic newsletter operations/projects/regions/pa/newsletter.htm 1 2 3 4 B - 8 Using storytelling to share knowledge
  • 56. Writing and publishing Video stories of IFAD programmes and projects IFAD social reporting blog (www.ifad-un. What does it mean to be an empowered woman in a man’s world?, Haiti earthquake, Rural Poverty Report 2011Resources–– Steve Denning on storytelling at–– Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC): Flyer on storytelling and Story guide – handbook on the use of storytelling at Home/SDC_KM_Tools/Storytelling–– Knowledge Sharing Toolkit at Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge andInternal Communications, Communications Divisione-mail: ; Tel: +39 06 5459 2375  1 2 3 4 B - 9 Using storytelling to share knowledge
  • 57. Writing and publishing 3 J Preparing ‘Stories from the field’ ‘Stories from the field’ are short feature articles It is clear what IFAD achieved and that results about IFAD-supported programmes and projects can be attributed to the project or intervention. around the world. They illustrate what can happen There is a human interest aspect, such as when smallholder testimonials from participants.‘Stories from the field’ farmers and other poor Quotes can be obtained from the IFAD countryhighlight the projects and rural people gain the programme manager or someone else, such as apeople that we support skills, knowledge and community liaison person, involved in the project.and prove the value of confidence they need Photographs are available to illustrate the storyour work. to overcome poverty – ideally these should be of participants and themselves. Such specific activities. stories are crucial – by highlighting the real projects and real people that we support, they prove the To prepare a story, you (or a freelance writer you value of our work. This raises our credibility and contract) will need to interview relevant people, helps in fundraising. The stories are: including the project coordinator or country Posted on the website to show visitors programme manager and participants in the project; the on-the-ground impact of our work visit the project if at all possible, to see how it works ( and what has changed in the community. Included in printed form in fundraising kits and materials distributed at important meetings, Get answers to the following basic questions: demonstrating to donors and the public the Why was the project initiated – what was difference IFAD-funded projects make in real the problem? people’s lives. Who participated, who provided the technical assistance [always including the names of IFAD personnel]; who benefited? Criteria for stories What did the project aim to accomplish; what A programme or project is suitable for a story if it has it accomplished; what are the next steps; fulfils these criteria: how did it work; how were the problems It is a clear success, demonstrated by overcome, or how are they being addressed? being scaled up or replicated, or it has had When did the problem begin, when did the measurable results, demonstrated by higher project start, and when will it conclude? income among participants, construction of new Where is the project located – provide the schools, improved nutrition and health. name of the community and the larger province/ OR, if the story is about a failed project, it is one region/country; if needed for context, provide an that has been reliably documented and that identifier, such as ‘in the northeast of the country’; project staff agree to share because it holds also indicate the number of beneficiaries and/or lessons for future programmes and projects. the size of the area benefiting. (It is even better if the story can demonstrate that such lessons have already been implemented.) There are documented results, such as a mid-term evaluation. 1 2 3 4 B - 10 Preparing ‘Stories from the field’
  • 58. Writing and publishingQuestions to ask project participants ‘Key facts’ boxAsk the following questions: Every story has a box with key facts about the The person’s name and age (if it is culturally programme or project. The key facts should include: appropriate to ask), number of people in the –– Name of programme or project family and where they live. Make sure to get –– Total cost the correct spelling of the person’s name – –– IFAD loan or grant amount if possible have them write it down. –– Cofinancing/partners and loan or grant amount What life was like before the project. –– Duration How the project has changed daily life. –– Geographical area –– Number of direct beneficiaries Note: Stories from the field are about real people. Never –– Status of the programme or project create a composite person, make up quotes or details –– Relevant links (four or five), and check URLs to about the people you interview, or combine the quotes make sure they are correct. of two different people. If you cannot get a usable quote from someone, paraphrase what they have said, but do not put the comments in quotation marks. Details Provide contact name(s) for further information (the country programme manager and/or project coordinator) along with their job title, address,Tips on writing phone number [optional] and e-mail. Begin with an introductory paragraph that Write a short caption for each photograph summarizes what the IFAD programme or (about 10 words) that briefly describes what is project did and the result(s). Try to include taking place. For photographs of people, provide basic answers to the questions of ‘why, who, full name, occupation, location. what, when, where’. The reader should have a Provide the name of the person who took good idea of what took place after reading this the photographs. paragraph, which should be about 50 words. Send draft text to the country programme Provide more details in following paragraphs, manager or technical contact for comments and elaborating on the brief information in the clearance of text, captions and photographs. first paragraph. Work with the country programme manager Insert a quote or two at the beginning of a or technical contact and the Communications paragraph. Give the first and last name of people Division’s photo editor to select photographs quoted in the story and their job title and institutional and prepare captions (note: photographs should affiliation, or occupation and name of village. be minimum 300 dpi and 10 cm x 15 cm). Write short paragraphs – try to keep them under Before starting on a story, have a look at sample 100 words. published stories on the website. Break up the text with short subheadings every three or four paragraphs. Write between 700 and 1,200 words. Contact Choose a title for the story that indicates the theme Bruce Murphy, Manager, Writing and Publications, and the country. Examples of good titles from Communications Division published stories include ‘Graduating to a new life e-mail:  ; ; farming Egypt’s desert’ and ‘Organics: the key to Tel: +39 06 5459 2693 helping Pacific agriculture conquer new markets’.1 2 3 4 B - 11 Preparing ‘Stories from the field’
  • 59. Writing and publishing 4 J Distributing IFAD products With a growing number of field offices and While offset printing is expensive, for larger print numerous partners and stakeholders around the runs it is more economical per unit than digital world, distribution of IFAD publications and other printing. Print on demand, usually digital printing, products is a complex is most effective in two instances: when materialsMake the IFAD brand job. The Research and are needed at short notice, and for low-volumeknown. Distribute IFAD Distribution Assistant production runs. Digital printing is expensive andbranded items. handles this work. uneconomic for large-volume print runs. Be sure to make a careful determination of how many copies you will eventually need for full distribution: Print versus electronic publication repeatedly printing numerous digital copies is more Traditionally, IFAD distributed hard copies of expensive than one offset print run. publications. Today all IFAD documents are published electronically, and the question is whether your document should also be printed. Electronic- Planning distribution for only publishing has grown tremendously as people print products have become accustomed to reading on computer Developing a distribution plan is one of the first screens. The trend is encouraged by the desire to and most important steps in creating a publication. reduce printing and distribution costs and use of That is because the recipient list is equivalent to the natural resources. target audience list, and knowing who you want to reach is a fundamental aspect of deciding what the But at IFAD the decision about whether or not to product should say – and even whether it should print documents should be made case by case. be created. In developing the distribution plan, for Be sure to consider whether electricity and internet instance, you might realize that it will be difficult services are reliable enough to support downloads, to get the publication into the hands of people in and alternatively, whether roads and transport isolated areas with few roads, and they may or may services are sufficient to support hard-copy not be literate. As a result you might decide that a distribution. In some situations a hybrid approach radio programme is a better way to reach them. might be best: a long, specialized report or study could be made available electronically, while a short Another reason for developing a distribution plan is summary of its main findings, lessons learned and to make sure the product actually gets to its intended recommendations could be published in hard copy audience. Many organizations end up periodically and electronically. ‘pulping’ (discarding) tons of excess publications that were never distributed. Documents often have a short shelf life, and if they do not get out quickly, they Offset versus digital printing lose their purpose. A carefully developed distribution For documents you decide to print, there are further list along with a realistic, costed plan for getting the choices to make about production values, paper product to the people on the list will save precious and binding. A field manual, for instance, needs to resources – trees as well as funds. be printed on sturdy stock that resists liquids, and it needs a strong binding. That in turn influences the decision about offset versus digital printing: offset printing can handle higher-end documents that require good quality paper, coating and complex binding and trimming; digital printing cannot. 1 2 3 4 B - 12 Distributing IFAD products
  • 60. Writing and publishingBefore you get too far into the planning process, be Official mail and documents are delivered nationallysure to answer these questions: and internationally from headquarters using a courier Who is the audience? Be specific – for service. This service usually guarantees delivery to instance, do not just write ‘the media’; list the Europe and the United States within 24 to 48 hours specific media outlets you want to receive the and to other destinations within 48 to 96 hours. document, which will help you determine the total copies needed. How long a shelf life will the document have? Shipping information A generic item such as a brochure about IFAD’s To make sure the shipment is delivered in a timely work will be usable for longer than a mid-term manner, event organizers or originators need to status report of a four-year programme. provide the full address of the destination (including For publications developed with partners, how zip code in the United States) and the addressee’s many copies do they need? telephone number and/or e-mail address. Where are the audiences located and how will you get the publication to them? National and international couriers pick up material How much will distribution cost, and what is the from headquarters at 4 p.m. To allow sufficient time, source of the funding? the mail room has to receive the shipment by 12 p.m.Consider getting an ISBN number for substantive Originators are requested to complete thepublications. An ISBN (International Standard necessary form and provide a budget code forBook Number) serves as an identifier that helps in shipment. Below are links to forms:ordering the publication and maintaining it in the –– Request for special delivery/pick-up services formpublic domain. (See this link for more information https://intranet/divisions/fad/fa/mail/courier_about ISBNs request_form.pdf –– Generic pro-forma invoice https://intranet/ jobaids/forms/courrier/fattura_proforma.docRequesting IFAD material –– DHL pro-forma invoice https://intranet/jobaids/IFAD’s print and electronic publications are global forms/courrier/fattura.xlspublic goods and are made available free ofcharge both electronically and in print format.You may indicate your preference for print or Support to country offices andelectronic format to the Research and Distribution field colleaguesAssistant. If you need IFAD publications and/or The Research and Distribution Assistant ispublic advocacy material for an event, a mission or responsible for supplying IFAD country offices witha bilateral visit, please consult with the unit at least IFAD publications and branded materials, including:two weeks in advance. –– Official IFAD flag –– Thematic postersThe unit is responsible for: –– Stickers carrying IFAD logo Identifying appropriate publications for external –– Cotton bags and internal events according to event type and –– Video products participation. A complete list of IFAD publications –– Calendars is available at –– Limited quantities of USB pens and bracelets, Identifying appropriate exhibits for internal and caps, t-shirts and pins. (If you need more, please external events and arranging shipping. Any exhibit order them through your front office.) (or other property) removed from IFAD premises must be accompanied by an insurance paper Note: Be sure to distribute IFAD publications issued by the Administrative Services Division. and other branded materials to partners The form must be signed, collected and held by and stakeholders. the person who is taking the property.1 2 3 4 B - 13 Distributing IFAD products
  • 61. Writing and publishing Decorating country offices It is important to ‘brand’ IFAD country offices. Use IFAD posters, stickers and the flag to decorate your offices. If you are responsible for opening a new country office, let us know so we can help you. Always keep the publication rack in your office fully stocked with IFAD products. Mailing list IFAD’s mailing list needs your help! Please ask your partners and new contacts to complete the subscription form at: subscriptions/subscribe_ifad.htm  . Note: Whenever you meet new contacts, use the subscription form to add them to the corporate mailing list. Contact Christian Assogba, Research and Distribution Assistant; Web, Knowledge and Internal Communications, Communications Division e-mail:  Tel: +39 06 5459 2749 ; 1 2 3 4 B - 14 Distributing IFAD products
  • 62. Writing and publishingPlease take a moment of your time to give usyour valuable feedback. Return your completedsurvey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you.2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 104. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the Writing and publishing section
  • 63. Working with the media
  • 64. Working with the mediaThe media is a powerful tool for getting the wordout about IFAD’s issues and activities. This section Be factual. Give precise and conciseprovides tips on how to get the best exposure information; avoid wandering vaguely aroundthrough media outlets. It explains the various types the topic. Make the facts interesting. Journalistsof media opportunities, summarizes the necessary appreciate a vivid statement, creative slogan andtools for media relations and explains how to hold especially a personal anecdote to help illustratea news conference, organize a media trip, handle your points. State themedia interviews, deal with risks and manage sources of any facts The key to successfulbroadcast communications. and statistics you cite. working relationships Be fair. You must be fair to journalists if with the media is:Getting the most from the media you expect them to Be factual.Journalists are supposed to report news in a be fair to you. If you Be fair.balanced manner. The best way to get news out favour one news outlet Be through the broad coverage that a media outlet consistently, you will Be frank.provides. And the vast majority of journalists lose the confidence of Be friendly.and news outlets try to do a responsible job of the others.conveying news fairly under trying circumstances. Be fast. Respect deadlines. If a journalistBut they are overworked – often covering several telephones for information, return the callstories a day – and their deadlines are punishing. immediately, even if it is past normal working hours. The next day will probably be too late.The key to successful working relationships with By then, the story may have already been airedthe media is understanding how they work and or printed.responding appropriately. Here are the basics: Be frank. Never mislead journalists. Be as open as possible and respond frankly to their questions. So long as you explain yourself, most journalists will understand and respect you even if you cannot be completely candid. Be friendly. Like everyone, journalists appreciate courtesy. Remember their names, read what they write (and let them know), listen to what they say and know their interests. Thank them when they cover your issues.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 1
  • 65. Working with the media 1 J Media opportunities Today print and broadcast media include both Opinion editorials or ‘op-eds’. Op-ed articles hard-copy and online newspapers and magazines are essays written by thought leaders and and radio and television networks and stations. experts. (The term is short for ‘opposite the They produce various types of content: editorial page’, and traditionally that is where News stories. For daily papers or shows, news they appear in a newspaper.) While op-eds stories normally present concise coverage of must be factually accurate, their purpose is not events that have taken place in the last 24 hours to report facts but to allow those outside of the or new information and developments related journalism field to take a stand and express to ongoing events. ‘Breaking’ news stories opinions on issues of the day. Op-eds generally cover events that have just happened or are address topics that are in the news or offer being reported for the first time. They generally unique or controversial opinions. Editors usually appear on the front page of newspapers and at try to convey a variety of perspectives on the the beginning of broadcast news shows. More op-ed page. Space for op-eds is limited, and in-depth news stories and investigative reports their authors are usually acknowledged experts provide further details on events that ‘broke’ earlier, or well-known personalities, so getting one or they cover longer term issues, such as poverty. accepted for publication can be difficult. This type of reporting is a more likely outlet for It is advisable to consult the Media Relations and IFAD’s analytical outputs, such as the Rural External Communications Unit when writing such Poverty Report 2011. Nevertheless, capturing pieces and having them published or ‘placed’. the news elements of a story or information Letters to the editor. Letters run in many print product is important to get media coverage. publications, and electronic media offer further Feature stories. Feature stories go beyond space for various forms of reader feedback. hard news to provide details about impacts on Letters to the editor typically respond to an people. Feature stories are generally longer and article that previously ran in the publication. not time-bound, although they must be topical Letters are shorter and allow more (but lower and connected to public interest. More time profile) opportunities than op-eds to raise issues. can be taken to prepare feature stories, and News conferences. News conferences offer they allow more space for detail, analysis and the chance to present more detailed information human interest. An ongoing IFAD programme and interact with journalists, particularly by that has clear results and a demonstrable facilitating their coverage of a particular story. impact on people’s lives could be the subject Press conferences are useful to get an important of a feature story. story (a significant achievement, major disaster, Interviews. The staple of television and high-level visit) out to the media. They can also radio talk shows, interviews with newsworthy serve as an efficient way to provide important people also appear in some print publications. information to all interested journalists and allow Interviews generally are linked to current events, them to interview knowledgeable officials. (See although, as for feature stories, the criteria are below for tips on Holding a news conference.) less rigorous. Some interviews rest solely on the prominence or celebrity of the subject. High-level IFAD officials are good candidates for Contact broadcast and print interviews. Farhana Haque Rahman, Head, Media Relations and External Communications, Communications Division e-mail: ;  Tel: +39 06 5459 2485 ; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 2 Media opportunities
  • 66. Working with the media2 J Tools for media outreachPress releases and Press releases and media advisories should bemedia advisories disseminated in the most effective way for yourPress releases are the main vehicle IFAD uses to location – by e-mail, mail, telephone or handdistribute information. To be effective, they need delivery. If these are for wider reach, the Mediato offer real news that journalists can use to write Relations and External Communications Unit willtheir stories. For example, IFAD might put out be able to provide guidance on distribution inpress releases to announce the launch of a major the, the appointment of a new representative,the conclusion of a major agreement with agovernment or the debut of an innovative new Press kitsprogramme. Avoid putting out press releases Press kits are used for direct outreach to theunless you have real news, or soon the media will media and as a source of content. They cannot look at your releases. be distributed in hard copy to journalists or Always have a core pressThe most effective press releases highlight electronically on the kit on and statistics to put news stories into website, or both. Countryperspective and help consolidate the audience’s offices in particular should have a core press kitunderstanding. Journalists always need statistics on hand, ready to be adapted to different eventsand other forms of concrete information to write and media. All materials in a press kit should betheir stories, so the more data and hard facts in concise and written for general distribution.a press release, the more likely it will be ‘pickedup’ or excerpted in a news story. A template For a country office, the core contents might include:press release and media advisory are available One-page overview of the country programmein Annex II. and facts and figures (on IFAD website but specific link to the country). Note: The Media Relations and External One or two fact sheets on IFAD issues relevant Communications Unit is available to assist you with to the country ( your press release. Consult index.htm). or one of the Media Relations and External One or two one-page descriptions of important Communications team. (See Who’s Who in IFAD IFAD projects, including a clear description of Communications, Annex VI.) how their results have improved people’s lives ( country.htm).Media advisories, alerts and invites are brief Short biographies of IFAD President and key‘heads-up’ notices that contain only the critical personnel, such as the programme manager,information that will encourage journalists to cover and other development experts skilled atan event. They provide the date, time, location and speaking with the media.main focus of the event, such as the topic and who Two or three links to online press clippings ofis participating. These should have a compelling past coverage of IFAD activities ( (and e-mail subject line) as well as brief media/news/index.htm).introductory text aimed at generating interest in Information and statistics about IFAD as athe story. global organization, taken from the website.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 3 Tools for media outreach
  • 67. Working with the media Additional information that could be added, as Distribution of media materials needed, might include: IFAD maintains regularly updated lists of leading A recent press release on an event or topic of international media contacts, and we provide them current focus (find headquarters press releases with important materials such as press releases. at:, We also provide materials to partner organizations along with photographs, factsheets or and NGOs (such as organizations of farmers, project profiles. women, young people), so we can use their Photographs of high-level officials who may distribution channels to spread IFAD’s message. be visiting the country and photographs of projects, accessible from the Image Bank (See Accessing photographs: Using the IFAD Contact Image Bank) Farhana Haque Rahman, Head, Media action/viewHome. Relations and External Communications, Stories from the field from relevant areas Communications Division ( e-mail:  ;  Tel: +39 06 5459 2485 ; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 4 Tools for media outreach
  • 68. Working with the media3 J Holding a news conferenceWhen you have a major announcement to make, telephone call, hand Do you have significantyou want it to get as much media coverage as delivery). Follow up news and powerfulpossible. The most efficient way to do this is to hold with a reminder the messages to share?a news conference. The news you are releasing day before the event.has to be significant, or next time no one will come. If you want coverage by a particular mediaExamples of activities justifying a press conference outlet, offer them an exclusive interview with ainclude the opening of a country office, a visit from key person.the IFAD President or other high-ranking official, or Assemble a press kit. Make it easy forthe release of a flagship publication like the Rural reporters to write about your news; provide thePoverty Report. main points in a press release so they do not have to take extensive notes. This also protectsBelow are some ideas for planning a you from errors. The more information younews conference: give reporters and the easier you make their Choose a day and time. Mid to late morning jobs, the more likely they are to write about Tuesday through Thursday are the best times your news. Start with the core press kit already for a news conference. If it is too late in the day developed (see above). it will interfere with production deadlines and will –– If you have enough facts and figures, prepare not make the evening news or the next day’s a separate sheet that summarizes them in newspaper. Turnout is low on a Monday, and short bullet points. news released on a Friday tends to get lost over –– If the main event is a visit by a high-level the weekend. IFAD official, provide a one-page biography Reserve a venue. Think small. A huge hall filled of the person and their photograph, from the with chairs looks empty even when the turnout Image Bank (See Accessing photographs: is good, but a crowded room is a ‘standing Using the IFAD Image Bank  http://photos. ) room only’ event that creates buzz. But make sure there is sufficient space and open sight –– If you have more than one item to hand out, lines for television cameras to set up in the back place these in a folder. and accessible electrical outlets for recording Put together a schedule and time line. devices. Assess the technical requirements This will help to keep the event on track. (such as a sound system) and make sure they List each activity and its assigned elapsed are provided. time (such as ‘Opening statement: 10 a.m. to Invite the media. Start with an up-to-date list 10.02 a.m.’) Keep the event short (no more of local media. Put together a short advisory than 45 minutes total) – reporters have other with essential information: a brief summary of assignments to cover, and if the event lasts too the news; who will be presenting; the day, date, long they will leave early, potentially missing time and location of the event. Do not give too something important. much of the news in the advisory or no one will Prepare the speakers come. Send it by the best means (e-mail, mail, –– Prepare one or two powerful key messages for the speakers to repeat often during the course of the event. –– Remind them to limit their prepared remarks to no more than 7 minutes, and to be clear, succinct and conversational – no jargon! –– Brief them about any issues that might come up, especially controversial ones.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 5 Holding a news conference
  • 69. Working with the media –– Ask them to be available for one-on-one Handling hostile questions from reporters. interviews immediately after the event and for Most IFAD issues are not controversial, but it telephone interviews for the next day or two. is best to be prepared for difficult questions. –– Be aware if any of your official speakers If you are being peppered by hostile questions have anything newsworthy (either positive at a press conference, the most important thing or negative) going on in their personal or is to stay calm – never lose your temper or say professional lives. If so, journalists will use something nasty or sarcastic. Give a reasonable the opportunity to question them about such answer and say something like, “I or my staff events, sabotaging coverage of the news you will be happy to discuss this with you in greater are trying to convey. detail after the press conference. Now I would Keep the event on track. Have a sign-in sheet like to offer your colleagues a chance to ask me so you will know who came; you may want other questions.” Then, point to someone else to follow up with reporters. Hand out the press and take another question. kit at the beginning so reporters can take If several questioners are hostile, answer as notes on it. Assign a moderator experienced reasonably as possible and then say something in media events to run the news conference. like, “I see there are a lot of points here that Have this person: need to be addressed. Perhaps we can come –– Welcome the reporters and introduce back to them at a later stage or after the press the speaker(s). conference. Now, I would like to use the time left –– Keep things moving and be prepared to step to turn to other issues.” in if the speakers have difficulties, such as Any press conference includes reporters of trouble with hostile reporters (see below). all kinds. If you can get past the hostile ones –– Manage a short question-and-answer without looking or sounding irritated, other session after the prepared remarks. If the questions will come up to take you into more questioners cannot be heard throughout pleasant subjects. Knowing your subject and the room, the moderator should repeat the being honest and forthright from the start will questions for all to hear. minimize hostility. –– Be aware of flagging attention, reporters Occasionally non-journalists slip into an event starting to leave or speakers wandering off to make negative statements disguised as the main points. At that point the moderator questions. Ask such questioners to identify should announce ‘last question’, wait for it to their media or say, “I respect your views. I see be answered, thank everyone for coming and that your question is more a statement than a end the event. question. Perhaps you can discuss this with my Other logistical points staff after the press conference.” –– Depending on the local situation, you might need to plan for protocol or security. Note: IFAD Communications Division organizes media –– Use your judgement about refreshments, training at headquarters. Similar training can be in some places offering them can raise organized in the field as required. attendance. Contact Farhana Haque Rahman, Head, Media Relations and External Communications, Communications Division e-mail: ; ; Tel: +39 06 5459 2485   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 6 Holding a news conference
  • 70. Working with the media4 J Organizing a media tripMedia field trips are an excellent way to getcoverage for IFAD issues and projects becausethey bring journalists into the heart of what wedo. Both international and national journalistswelcome the chance to visit project sites becausethey yield colourful, concrete, on-the-groundhuman interest stories.Planning a media trip requires advance planning,such as: Logistics. Visas, vaccination requirements, customs clearance for equipment, United Nations security travel permission, travel costs (who covers what?), planning for emergencies (medical, security, insurance), eating etiquette, protocol and security arrangements, preparation of agenda, briefing materials and pre-trip briefing, selection and briefing of the ‘minder’ (the person who will accompany the visit). Site selection. ‘Visibility’ of results, access to participants for interviews and photographs, sensitivity to participants’ dignity, availability of interpretation, arrangements for getting to the site, time of day for visits (to accommodate photography and videography), special requests of journalists.ContactFarhana Haque Rahman, Head, MediaRelations and External Communications,Communications Divisione-mail:  ;  Tel: +39 06 5459 2485 ;1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 7 Organizing a media trip
  • 71. Working with the media 5 J Handling media interviews Interview formats Clarify the messages you want to deliver – the When a journalist approaches you for an interview, questions you do want to be asked – and get clarification on exactly what you are being asked prepare brief bullet points on them. Know your to do. The more you know ahead of time the better bullet points, but do not try to memorize what prepared you will be. The most basic information you will say, otherwise you will sound stiff and to obtain is: What is the story about? What type of hesitate if you forget something. story is it? What is your deadline? Agree on the theme to be discussed during the ground rules discussions that usually precede The three main types of stories are: an interview. ‘Breaking’ news or hard news story. This is usually a top headline and deals with something Well before the interview, ask the reporter: that has just happened. What is the deadline? Reporters usually work Feature story. Is presented normally as a to a deadline. If they cannot get the information human interest story and has more background you have in a timely fashion, they will go information than a news release. elsewhere. News agencies and some 24-hour Background story/interview. Provides news channels are on a constant deadline. additional details for the analysis and What is the angle? Reporters may have examination of hard news or feature stories. asked to interview you about global warming. Discussing the angle in advance gives you the opportunity to guide them to a topic you want Preparing for media interviews to address. For instance, you could say, “Global Broadcast interviews are more intense because they warming is causing extended drought that hurt are recorded, whereas interviews for publications smallholder farmers…” are less formal. But whether for print or broadcast, How much time do you need? In electronic it is important to remember during the interview media, especially for taped interviews that will that what you say will appear in print or on the air. be edited, reporters should be able to indicate Speak conversationally, but do not be too informal how much of your interview they will use in their or you could seem flippant. And say only what report. This helps you determine how much you reflects IFAD’s mandate and policies. need to prepare – a 3-minute piece will require less preparation than a 30-minute piece. You have been asked for an interview because you Who else are you talking to (or have you are knowledgeable. Building on your knowledge and spoken with)? In most stories, IFAD will not experience is the best way to approach an interview. be the only organization interviewed. With this Better preparation means less stress. The following information, you can avoid repeating something steps will help you to be ready for the interview: the reporter has already heard or introduce Write down several questions you hope will not topics not previously addressed. be asked, and then prepare answers to them. To determine these questions, think about the weak points in what you have to say. For instance, if you are being interviewed about a project that is starting to show real results just as the funding is ending, plan how you will respond to a question about the project’s sustainability. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 8 Handling media interviews
  • 72. Working with the mediaBroadcast interview do’s and don’ts Do Don’t –– Be prepared. Even if you have been briefed –– Be afraid to say “I don’t know”. It does not make beforehand, you can never be sure what questions you look bad; on the contrary, it raises your veracity. you will be asked or how they will be phrased. But do not let that be your last word. Refer the If you know your material thoroughly, you will be interviewer to a colleague or organization that might be able to respond comfortably to whatever is asked. better equipped to answer. Prepare three main points that are important to –– Use jargon or insider language. Laypeople will communicate, and be sure to work them into not understand and will tune out. Imagine you are your answers at some point. But do not read from explaining your topic to your next door neighbour – your notes – an interview is a conversation. assume the audience is intelligent and interested but –– Be quotable. Reporters are always on the lookout for not knowledgeable about your field. a clear, clever or controversial quote or sound bite. –– State your critic’s position. If you do, the audience For broadcast the length of a sound bite is about has heard a contrary view twice, first when the 10 to 15 seconds. When you are asked a question, critic said it and second when you repeated it. keep your answer to three or four clear, short sentences Focus on your response, especially in a taped (based on the bullet points you prepared). If you talk at interview where the reporter’s question (containing length, your remarks will have to be edited. This takes the critical statement) will often be edited out. control of your message out of your hands, and it may be diluted in the process. –– Say “no comment”. This is the least helpful thing you can tell a reporter, particularly during a crisis. –– Use anecdotes. The most effective communicators are “No comment” renders you powerless over your own storytellers. Learn how to illustrate your point with an story and makes you sound guilty. It encourages anecdote or example that helps the audience visualize reporters to interview other people who might not and empathize. But keep it short. hesitate to put their spin on your issue. –– Be careful with numbers. Reporters love statistics and will always use them. If you are sure they are accurate, go ahead. But if incorrect statistics get into circulation, they will be repeated over and over. –– Make eye contact. This will also help you to know when the reporter is getting tired or impatient, a sign that you need to wind down. The only time you should look at the camera is when you are being interviewed remotely without a reporter present. –– Talk naturally. Most of your credibility comes from your concern, confidence and enthusiasm, not the knowledge you impart. (Knowledge contributes about 10 per cent.) –– Focus on your key messages. Make your points in every answer. Television and radio audiences have only one chance to understand a message; they cannot go back and reread your opening statement. So the simpler the message, the higher the retention rate. –– On-air time passes quickly. Begin with your strongest point first, continue through the interview, sense when the conclusion is near, then make your second most important point. Why? Research shows that what is said at the beginning and end of an interview is what viewers retain best.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 9 Handling media interviews
  • 73. Working with the media Learn how to bridge Find out the focus of the programme – ask the How should you respond when a reporter asks a interviewer what kind of information you are tough, hostile question that you cannot or do not expected to provide. Discuss the likely questions want to answer? Use the technique of ‘bridging’, or and the time available to you. use the question to return to your own message. Find out if the show is live or pre-recorded. Find out who is the interviewer. You bridge from the reporter’s question to your Record your interview and watch it to pick up message as subtly as possible, by using one of tips for the future. these phrases: Arrive at least 20 minutes early to give yourself –– “I don’t have all the facts at hand to answer time to prepare. It can be stressful to be in front that question accurately, but I can tell of a camera. Take some deep breaths to calm you that…” yourself before the camera starts rolling. –– “I agree we’ve got a problem and I’d like to go directly to our solution…” During the interview –– “Actually, that relates to a more important Body language is important. It is crucial to appear concern…” confident and knowledgeable, so sit upright. Try –– “We have our share of challenges, as to keep your hands still – fidgeting is distracting everyone else does, but it’s important to to viewers and makes you look nervous. remember that…” Listen to each question carefully before answering. Be concise. This approach turns a negative into a positive. Do not lecture. If you know there is controversy about an issue, Make it fun; let your audience experience your be prepared to use this technique. Have answers interest in the subject. prepared, and practise delivering them. Be ready for Stick to your bullet points as you respond to sensitive areas where negative questions must be questions. If the questions stray from your main turned around. points, use the bridging technique described above – say something like, “Yes, that is an important issue, but let me say first that…” Tips for in-studio Repeat yourself as necessary but do not refer television interviews to earlier points or say, “As I said earlier…” Do not worry too much about “ums” and “ahs”. Before the interview If pre-recorded, they can be edited. Watch earlier versions of the programme so Use “I”, “we” or “my team”, whichever you think you know what to expect. What is the style is most appropriate. and format – is there a sole guest interviewed If the show is being pre-recorded and you make at length by a host? A round table featuring a mistake while answering a question, pause people with opposing views? How formal or and start your answer again from the beginning informal is it? – this will make it easier to edit. Tailor your approach to the programme’s Be as relaxed and natural as possible. demographic. Picture yourself talking to someone you know. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 10 Handling media interviews
  • 74. Working with the mediaHow to dress for television Radio often allows for more talking time than Look conservatively smart. Remember that you television. Be ready with story examples to want the audience to focus on your words, not support your main points. your appearance. If the radio show is longer, remember that radio Avoid small patterns of stripes or checks. audiences often change every 10 to 15 minutes, They do not look good on camera. Do not wear so be sure to repeat your main messages. bright red or brilliant white. Plain dark suits (not black) and beige, grey and light pastel shirts work well. Contact Ask the producer what colours are preferred. Farhana Haque Rahman, Head, Media Do not wear a hat or a cap; the brim will shade Relations and External Communications, your eyes from the viewer. Communications Division Dress appropriately to the theme; do not show e-mail:  ; up in leading-edge fashions if you are going to  Tel: +39 06 5459 2485 ; talk about poverty or disaster. Do not wear too much jewellery. Wear your hair in a simple style.Tips for radio interviews Although many of the rules for television interviews apply to radio, without the visual element your voice becomes more important. Speak slowly and clearly. If it is a phone-in interview, find a quiet place. Speak on a landline rather than a mobile phone if at all possible. Do not listen to the show while you are being interviewed. This will cause disturbing feedback noise on the radio.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 11 Handling media interviews
  • 75. Working with the media 6 J Managing risks Advance planning on how to handle emergencies Inform the Media Relations and External and risks is crucial. For our purposes, an Communications Unit when an incident becomes ‘emergency’ is something that puts the population newsworthy, public or potentially damaging to in danger and must be addressed rapidly, such IFAD. When a risk or crisis occurs: as weather events that threaten food production Focus first on understanding the facts as and farmers’ livelihoods. A ‘risk’ is something quickly as possible. that can harm IFAD. Do something. Pretending the issue is not a problem does not work. Regardless of what is Reputation risk results when IFAD’s own happening publicly, make sure that the people conduct fails to meet minimum expectations of behind the scenes who need to know about performance that apply to everyone else, such as the problem are working to fix it. unethical conduct or lapses of technical quality Keep IFAD Communications Division and the or staff protection. country programme manager informed and An ‘emergency’ is Structural risk results involved to mitigate public exposure. something that puts when the entire It is always better to sort out the problem sector is affected, without publicity. Hold back on commenting the population such as altered public publicly until those involved at headquarters in danger. attitudes, new laws or have a chance to evaluate the issue. A ‘risk’ is something anything that weakens Initial response must be above reproach. that can harm IFAD. performance. It sets the tone for what may follow. Speed and timeliness is essential and we must show that A crisis communication group is in place at we are in control, calm, authoritative, honest headquarters that can quickly deal with media and open. enquiries when there is an emergency or when The response by the media depends on their there is a media issue that may affect our normal goodwill towards IFAD and United Nations working routine. The group comprises the Director agencies in general. of Communications, Head of Media Relations Do not guess or lie. Admit that you do not and External Communications and the Director of know. If you say something now that could later the relevant regional be proved wrong – whether you meant to or notConsult with the Media division or the country – you have made the situation much worse.Relations and External programme manager Always consult with the Media Relations and for that region. In the External Communications Unit when dealingCommunications Unit field office, the group with risky publicity as every situation iswhen dealing with is headed by the different. It is often better ‘to go public’ rightrisky publicity. Project Director. away, showing that IFAD is open and proactive. Contact Farhana Haque Rahman, Head, Media Relations and External Communications, Communications Division e-mail:  ;  Tel: +39 06 5459 2485 ; 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 12 Managing risks
  • 76. Working with the media7 J Broadcasting IFAD’s messageThis section provides advice on when and how to –– Avoid jargon. Keep Pitch your idea towork with television and radio media, tips to create the concepts a broadcaster:your own videos and guidelines for working with simple and use Research and targetexternal video producers. plain language. broadcaster. –– Talk to the Find a central character right person. for your story.Working with television and radio Telephone the Keep it simple.You might need to work with television and radio television or radio Avoid when: programme and–– You have an idea for a story that highlights the ask for the person work of an IFAD-supported project. responsible for the show’s content. If they–– Your project is being showcased. do not have time to talk to you, you can–– You have been asked for an interview. submit your pitch by e-mail and follow up with a telephone call.You have an idea for a television or radio story If you think your project will be of interest Your project is being showcased to global news media, please contact the Your approach when your project is being Broadcast Unit. showcased should be the same as when you If you think your project could be of interest to a are pitching an idea – except that you do not local television or radio programme, you should need to sell it. But all the other tips above still contact them directly. Here are some ideas to apply. The producer will probably require you consider before approaching them: to provide information about the project in an –– Do your research and target the appropriate interesting and accessible way and to help identify programme. Ensure the story fits in with good ‘characters’ for the story. If interviewed on the programme’s format and content. camera, remember to focus your comments on –– Give the broadcaster a reason to film the big-picture aspects of the project (number this story. Why will it be of interest to of beneficiaries, time frame, donors) and let the people? What important issues does it project participants speak for themselves. raise? What impact does it have on the wider community? You have been asked for an interview –– Propose a central character. People always See Preparing for media interviews above. relate well to stories about individuals because they create an emotional connection and understanding. These Creating your own video personal stories are used to highlight the This section is aimed at non-media professionals bigger issues. Find one or two project who are using flip video cameras, small video beneficiaries who speak well and have cameras, mobile phones to capture video footage good stories to tell that draw attention to for sharing on social networking sites, blogs and the issues you want to raise. When you for IFAD internal use. approach the television or radio programme, mention these personal stories.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 13 Broadcasting IFAD’s message
  • 77. Working with the media When to use video Keep the camera as steady as possible. It Video can add a personal, visual and dynamic is difficult to watch footage that is moving dimension to communications, both internally or shaky. Place the camera on a tripod or and externally. A video flat surface (like a table). This is particularlyVideo is best used to: camera is a tempting important when you are filming static action, Record a speech tool, but before you such as interviews and speeches. start shooting think Any small movements or camera shake are or workshop. about why video more obvious when the image is magnified. Document project is suitable for your Keep your subject centred and avoid cutting off progress. purpose. A long the top of the head. Capture your thoughts unprofessional video Do not zoom in and out while filming. It is for your blog. could confuse your difficult to make zooms slow and steady. message and hinder The same is true of pans (movements from side what you are trying to express. As a rule of thumb, to side) and tilts (movements up and down). keep your video products short and entertaining. Keep them to a minimum. Stand still when filming. Hold a shot for a Video is a good tool for: minimum count of 6 seconds before you move –– Interviewing someone at a conference or in (if necessary). If the action you are following the field who has a concise and important moves, keep your body as still as possible and message or opinion to share. slowly follow the movement with the camera, –– Capturing elements of a workshop, conference trying to keep the subject(s) centred. or speech that other people will be interested If you are filming a speech or a conference, in watching. try to position yourself where you can see the –– Documenting progress of a project. faces of the people speaking. If viewers cannot –– Expressing your ideas in a ‘video diary’ style, see a person’s eyes and mouth while they are in which you film yourself talking about your speaking, it is hard to keep focused on what responses to an event or experience. This can they are saying. be embedded on your blog. Sound is important and often neglected. Most cameras have a small directional microphone, Tips for filming videos which means they pick up the sound in the No one expects you to produce professional direction they are facing. If you are filming videos, but these simple tips will improve the an interview, workshop or speech, point the quality of your footage. The more you practise, the microphone towards the person who is talking. better your film will be. Avoid filming in the wind as it is noisy. The Get to know your camera and feel comfortable microphone will also pick up background noise. using it. Make sure the batteries are fully charged Try to find somewhere quiet for your interviews. and you have enough tape or memory space. If you plan to upload your footage to the Keep your filming simple. internet, keep it to about 2 to 3 minutes. If youWant to make better Do not be too ambitious. do not plan to edit, keep this in mind and filmvideos? Busy, complicated short usable sections. Know your camera. shots can distract Keep the camera from your subject and Tips for filming interviews steady. your message. Keep the camera steady and make sure that it is roughly at the same eye level as the interviewees Keep shots simple. and ask them to look at you rather than at the camera. This is more comfortable for the interviewees and it means that their eyes do not shift between you and the camera. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 14 Broadcasting IFAD’s message
  • 78. Working with the media Make sure there is enough light on the If you have a few clips that you have cut together, interviewee’s face. If their face looks dark or you can smooth the transition between them by shadowed in the viewfinder, move them to a either using a cross dissolve between the clips spot with more light. Do not film people in front or leaving a small space (which appears black on of a window or bright light. your screen) between Think about the questions you want to ask in them, and fading in Editing tips the interview. You may have very little time with and out between clips. Keep it simple. the person, so be clear on what you want to Remember to also put Use smooth transitions hear from them. this cross dissolve or with dissolves or fades. Avoid questions that have a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ fade on both the audio Illustrate interviews answer. Instead, ask open-ended questions and the video. with footage or photos. that encourage interviewees to expand on Consider illustrating their answers. an interview or speech Use appropriate music Think about sound. Try to find a quiet place with footage you have if necessary. to film, as the microphone will pick up all the filmed in the field or background noise. with photographs. Consult your edit software If you plan to add text with the interviewee’s manual for guidance. Be aware of your audio. name and title during the edit, make sure you When no one is speaking, keep the natural film with enough space below the person’s face sound from the footage or add some music so the text does not obscure them. rather than having no sound. You can add music to your video, but avoidTips for editing footage any that may have copyright issues. If youMost cameras come with easy-to-use, use clips with music under copyright, it will bedownloadable editing software that allows you to removed from YouTube. Do an online search forcreate video stories by shortening what you have downloadable royalty-free music.filmed and cutting between interviews and other Choose appropriate music – avoid lyrics, fastfootage. Free software can also be downloaded beats or any other elements that might distractfrom the internet, and there are numerous tutorials from the voices of the speakers you have filmed.on YouTube. If you have time, experiment with Adjust the volume of the music so the speakersediting your footage to create something more can be clearly heard.visually interesting, but remember to keep it Editing software allows you to add text, whichsimple to avoid losing the message you are trying is useful for providing information or the nameto convey. and title of the person who is speaking. Make sure the font is simple and easy to read.Here are some tips to help with editing: We recommend Lucida Sans or Arial (or any Keep it simple. It is tempting to use a lot ‘sans’ font). Make sure the font size is big of special effects and cuts, but this looks enough to read on a small screen but does not unprofessional and distracts from your obscure the face of the person speaking. message. If you have a long interview or have When you are more comfortable editing, you filmed a speech or workshop, you will probably may wish to adjust your shooting style so want to shorten it by cutting out less interesting you can edit scenes together. If you have two sections or untidy camerawork. With your shots that show the same scene composition, editing software you can select the portions or ‘clips’ you want to use.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 15 Broadcasting IFAD’s message
  • 79. Working with the media with the same framing, it will appear to jump here and share them with your colleagues and when you put them next to each other. If you partners. You can also request a DVD copy by are planning to edit, adjust your frame size at e-mail to: appropriate times (see filming tips). –– For example, when filming a speech, you could –– film an extreme wide shot (which shows the ––  speaker and other elements of the room); a wide –– shot (closer but still shows the full body of the –– speaker); a medium shot (shows the speaker from the waist up); and a close-up (shows only the speaker’s face). When you edit, you can then Working with external video cut between these different size shots without producers and production companies obvious visual ‘jumps’. You could also try filming There are times when you may require the services the same scene from different angles and of a professional video production company. cutting between them. Video is an expensive medium, so consider whether You can write a script and record yourself it is the most effective means of communicating speaking with your camera. You can use this your message. Sometimes text and photographs audio (without the video) as a narration. You can will be more appropriate. then add video footage and photographs to illustrate what the script is saying. Think about these questions to determine if video is the right option: How to upload your videos onto the internet –– Who is the audience? Do they require a Your completed video clips can be uploaded to a professionally filmed video? number of places: –– Do you have the budget? A blog, uploaded onto IFAD’s blog site –– Where will the video be shown? A video sharing site like YouTube; vimeo; blip. tv. Each site provides uploading instructions. You will need to export your video from your IFAD video productions must be consistent in computer with the settings advised on the site. quality, meet international broadcast standards Give clear information in and adhere to agreed-upon communicationsTag your video so people the ‘title’, ‘description’ principles. So if you decide to hire a videocan find it. and ‘tags’ sections as production company or external video producer, this will help people find please follow these guidelines: your video when they do internet searches. IFAD’s online video websites. Below are links Content to the sites where the Broadcast Unit uploads Present accurate, relevant, clear and its video productions. You can view the videos timely information. Tailor the content to the specific target audience you have identified. Take a balanced approach when highlighting contentious issues. Strengthen the capacity of poor rural people to tell their own stories. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 16 Broadcasting IFAD’s message
  • 80. Working with the media Provide respectful, non-judgemental In cases where video programmes have been representation of poor rural women and men, produced for broadcast, production credits not as beneficiaries or recipients of development will be assigned but as active and knowledgeable participants according to the Is video the best in building better futures for themselves. requirements of option? Avoid filming people in torn clothes or otherwise the individual Who is the audience? looking downtrodden. broadcaster. Do they require Clearly articulate and communicate IFAD’s key When spoken in a professionally messages and policies on rural poverty and English, IFAD should filmed video? related issues. be pronounced as Ensure that content is sensitive to cultural and a word with the Do you have the social issues, particularly gender. ‘I’ sounding more budget? Hold individual producers responsible for checking like ‘ee’. When Where will the video the accuracy of facts, figures and technical possible, scripted be shown? information quoted in scripts. Sources should first references to be documented and references should be the organization should say “the International checked by consulting the appropriate IFAD Fund for Agricultural Development – department, division or unit responsible for or IFAD”. particular topic areas, projects or activities When translating the voices of speakers into covered in the production. other languages, it is preferable to dub them rather than use subtitles. However, whereTechnical considerations productions will be presented in more than one Engage experienced professionals. Ask to see language, subtitling may be appropriate. Accents their CV and examples of previous work, and of narrators should be as neutral as possible and check their references. sensitive to the regions where stories take place. Ensure that all video and audio products Individual producers are responsible for ensuring are produced using professional equipment that all video/audio material used in a production and formats. is free of copyright encumbrances and that IFAD retains copyright to all finished music rights have been secured. programmes and shoot tapes. When IFAD funds a production, the final products and original raw footage (rushes) become the Contact property of IFAD and are logged and held in the James Heer, Manager, Broadcast Communications, video archive. Tapes must be well labelled. Communications Division Video productions do not carry production e-mail:  ; ; credits or other acknowledgements. In the Tel: +39 06 5459 2550 case of testimonial, instructional and documentation videos, acknowledgements may be included in the form of special thanks.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C - 17 Broadcasting IFAD’s message
  • 81. Working with the media Please take a moment of your time to give us your valuable feedback. Return your completed survey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, 1. Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you. 2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No 3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 10 4. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the Working with the media section
  • 82. IFAD on the internet
  • 83. IFAD on the internetThe new front door integral to our operations. The rapid growth ofMany people know IFAD only by our electronic electronic communication will only increase thepresence. Some come across the website importance of these media. As a result, writingor Facebook page on a random search; others clear, accessible, compelling content is us out and return repeatedly. How IFAD The guidelines in this section provide tips onis presented on the website and social writing for the IFAD website, using social mediamedia sites is fundamental to our identity and and blog posts.1 J Writing for the webReading online versus reading These numbers underscore the challenges facingin print writers of online content:People read and use text very differently on the Only 16 per cent of on-screen users read wordscreen compared to the printed page. Online by word; 79 per cent always scan.content is different from a printed publication. People read 25 per cent slower from theHere’s why: screen: 190-260 words per minute on screen, A print document is a complete entity, and 250-350 words per minute off screen. the user is focused on the entire body of You have about 3 to 5 seconds to catch an information. The computer screen displays online reader’s attention, and about 12 seconds about a third of a printed page, so context is to keep it. lacking. Material needs to be ‘chunked’ into The average computer user spends no more multiple linked pages, and each chunk needs to than 7 to 12 minutes on a website or article, so make sense on its own. you have to quickly Print readers are more likely to analyse material grab the reader’s Writing for the web is carefully and sequentially, but online, people attention, focus it on different than writing for tend to jump and read things out of order or your article and hold print material. context, then zero in quickly on content that it to the end. interests them. An online text should have about half as many Print readers are more patient, while online words as the print version of the same text, readers are not willing to read long passages since users find it painful to read too much text or click many links to grasp the point. on screen. The online message needs to be crisp and easily understood. A print document is linear – each section serves as a stepping stone for the next. Online readers can enter a site and move between pages, so each page needs to stand alone.1 2 3 D - 1Writing for the web
  • 84. IFAD on the internet Preparing online content Write captivating headlines and use subheadings. Use bold sparingly, only to highlight key Assume the reader knows nothing about IFAD information and concepts. Put yourself in the position of someone who Use links. has no knowledge of IFAD or the work that we do. Therefore: Start with the conclusion Put all statements in context. Put main ideas, conclusions and important points at Avoid IFAD jargon or excessive ‘development the beginning. Few people read entire web pages – if speak’, which could alienate readers. you put the most important points at the end, most Write out all acronyms the first time they appear visitors may never see them. By all means, avoid a on the page. rambling first paragraph! Read text out loud to make sure it is clear and concise. After writing text, put it away for a couple of Use lots of lists days and then re-read and edit if necessary. Remember that web readers are scanning for snippets of information. Lists are easy to scan and Assume each page is the first page understand because they do not have to be read a user encounters word by word. Users rarely begin Use numbered lists when the sequence ofMake your text reading web content entries is important, unnumbered lists when it Short from the home page. is not. Most readers will come Put no more than nine items in a list. Simple to the page from a Avoid lists of more than two levels: primary Scannable search engine or an and secondary. external link. Therefore: Make sure each page can stand alone: address Keep vocabulary simple, concise and precise one topic cohesively on each page, and give Simple words are helpful to readers with less each page a clear and concise heading. proficiency in English and to those who quickly Spell out acronyms the first time they appear. scan the web page. Convoluted writing and Provide context for all statements. complex words are even harder to understand Link to further resource material to provide online. Choose words that are short, common and additional context. unlikely to be misread. Edit out the superfluous and get to the point. Read the text out loud. Make text scannable Spoken language is more direct than written Online readers generally scan text, looking for language, and hearing your words spoken might specific words or interesting points. To make sure reveal awkward or convoluted sentences. your web content is scannable: Use simple, short sentence structures and get Start with the conclusion and a short summary to the point. of the content. Use plain English. (See Plain language guidelines Use bulleted and numbered lists to section.) draw attention. Write short, declarative sentences in the Keep vocabulary simple and use active voice. non-discriminatory language. Structure your sentences simply – subject-verb- Make sure each paragraph contains one object – and put the main information up front. main idea, and limit paragraphs to no more Eliminate non-essential adjectives and adverbs. than 100 words. Do not repeat yourself. Reading the same thought Keep punctuation simple. twice is a waste of time and annoying to readers. Check all facts and figures. Check all links. Spellcheck the text. 1 2 3 D - 2 Writing for the web
  • 85. IFAD on the internetUse non-discriminatory language Write captivating headlinesIFAD’s online information should not discriminate, Headlines and titles are critical – they determinestereotype or demean people based on gender whether or not readers decide to invest more timeor ethnicity. reading the content. Successful headlines tell the Avoid using masculine or feminine pronouns gist of the story in a few powerful words and catch generically, as in “Every farmer needs access the reader’s interest. Vague or misleading headlines to credit to expand his farm.” Also avoid this put off readers. To write an effective headline: awkward construction: “Every farmer needs Make sure you thoroughly understand the access to credit to expand his/her farm.” content so you can give it an accurate headline. To avoid this problem, use plurals as much Think about the most important point in the as possible: “All farmers need access to credit content and incorporate it into the headline. to expand their farms.” Identify the tone of the content and make the Another option is to use the imperative. headline compatible with it. The tone should The command form of a verb lets you use the also be appropriate for the audience and true to second person (you and your) rather than the IFAD’s identity, standards, value and voice. third (he and his or she and her). For example: Keep headlines short. Summarizing a story “Increase investment in agriculture” instead of does not require a lot of words. Here are some “IFAD has requested the Minister of Agriculture good headline examples from IFAD’s social to increase investment in agriculture”. reporting blog: –– Should IFAD become a learningUse short paragraphs and sentences organization?It is hard to read long, dense paragraphs on –– Maps that can talk.a computer monitor. Even a relatively short –– What do numbers tell us?paragraph of 100 words looks like a lot of text on –– The world is fed on the backs ofthe screen. Short paragraphs help readers find rural women.what they are looking for and make writing easierto scan. A reader looking for a specific piece of Use subheadingsinformation is likely to scan, but unlikely to fully Subheadings are short headings that break upread an entire article. the text every few paragraphs, making it easier Write paragraphs of two to five sentences. If the to scan. This helps readers to find the parts of sentences are long, limit paragraphs further, to the text that interest them most, and it makes the three sentences. Sometimes this will mean one primary topics of the article stand out with just a thought straddles two paragraphs – that is okay. quick glance. Make subheadings bold so they are Have only one thought/idea/concept in easily visible. Good subheadings: each paragraph. Give readers a glimpse of the content. Limit sentences to 25 words. Good sentences Organize the content into readable chunks. are concise and well-formed, using logical word Tell a story that makes it possible to grasp the order and solid grammar. They are easy for all gist of the content quickly. readers to digest quickly, even those with limited literacy in English. Use bold to highlight key concepts Use bold to highlight key concepts withinKeep punctuation simple paragraphs. But do not go overboard. Use it Uncluttered sentences are easier to read. If you sparingly, for words and phrases, not sentences. find yourself using comma after comma, try Bold is more effective and easily scanned when making two (or even three) shorter sentences arranged vertically, such as by bolding the first out of that long one. word or two in each item of a bullet list. Too much Avoid excessive use of exclamation marks or bold scattered throughout text is confusing. emoticons: if your words are clear and strong, they will not require extra emphasis.1 2 3 D - 3Writing for the web
  • 86. IFAD on the internet Include links Avoid jargon Article text is a great place to link to other pages Avoid unnecessary jargon and specialized or within the site and to other websites. Links allow technical terms. Using common terminology makes the user to scan the contents of a page and select the text easy for all your visitors to understand. useful information. They also help to guide the It even makes comprehension easier for those who reader through the document. Think of linking as know the jargon, as they do not have to slow down the quickest means to get the user to the most to think about the exact meaning. relevant information. It is important to use links correctly and write them in a helpful way – do not Use acronyms sparingly let them become a distraction. Avoid the temptation to use acronyms as shorthand Place links in the body of the article where they – the ‘alphabet-soup’ look is ugly and hard to read. are applicable – do not put them at the end, If you must use acronyms: where they might be missed. This will make Make sure all terms are written out in full, it easier for visitors to find all the content you followed by the acronym in parentheses, the have on a particular topic. (An example of a link first time they are mentioned in the text. is Avoid acronyms in headings. Since links are underlined and in a different Try using a synonym instead of an acronym, colour, keep them short (just a few words); such as ‘the Goals’ (instead of ‘MDGs’) a text with many long links is difficult to scan on second reference to the Millennium and read. Development Goals. Make links high quality – link to text that is valuable and directly relevant to the topic. Write clear captions Too many links may confuse and overwhelm All photographs, illustrations and tables need readers. Avoid having more than five links identifying captions. Do not forget to include credits per topic. and copyright symbols where appropriate. Make linking words or phrases part of an important sentence so readers have a clear Avoid extraneous information understanding of where they are going. Writing well for the web means taking advantage of the options the web offers, but without calling Use simple text alignment and typography attention to it. ‘Click here’, ’follow this link’ and ‘this Left-align and single-space your text. Website’ are a few self-referential terms to avoid. Use sans serif fonts as they are easier to read The standard protocols for identifying links and sites on the screen. Never use all capitals, and use have been in use long enough that explanations are italics sparingly, as they are difficult to read on not necessary – and they are irritating. the screen. White or very light-coloured background with dark text is easiest to read. Contact Graphics and colours can reinforce text – but Roxanna Samii; Manager, Web, Knowledge only when they have meaning and help guide and Internal Communications the reader, such as in explaining statistical e-mail:  Tel: +3906 5459 2375 ; information. Used pointlessly, graphics and colours are distracting and annoying. 1 2 3 D - 4 Writing for the web
  • 87. IFAD on the internet2 J Using social mediaWhat is social media? In the social media world, there is no separationToday the internet and social media have become between professional and personal life. Any writtenpreferred communications channels for many conversation shared on social media networks canpeople because they make it so easy. The ‘social’ be found in search engines such as Google. This isweb has fundamentally changed how people why you need to consider personal conversation ascommunicate. It is a two-way street that allows us public, not participate in a conversation. Web2.0 and social Embrace social media andnetworking have encouraged organizations to use IFAD’s reputation for become a social citizen.these channels as advocacy tools to inform the impartiality and objectivitypublic about their work and to strengthen existing is paramount. When discussing IFAD business orpartnerships and forge others. other work-related issues on social media: –– Identify yourself as part of the IFAD workforceAt IFAD, social media and online collaboration –– Be open and transparentplatforms allow us to engage with our current –– Stick to your area of expertisestakeholders and enlist new ones. Since 2010, we –– Respect confidentialityhave used social media tools extensively to: –– Be polite when you disagree with others’ opinions Advocate for more investment in agriculture. –– Add value Share information related to rural development –– Create excitement and be passionate and agriculture. –– Do not use the internet to attack or Contribute to the broader rural development abuse colleagues discourse. –– Post meaningful and respectful comments Report back and inform colleagues about –– Do not spam workshops, learning events and visits to –– Do not commit IFAD to any action IFAD-funded projects. without authorization Engage in a dialogue with our stakeholders, –– Do not establish social media channels on partners, advocates and friends. IFAD’s behalf or use IFAD’s name and logo –– If you make a mistake, admit it.IFAD encourages staff to use these tools to expandand strengthen the organization’s advocacy work If you wish to set up a Use social media channelsand increase our presence in the rural development work-related social media to amplify IFAD’s messages.arena. Using social media gives us an opportunity channel, please consultto publicize IFAD’s mission and activities. the Communications Division. If you are not sure about a blog post, or how to comment or respond to a post, please consult with your supervisorTechniques for using social media and/or the Communications Division.Staff are welcome to use social media tools such, Facebook, Flickr, Picasa, SlideShare, Twitter, If someone from the media contacts you,YouTube, wikis and blogs to conduct business – please notify the Media Relations and Externalwhile adhering to the guidelines below. Communications Unit. They will determine how to handle the inquiry.1 2 3 D - 5 Using social media
  • 88. IFAD on the internet Social media etiquette Be careful when mixing professional and Be a good ambassador. Be aware that personal. Sometimes professional and your behaviour and opinions on social media personal lives intersect. As an IFAD employee channels directly or indirectly reflect on IFAD. and international civil servant, you have certain Make sure your profile picture or avatar obligations. On social media just as in the office, reflects your professionalism. Promote IFAD’s you must abide by IFAD’s code of conduct and social media channels such as Twitter, Social staff rules. Reporting Blog, Facebook (see full list below) Be aware of global implications. Your by adding them to your e-mail signature block interaction on social media channels can have and to documents you produce. global significance. A style of writing that is Be honest, transparent and open. If you appropriate for some parts of the world may are blogging about your work, identify yourself be considered inappropriate or illegal in others. and clearly state you are working for IFAD. Keep the ‘world view’ in mind when engaging If you have a vested interest in something you with social media tools. are discussing, be the first to point it out, and Bring value. Post things that people will value. make it clear that you are expressing your Write informative, interesting and thought- own opinion. Bear in mind that transparency provoking content. Help build a community by does not mean disclosing confidential and/or discussing your experiences and challenges. proprietary information. Do not disclose Talk about your projects. Social communication confidential information on your personal blog, helps people to learn about IFAD’s work. microblogs or websites. If you make a mistake, You add value if your posts help people do a admit it and correct it. better job, understand what IFAD does, learn Be passionate and engaged. Share the about rural poverty, enhance their skills, solve passion you feel for your work and talk about problems, contribute to solutions or overcome your successes and challenges. If you are challenges. Aim for quality over quantity. writing a blog, encourage your readers to Build relationships. Engage with your audience provide feedback and comment. Read the and build trust to develop a relationship. Do not contributions of others and see how you can just use social media as an advocacy tool. contribute to the conversation. Correct mistakes. If you come across a Be responsible. You are responsible for what misrepresentation of IFAD’s work, identify you write and how you behave on social media yourself and correct the mistake. In most cases channels. Exercise solid judgement. people do not mind being corrected. However, Be conversational. Talk to your readers and if it appears that someone is deliberately avoid being pedantic. Do not be afraid to bring misinterpreting what you are saying, ignore in your personality. When communicating on them. If you are not sure what to do, please social media, write in an open-ended way contact the Communications Division. that solicits responses to start a conversation. Give credit where credit is due. Do not claim Refer to other people’s posts when you blog authorship for something that is not yours. and solicit comments. Make sure you have permission to use third-party Be respectful. Disagree in a respectful content and provide appropriate attribution. manner. Respect the professionalism, and Do not use copyrighted or trademarked content also the privacy, of your audience, colleagues without asking permission. Respect Creative and peers. Commons licensing.1 1 Creative Commons licences allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve and which they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. Creative Commons provides a more flexible copyright model, replacing ‘all rights reserved’ with ‘some rights reserved’. 1 2 3 D - 6 Using social media
  • 89. IFAD on the internet Remember that the internet is permanent. Think of CNN, your mother and your boss. Once information is published online, it Do not say anything online that you would not becomes a permanent record. Everything be comfortable seeing quoted on television, stays on Google! discussing with your mother or explaining to Respond to constructive criticism. Turn a your boss. Remember, there is nothing private negative comment into a positive discussion. on social media – all your posts and comments Thank the commenter and engage them in a may be traceable. conversation. When responding, remember Use a disclaimer. If you publish on a third-party that you are representing IFAD. Take time to website or a personal blog, use a disclaimer read between the lines and understand the similar to: “The information posted on this arguments. Be respectful, sincere, confident [blog/website] is my personal opinion and does and honest when correcting factual errors. If you not necessarily represent IFAD’s positions, are not sure how to respond, please consult the strategies or opinions.” Communications Division. Write what you know. When writing about Safeguard IFAD content. Staff are encouraged agriculture and rural development-related to share IFAD content through their personal issues, write in the first person and stick to social media accounts. When using your your areas of expertise. When writing about personal accounts to share original IFAD an IFAD-related topic on which you are not the content – text, audio, video and photographs topic expert, make it clear to your readers, or produced by IFAD and shared on IFAD’s co-author the piece with the topic expert. website or social media channels – make sure you attribute it to IFAD. When posting When in doubt, ask! IFAD content on personal or third-party sites, indicate the source. If in doubt, contact the Communications Division. Do not publish content produced for internal IFAD use. Copyrighted IFAD content can be made available on request. Safeguard IFAD’s name. You may not use IFAD’s name to endorse or promote any product, opinion or political party. IFAD is seeking to consolidate its brand and boost its web and social media channels. Please avoid fragmenting our brand and identity by creating pseudo-IFAD accounts. If you need to create web and/or social media channels for IFAD, please consult the Communications Division. Separate opinions from facts. State clearly what is fact and what is opinion. Spread the word and connect with people. Do not just talk about yourself; share the successes of your colleagues and peers and IFAD as a whole. Make sure you are connected with IFAD’s social media channels (see list below).1 2 3 D - 7 Using social media
  • 90. IFAD on the internet Social media etiquette Web posting You discover a post about IFAD. Is it positive, balanced or negative? Be credible Be passionate Be accurate, fair, thorough and Passion is contagious. Share the transparent. Encourage constructive passion you feel for your work and criticism and deliberation. talk about the successes you have. “How should Positive I act online?” Be a good ambassador You should always be aware Offer support Balanced that your behaviour and opinions The post is a factual and reflect on the organization. Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty well-cited response, which may agree or disagree with the post, yet is not Negative factually erroneous, a rant Monitor only How? or rage, bashing, or negative Avoid in nature. You can concur with responding to the post, let stand or provide a “TROLLS” specific posts; Is this a site dedicated to positive review. Do you want monitor the site to respond? bashing and degrading others? for relevant information and comments. Fix the facts Feel free to correct “RAGER” Is the posting a rant, rage, others, but stick to No Yes the facts. Respond joke or satirical in nature? respectfully and with It’s a conversation factual information. “MISGUIDED” “How do (See five blog Don’t be afraid to bring Are there erroneous facts in your own personality I respond?” response considera- in the posting? and say what’s on your tions below) mind. Consider content that’s open-ended and “UNHAPPY CUSTOMER” invites response. Is the posting a result of Add value a negative experience? Sharing your Think of CNN, your mother and your boss information and Don’t say anything online that you wouldn’t experiences benefits be comfortable seeing quoted on CNN, being everyone. Feel free Restoration asked about by your mother or having to to share and discuss Rectify the situation, respond and act justify to your boss. your experiences in upon a reasonable solution. Be the your work. Be first to admit a mistake. (See 5 Blog knowledgeable and Response Considerations below.) helpful; use common Let post stand Share success sense with informa- Let the blog stand – Proactively share your tion that is internal Five blog response no response required. story and your mission and/or confidential. considerations with the author. If in doubt – ask! to keep in mind: Transparency Sourcing Best Tone/Influence Security If you talk about Cite your sources: judgement Respond in the Protect your own work-related issues hyperlink, Take your time to tone that reflects privacy through on personal blogs, track-back, ping create quality highly on IFAD. using privacy use a disclaimer and connect! responses. Don’t Focus on the most settings. on each page Talk about the publish if it makes influential blogs Be particularly making it clear success of your you even slightly related to IFAD. careful disclosing the views colleagues and uncomfortable. Communicate, information that expressed are connect with Ask advice from educate and share might compromise yours alone. them online. your supervisor if IFAD’s vision. your safety or you aren’t sure. someone else’s. Source: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); adapted for IFAD 1 2 Source: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); adapted for IFAD 3 D - 8 Using social media
  • 91. IFAD on the internetUsing IFAD’s official social IFAD social media channelsmedia accountsIFAD uses social media channels to increase our Blogglobal presence by reaching out to a broader IFAD’s social reporting blog is a platform for staff inaudience and providing a wide range of content and the field and at headquarters to share insights andinformation in real time. experience and to report live from events. The content of blog posts reflects the views and opinions of theLike other international financial institutions and authors and not necessarily those of the organization.United Nations agencies, IFAD has establisheda presence on some of the most popular and Contributors to IFAD’s social reporting blogs arestrategic channels. The Communications Division expected to observe the guidelines responsible for establishing IFAD’s presence onsocial media channels. IFAD encourages staff to use this channel to advocate for our issues and activities. To joinTo ensure authenticity and safeguard IFAD’s brand, the IFAD blogger community, contact theIFAD official social media accounts: Communications Division.–– Follow the guidelines and best practices listed above. Facebook–– Carry IFAD’s logo and respect the corporate identity. Facebook is an online social networking site where members share thoughts, photographs and videosStaff representing IFAD on social media channels and exchange instant messages and e-mails withare responsible for: each other. Facebook is useful for finding friends–– Listening to and monitoring social chatter and becoming ‘fans’ of groups and organizations.–– Branding IFAD across social media platforms–– Broadcasting IFAD’s messages across social media IFAD uses Facebook to raise awareness about–– Promoting IFAD’s social media profile its activities globally, regionally and in countries.–– Engaging with stakeholders and partners through We also use it to share rural development and social media. agriculture-related information. IFAD content on Facebook aims to spur interaction with our fansContent on IFAD’s official social media through virtual chats and by sharing information,channels should: images and videos.–– Be of the highest possible quality–– Reflect IFAD’s corporate image IFAD content on Facebook:–– Welcome and encourage feedback, participation –– Has a welcoming tone and conversation –– Encourages feedback and participation–– Provide real-time news –– Helps facilitate conversation and exchange of ideas–– Promote programmes and announce new –– Provides snippets of IFAD’s activities. initiatives in a conversational manner–– Give a human face to IFAD’s activities IFAD’s Facebook page allows fans to post links and through stories status updates and to comment on posts.–– Report live from important events. Note: The Communications Division monitors content Note: IFAD holds the copyright to content created for posted by fans. Inappropriate content and spam items the organization and posted on social media channels are reported and removed. (tweets, videos, audio, photographs and blog posts).1 2 3 D - 9 Using social media
  • 92. IFAD on the internet Picasa and Facebook photo album The IFAD social reporting team uses IFAD’s Photographs are the most uploaded content in official Twitter account to report live from events. social media space. IFAD project and corporate Typically, IFAD tweets use the following hashtags: photographs are stored in the corporate Image #ifad, #agriculture, #globaldev, #agchat. Bank. Picasa and the Facebook photo album IFAD also uses event-specific hashtags such as are used to share amateur photographs, such #GC2011, #rpr2011. as images from learning events, missions and corporate activities like the Governing Council. Contact the Communications Division for queries on Twitter and to join the social reporting team. Photographs should have captions, and photograph albums should include a name, date and, where YouTube and possible, indicate the location. YouTube and are online social networking sites where members can post videos, comment on Contact the Communications Division to upload them and subscribe to video channels. photos on Picasa and the Facebook photo album. IFAD uses YouTube to share approved corporate SlideShare video products, while is used to share SlideShare is a social media channel used for short interviews, event-specific videos and videos sharing PowerPoint presentations and documents produced by IFAD-funded projects. in PDF format. It has a vibrant professional community. Content posted on SlideShare can Contact the Communications Division for queries on be embedded in blogs and websites and shared YouTube or to upload videos to through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. SlideShare also provides statistics on Links to IFAD social media channels how many times a presentation or document is –– Facebook: downloaded and viewed. ifad/107399332627995?ref=ts –– Twitter: IFAD is currently using SlideShare to post event- –– IFAD social reporting blog: www.ifad-un. specific PowerPoint presentations and documents. –– Twitter –– YouTube: Twitter is an online social networking site where –– Picasa: members can post short updates (maximum photolibrary/ 140 characters). It is useful for sharing blog –– Slideshare: headlines, real-time updates, excerpts of news releases, testimonies, statements, public See the Glossary of social media terms in Annex III. service announcements, accomplishments, job announcements, factsheets and live reports Link to IFAD social media guidelines from events. Statistics, facts, figures, sound bites –– and informative news items are popular content guidelines on Twitter. Contact IFAD uses Twitter to share messages and news Roxanna Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge in real time and to raise awareness about our and Internal Communications activities. Unlike Facebook, where only registered e-mail:  Tel. +3906 5459 2375 ; ‘friends’ or ‘fans’ can see your updates, content sent through Twitter is searchable and visible to the entire internet community. 1 2 3 D - 10 Using social media
  • 93. IFAD on the internet3 J Writing a memorable blog postWriting a blog post people want to read requires Develop a writing style and stick to it.speaking honestly and openly about a subject Show your passion in your writing.that you are passionate about. It needs to be Write in an inviting way that encourages yourdynamic, interesting and enjoyable. Remember it readers to comment and engage in a conversation. (See the Using social media and Write in plain language. (See the Plain languageWriting for the web sections.) guidelines and Writing for the web sections.)Blog from the heart Help your readers Write about emerging trends and innovations Do not use institutional jargon. If you use Share your ideas, opinions, insights, experience technical terms, explain them thoroughly. and knowledge. Keep details to the minimum – do not overburden Tell a story (See the Using storytelling to share readers. Get to the point and do it fast! knowledge section.) Avoid introducing too many ideas and concepts Be original and unique. in one blog post; consider doing a series of posts. End your blog posts with a call for action, a Do not write propaganda blog posts. message of hope, a question, an inspiration, Avoid writing about organizational matters that food for thought – something that opens a may not be of interest to a larger audience – dialogue – and ask your readers to comment describe your own experience. and share their ideas and opinions. Before publishing your post, edit it and read it aloud. If you struggle as you read it, consider redrafting. Include links and photographs. (See theCaptivate your readers Accessing photographs: Using the IFAD Image Give your blog a catchy headline. Keep Bank section.) your titles short, easy to understand and Where applicable, embed2 PowerPoint attention-grabbing. Ask a question or craft a presentations and videos in your blog post. (See counterintuitive or controversial headline. the Creating your own video section.) Make sure the title reflects the content of the blog post. Remember that titles are the first Resources things that appear in search engine results. –– Start your blog with a captivating sentence good-blog.html and explain to your reader what they should –– ProBlogger blog tips expect from it. –– Blogs in plain English: Make sure your blog post is scannable. (See the watch?v=NN2I1pWXjXI Writing for the web section.) Do not forget to include keywords/tags to help search engines. Contact Blog regularly so that you do not disappoint your Roxanna Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge and readers. Start out modestly and build up – if you Internal Communications, Communications Division begin by blogging daily and then slow down to e-mail:  Tel: +39 06 5459 2375 ; once a week, you will lose readers. If you are writing a blog series, introduce it and tell readers the series frequency. Make sure you contribute regularly to the IFAD social reporting blog (www.ifad-un. (See the IFAD social media 2 YouTube, and SlideShare provide embedded codes. channels section.) Just copy and paste these into your blog post.1 2 3 D - 11 Writing a memorable blog post
  • 94. IFAD on the internet Please take a moment of your time to give us your valuable feedback. Return your completed survey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, 1. Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you. 2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No 3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 10 4. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the IFAD on the internet section
  • 95. Speaking in public
  • 96. Speaking in publicWriting for public speaking – guided the evaluation and provided detailed andIf you write a convoluted paragraph in a text for creative inputs, and improved the quality of thereaders, they can slowly puzzle out its meaning. end result.”If you deliver such a paragraph to a listeningaudience, you have lost them. To be comprehensible to a listening audience, the text needs to be broken up into several sentencesAn audience that is listening – either in person or and structured more simply, like this:to a broadcast – has only one chance to get your “A reference group was established to guide themessage. So when you are writing for listeners as evaluation. Its members came from regional andopposed to readers, every point has to be clearly national government, civil society, academia andmade. Spoken text should be shorter and simpler. international development agencies. The group’sFor instance, this sentence, while overly long, can detailed and creative inputs improved the quality ofbe understood in print: the end result.”“A reference group – with members from local,regional and national government; civil society;academia; and international development agencies1 J Delivering a compelling presentationThe best presentations are planned, prepared, Know as much as possible about your subject.practised and delivered with flair. Knowledge, Make sure the presentation conveys memorableexperience and talent, together with preparation, messages, but do not overwhelm the audience.lead to a successful presentation – “failing to Effective and compelling presentations convey aprepare is preparing to fail.” There is nothing worse limited number of key messages.than sitting through a boring, poorly structured Use terminology thatpresentation. To avoid this, follow a few principles is appropriate for the The best presentationslisted below: audience. Explain are planned, prepared, complex ideas and practised and delivered illustrate with stories,Planning the presentation if appropriate. with flair. Make sure you understand what the target In writing the text: group requires and their level of knowledge. –– Use a simple sentence structure. Subject, Be clear about what you are going to talk verb, object is clearest – but do not use it about. Are you trying to persuade donors to exclusively or it becomes monotonous. fund a project? Giving a status report about –– Do not put subheadings in your text – you IFAD’s work to partners and government cannot read them out loud. Make sure the agencies? Each calls for a different style text flows seamlessly from point to point. and content. Focus on what will persuade your audience.1 2 E - 1Delivering a compelling presentation
  • 97. Speaking in public –– To signal a new topic to the audience, insert a Engaging with the audience ‘pause’ into the text to remind yourself to stop Giving a presentation is like being an actor. You are for a moment. Make sure the first sentence of engaging with the audience, and you want them to the new topic clearly introduces it. be engaged with you. Here are some tips: –– Avoid putting too many modifiers before the Pitch your voice as if you were speaking to noun; the listener cannot keep track of them. the back row. Speak slowly to allow the sound For instance, ‘The team was responsible to carry. for designing the capacity development Maintain eye contact with a number of people programme’ is preferable to ‘The team in different parts of the auditorium. This helps to was responsible for capacity development make the audience feel involved. programme design’. Throughout the presentation clarify unfamiliar –– Use phonetic spelling for any words that are terms and definitions. difficult to pronounce. Add humour wherever appropriate. Keep the Personalize the audience interested throughout the presentation.Remember: Talk to your presentation in a Pause. Allow yourself and the audience a littleaudience, not to a screen way the audience time to reflect and think. Do not race throughor your script. can relate to. Use your presentation. anecdotes, humour, Show enthusiasm for your subject and put quotes and personal experiences throughout energy into your talk. your talk. Tell stories – there is nothing more When you are asked a question, move compelling than a story and it will help you towards the person who asked it. Repeat the gauge audience attention. question and when appropriate rephrase it Structure your presentation so it has a: for the audience. –– Beginning: where you break the ice. Have handouts ready and give them out at the Capture the audience’s attention, connect end of the presentation. If you distribute the with them and clarify your objective. Prepare handout before, the audience will start reading it a concise beginning and consider using an and will not listen to you. Tell the audience ahead anecdote or a question. of time that you will give them handouts so they –– Middle: where you convey your key do not have to waste time taking unnecessary messages in a logical sequence, each point notes while you speak. building on the preceding one, using clear and simple language. –– End: where you repeat your objective, Delivering without mishaps summarize your key messages and end the Inspect the location to ensure that seating presentation on a high note. arrangements and equipment (whiteboard, Plan to present for your allotted time – if you talk blackboard, lighting, projection screen, sound longer people may begin to lose patience. system) are suitable. If you are using audio-visual Rehearse the presentation in front of an aids, test the equipment in advance to make audience or a mirror – but do not over-rehearse, sure everything is set up and working. and do not memorize the presentation, or it will Put your watch on the podium so you can keep sound stale and mechanical. Time yourself while an eye on the time. rehearsing to make sure you are within your Speak slowly and loudly and enunciate allotted time. clearly. Sound confident and speak with Anticipate questions you may be asked and conviction. Vary the tone of your voice and prepare responses. dramatize if appropriate. 1 2 E - 2 Delivering a compelling presentation
  • 98. Speaking in public If you make an error, correct it and continue. If you decide to use PowerPoint: Do not make excuses or apologize. Use it only as a presentation aid. If you want to Show proper emotion and feeling relating to give the audience a written copy of your main your topic. points, put them in a simple document and hand Body language is important. Avoid sitting down it out after the presentation. or standing in one place with your head down. Use the IFAD Occasionally move towards the audience. PowerPoint template, To PowerPoint or not If you are using slides, move from one side of which helps establish to PowerPoint? the screen to the other. a consistent visual That is the question! Do not read from the speech. A glance at your image of IFAD across notes should be all you need. Spend most of the the organization. time looking at the audience. Contact: Mark Forrest, Manager, Graphic Design Avoid annoying mannerisms such as repeated Services, Communications Division use of “okay” or “I mean” or “you know”. e-mail:  ; ; If you have to omit portions of your talk, do not Tel: +39 06 5459 2216 tell the audience you are doing so. Know when to stop talking. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion. Thank the audience. Plan to stay after your presentation. People may want to talk with you about it. After your talk, do a self-evaluation. (See After- action review methodology in Annex IV.) Make notes about what went well and what could be done better.Using visual aids and PowerPointBefore deciding whether to use PowerPoint or othertypes of visual aids, remember that: You are the best medium to convey your message. PowerPoint works best for things that are presented visually, not verbally. It helps when you need to draw a picture. If you are speaking while the audience is reading a slide, their attention is divided between listening and reading. This prevents them from absorbing your verbal and written message.1 2 E - 3Delivering a compelling presentation
  • 99. Speaking in public Insert a blank slide after each content slide. If you need to use a slide more than once, copy Click to the blank slide when you have finished and insert it in the appropriate places – do not discussing the content slide to focus the go back to it. audience back on you. Alternatively, tap the Make sure your presentation can run on any ‘b’ key to make the screen go blank after you computer, and back it up onto a thumb drive. have finished discussing a slide. This prevents people from being distracted by the next slide Resources while you are speaking. –– TedTalks ( These are the best Speak towards the slide (but never read slides) presentations to watch. You will see what a good while having the audience look at it. presentation is all about. Click here to learn Minimize text: use photographs, maps or about the philosophy of TedTalks success simple graphics, such as line graphs or bar ( charts – and make sure they are legible. became-the-new-harvard.html?page=0%2C0) Use only 7 to 10 slides. Spend about –– Witt Communications ( A 90 seconds talking about each slide. Try and website for public speaking, with many helpful restrict each slide to a tips and linksMake your meetings maximum of 5 lines and –– Presentation checklist ( and fun. each line of text to no downloads/checklist.pdf): A comprehensive more than 10 words. checklist to make sure you remember Use key words and phrases on slides, not everything when preparing and delivering complete sentences. Limit punctuation and do a presentation not use block capitals. –– PowerPoint Presentations: The Good, the Avoid filling slides with equations and formulas. Bad and the Ugly ( Use a large font for text – 24 or 30 points. Classes/Handouts/powerpoint.htm): This useful, Combine text with pictures. even-handed document details the pros and Make your slides logical and easy to follow. Put cons of PowerPoint. the title at the top. Proofread for spelling errors. –– This one-pager from the Seven Minute Star Avoid fancy fonts and excessive use of provides some of the do’s and don’ts of animation, sound clips, transitions and other PowerPoint distracting features. Keep it simple. morepowertoyourpoint_dosdonts.pdf Use colour for emphasis but do not overdo –– These two short, humorous videos show the it. Use contrasting colours for text and hazards of PowerPoint and offer tips for its background. Dark text on light background proper use: is best. http// Leave ample margins on all four sides with an http// extra wide margin at the bottom. Keep important information near the top of the slide. Often the bottom part of the slide cannot be seen from Contact the back rows because heads are in the way. Roxanna Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge and Internal Communications, Communications Division e-mail:  Tel: +39 06 5459 2375 ; 1 2 E - 4 Delivering a compelling presentation
  • 100. Speaking in public2 J Facilitating a meetingThe basics Listen and observeFacilitation is the process of guiding a group to –– Listen activelyshare ideas, opinions, experiences and expertise –– Scan the room: listen for nervous laughter,to achieve a common goal. The role of the raised voices, pockets of silencefacilitator is to ensure that the group works as a –– Do not make assumptionsconstructive and cohesive unit and that it arrives –– Check for understandingat its own answers, decisions or deliverables. –– Rephrase and summarize participants’ responsesFacilitators help the group to: –– Write it down.–– Make decisions–– Share information Guide the group–– Plan work –– Appoint a timekeeper–– Learn from one another –– Refer to the agenda and objectives, but stray–– Solve problems. from them when necessary –– Challenge participants’ assumptionsThe success of an event is closely tied to the skill –– Encourage them to go beyond the first solution;of the facilitator and their preparation for the event. develop creative tensionGood facilitators concentrate on three dimensions: –– Encourage initiative, ask about Plan B and Plan Cresults, relationships and process. –– Ask them about the short and long term, milestones and a continuity planThere are countless ways to facilitate an event, but –– Use a parking lot for concepts that do not fitthey all rest on a series of basic tasks: into the current topic.Make everyone feel comfortable and valued Ensure quality decisions–– Get to know them –– Remind the group about decision deadlines–– Use open body language –– Review criteria and supporting information–– Engage people as individuals and thank them –– Review the decision-making process for their contributions. –– Poll the group before major decisions –– Review the decision as a group.Encourage participation–– Use open-ended questions Ensure commitment to action–– Draw out silent participants without putting –– Review objectives for each agenda item them on the spot –– Record decisions–– Use visual aids –– Develop an action plan–– Consult the group –– Ensure the team leader will follow up.–– Break into smaller groups. After the event, take the time to do an after-actionPrevent and manage conflict review (see Annex IV). It will help you assess–– Use team-building activities what worked and what you would like to revise for–– Set ground rules next time.–– Search for agreement–– When necessary, agree to disagree – expressing respect for all views.1 2 E - 5 Facilitating a meeting
  • 101. Speaking in public Ice breakers and energizers The facilitator questions people along the line, Ice breakers and energizers are techniques used asking them why they are standing where they are. to encourage participants to interact with each Enthusiasm is encouraged in describing positioning, other. Ice breakers allow participants to ‘warm up’ and listeners are encouraged to shift their position at the beginning of the workshop and get to know on the spectrogram as points are made that alter each other. Energizers are important to keep their thinking on the question. The activity is more participants alert. Use energizers after lunch and/or fun if the statements are controversial or extreme, after a boring presentation! yet rather vague and ambiguous, encouraging participants to interpret the statements in Tagging whatever way they wish. The results often produce Tagging allows participants to ‘tag’ themselves conversation among the participants and a good with three words that describe them professionally ‘mapping’ of the topics and opinions that people or personally. These are written on a sheet of want to explore and discuss. paper and pinned to themselves. Everyone spends about ten minutes mingling and talking about each State of mind other’s ‘tags’ and forming clusters of groups with This quick feedback/evaluation method is useful at similar tags. the end of a learning event or workshop. Who am I? Ask the participants to express their state of mind The “Who am I” ice breaker is good for getting by completing one or more of these phrases: people to talk to on another. Write down names –– I am shocked… of 30 famous people on post-it notes and put one –– I am amazed… on each person’s forehead – without letting them –– I am mildly surprised… see the name. Then people mingle and pose ‘yes –– I am disappointed… or no’ questions to other participants to figure out –– I am depressed that… who they are. –– I am so bored hearing about… –– I am delighted that… Share one fact about yourself Each person stands up and shares one fact Resources about themselves. Facilitation methods: Category:KM/KS_method Human spectogram Human spectogram is useful as an ice breaker, energizer and evaluation mechanism. Place Contact coloured tape on the floor in an open area. Roxanna Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge and Mark one end as ‘Strongly agree’ and the opposite Internal Communications, Communications Division end as ‘Strongly disagree’. Then read out short e-mail:  Tel: +39 06 5459 2375 ; statements and ask the participants to place themselves along the tape, or ‘spectogram’, according to how they feel about the statement. They should stand closer to the ends if they have strong opinions and closer to the middle if they feel less strongly. 1 2 E - 6 Facilitating a meeting
  • 102. Speaking in publicPlease take a moment of your time to give usyour valuable feedback. Return your completedsurvey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you.2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 104. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the Speaking in public section
  • 103. Working together
  • 104. Working togetherKeeping each other in the loop Internal communications is a two-way process:Effective internal communications enables staff to do it involves listening to people as much astheir jobs efficiently and work together towards the disseminating information. It includes:same organizational goals. Internal communications –– Listening,facilitates information flow within the organization understanding, Share your stories,and creates a team environment. It makes sharing questioning and initiatives, challengesinformation across the workplace easier and more clarifying and successes.efficient, promotes synergies and avoids duplication. –– Being visible and honest even when you need to deliver bad newsInternal communications is fundamental to our –– Communicating in a timely mannerwork, especially as staff are increasingly dispersed –– Sharing country offices around the world. But thanksto technology, physical distance is no longer a Internal communications can be verbal (face tomajor obstacle to communications. The intranet, face, telephone) or written. Whatever thee-mail, Yammer and Skype together serve as both form, the challengea formal tool for communicating official information is to communicate Keep up with what’sand a tool for IFAD staff to use more casually to effectively by conveying going on at headquartersexchange ideas. your message in a and in the field. clear, concise andIFAD works to facilitate good internal comprehensive way. That includes avoidingcommunications among staff to: ambiguity and excessive jargon.–– Create a sense of belonging–– Enhance staff engagement and understanding–– Facilitate sharing of lessons learned and knowledge–– Help people make informed decisions–– Raise awareness of IFAD’s vision, priorities and operations and help communicate them.1 J Tools and methods of internal communicationsUntil recently, internal communications in IFAD was Social media/Web2.0 tools: Yammer, Twitterlimited to traditional forms: and blogs that allow headquarters and country–– Written: memorandums, e-mails (see Annex V), office colleagues to keep in regular touch. intranet, computer log-on messages Blogs can be used to share success stories–– Telephone calls and knowledge and report on internal and–– Face-to-face meetings. external events. (See the Using social media and Writing a memorable blog post sections.)New methods of communication have beendeveloped that are efficient, transparent andfriendly. These include:1 F - 1Tools and methods of internal communications
  • 105. Working together Instant messaging: Yammer and Skype allow Pros and cons of colleagues to communicate with each other communication tools efficiently and reduces the number of e-mails. E-mail. It is an easy way to communicate, –– Yammer is useful if you require written especially for information that needs to be answers immediately. For more information retained. And it is an easy way to send an on joining the IFAD Yammer community electronic document. E-mail is less intrusive consult: than a phone call or meeting. –– Skype is useful for instant messaging But e-mail is impersonal, and excessive and videoconferences. e-mail correspondence hampers productivity. –– IFAD strongly encourages the use of these Avoid sending e-mails for every little thing and tools – make sure you include your Yammer copying all the people in the group. See Tips and Skype usernames as part of your e-mail for writing e-mails (Annex V). signature block. Telephone. Connects people to remote –– Social reporting (http://ifad-un.blogspot. locations. Telephone calls are useful when com/): This tool allows people who are information needs to be conveyed quickly not participating in an event to follow and and an instant response is required. It is also interact with participants and speakers. better than written communication (but not as And photos, videos, PowerPoint presentations good as meeting face to face) for discussing and comments can be shared in real time. confidential or sensitive information. Social reporting promotes transparency, But a telephone call leaves no record and it accountability and openness. can be intrusive. Also, as it is verbal, points can be forgotten or misconstrued. To avoid these drawbacks, reiterate the information at the Choosing the best mode close of the conversation. If time is important, of communication but the conversation covers points that require Face-to-face communication is appropriate when action, follow up with an e-mail. you need to: Meeting. Group meetings are effective for –– Obtain immediate feedback from your message brainstorming, thinking creatively as a team, –– Have a conversation to obtain additional working together visually or when a ‘sounding information quickly board’ is required to evaluate an idea. –– Interpret body language and When held at reasonable intervals, staff non-verbal messages meetings are useful for building morale and –– Communicate something confidential or sensitive. team spirit. Individual or small-group meetings are appropriate when communicating Written communication is appropriate when: sensitive information because they allow –– You need a record reactions to be gauged. –– Information is too lengthy or complex to But excessive meetings can reduce be remembered productivity. Large meetings use up staff –– The recipient is required to take action. resources – they should follow an agenda and be as short as possible. Skype and Yammer now bridge the difference between face-to-face and written communication. You can use Skype if your communication need fits the ‘face-to-face’ criteria and Yammer for the ‘written’ criteria. 1 F - 2 Tools and methods of internal communications
  • 106. Working togetherTips for written communication Divisions and users are responsible for maintaining Write concisely using plain English (See plain their sections of the intranet. Originators of language guidelines documents posted on the intranet are in charge of divisions/ead/ec/plainlanguage/guidelines.pdf archiving information that has become obsolete. and the IFAD style manual https://xdesk.ifad. Requests for posting and updating the intranet org/sites/lsx/IFADs%20manuals/English%20 should be sent to Manual/English%20Reference%20Manual.aspx. Corporate internal communications, such as Avoid jargon, acronyms and technical terms President’s Bulletins and information circulars, that may be unclear or ambiguous to recipients. should be sent to the Communications Division Use neutral language – remember the recipient for clearance. does not have the visual and auditory cues that Briefing sessions: The unit regularly offers give your words context. Be careful to avoid briefing sessions on internal communications language that could be hurtful or misinterpreted. tools and methods. For more information see Write in an approachable style but avoid being contact details below. too ‘chummy’ or flippant – you do not know who might read your message. Avoid criticizing people or saying anything you Contact would not want repeated or shared – remember Roxanna Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge that written communications are permanent. and Internal Communications Unit, Communications Division e-mail:  Tel: +39 06 5459 2375 ;Internal tools Log-on messages (IFADNews): The primary tool to communicate corporate, regional and divisional information. Please send requests for log-on posting to at least 24 hours in advance. Intranet: Accessible from headquarters and country offices. It serves as a central repository and provides access to (among others): –– Operational and administrative policies, manuals and guidelines –– Links to web-based corporate applications and documents –– Event announcements –– IFAD social reporting blog –– Senior managers’ calendars –– Management travel plans and officers in charge.To set up an intranet subsite or presence foryour division/work unit, please contact the Web,Knowledge and Internal Communications Unit F - 3Tools and methods of internal communications
  • 107. Working together Please take a moment of your time to give us your valuable feedback. Return your completed survey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, 1. Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you. 2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No 3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 10 4. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the Working together section
  • 108. Annexes
  • 109. AnnexesJ Annex ITemplate for standard press release Additional information that may be included [Headline] – Keep it short, keep it catchy, keep (all of the following can be tailored to specific it accurate. It should sum up the main theme of requirements): the story. Use action verbs that do not repeat Social media. IFAD encourages participants the wording of the lead paragraph. and journalists to use social media channels [Sub-heading, if applicable]. and report live from events. Join IFADNews [City, date] – The lead paragraph should sum on Twitter ( and up the story and grab the reader’s attention on Facebook ( and should spell out IFAD’s name on the first ifad/107399332627995?ref=ts). When tweeting, reference. See example at: please use the following hashtags: press/2011/65.htm  . –– #agriculture, #agchat, #ifad The second paragraph should provide –– When quoting IFAD President, use @knwanze supporting details: when, where, how, who. –– When quoting other IFAD officials, use #ifad See example at and the person’s last name  . press/2011/65.htm  . For queries on IFAD’s social media channels, The third paragraph should provide more please contact Roxanna Samii, background detail and supporting facts and or  Tel: +39 06 5459 2375  ; . statistics. (See above link.) Videos. For video footage and packages, The fourth paragraph should be a quote from please contact James Heer, the President or other senior official. Quotes or  Tel: +39 06 5459 2550  ; . should stand alone – not be embedded in Images. For images of IFAD’s work, please a paragraph – and include name and title, visit the IFAD image bank (http://photos.ifad. without using honorifics such as Mr, Mrs or Dr. org). For queries, please contact Susan Beccio, (See above link.) or  . Other paragraphs should provide more For more information on IFAD’s work, please visit supporting information, including any historical  . information about the project or programme. [IFAD boilerplate text]. For more information, please contact [Contact Press Release No: IFAD/xx/2012 (Press releases Name, Title, Tel/e-mail]. issued by headquarters are numbered. Numbers ### are assigned by the Media Relations and External the hashtag sign indicates the end of Communications Unit, the document. Country Offices issuing press releases may wish to develop a similar numbering system.) G - 1Annex I
  • 110. Annexes J Annex II Template for standard Videos. For video footage and packages, please media advisory contact James Heer,  ; [Headline] – Keep it short and catchy. Tel: +39 06 5459 2550. [Sub-heading, if applicable] Images. For images of IFAD’s work, please visit [City, Date] – Describe in a short paragraph the the IFAD image bank ( event, its importance and why it is taking place. For queries, please contact Susan Beccio, –– What: Title/description of the event –– When: Date and time of the event For more information on IFAD’s work, please visit –– Where: Location of the event – address –– Who: Key people participating in the event – [IFAD boilerplate text]. names and titles. Provide contact details and information on accreditation, if applicable.  Media Alert No: IFAD/xx/2011 (Media alerts More information on event if necessary. issued by headquarters are numbered. Numbers are assigned by the Media Relations and External Additional information that can be included (all of Communications Unit, these can be tailored to meet specific requirements): Country Offices issuing media alerts may wish to Social media. IFAD encourages participants develop a similar numbering system.) and journalists to use social media channels and report live from the event. Join IFADNews on Twitter ( and on our Facebook page ( pages/ifad/107399332627995?ref=ts). When tweeting, please use the following hashtags: –– #agriculture, #agchat, #ifad –– When quoting IFAD President, use @knwanze –– When quoting other IFAD officials, use #ifad and the person’s last name. For queries on IFAD’s social media channels, please contact Roxanna Samii,  ; Tel: +39 06 5459 2375. G - 2 Annex II
  • 111. AnnexesJ Annex IIIGlossary3 of social media terms Geotagging: Geotagging is the process of addingBlog: A blog is an “online journal” that is updated location-based metadata to media such as photos,on a regular basis with entries that appear in videos or online maps. Geotagging can help usersreverse chronological order. Blogs can be about any find a wide variety of location-specific information.subject. They typically contain comments by other For instance, one can find images taken near areaders, links to other sites, photos and videos. given location by entering latitude and longitude coordinates into a suitable image search engine. Creative Commons: Creative Commons is anot-for-profit organization and licensing system Hashtag: A hashtag is a community-driventhat offers creators the ability to fine-tune their convention for adding additional contextcopyright, spelling out the ways in which others and metadata to tweets. Similar to tagsmay use their works. on blogposts, you can add hashtags to Twitter posts by prefixing a word with a hash symbolCrowdsourcing: Crowdsourcing refers to (or number sign). Twitter users use hashtags toharnessing the skills and enthusiasm of those aggregate, organize and discover relevant posts.outside an organization who are prepared tovolunteer their time contributing content or skills Metadata: Metadata refers to information —and solving problems.  including titles, descriptions, tags and captions — that describes a media item such as a video, photoEmbedding: Embedding is the act of adding or blog post.code to a website so that a video or photo can bedisplayed while it’s being hosted at another site. Microblogging: Microblogging is the actUsers now watch embedded YouTube or of broadcasting short messages to othervideos or see Picasa photos on blogs rather than on subscribers of a Web service. On Twitter, entriesthe original site. are limited to 140 characters. Microblogging is also known as microsharing.Facebook: Facebook is the most popular socialnetworking site in the world. Users may create Social media: Social media are works of user-createda personal profile, add other users as friends video, audio, text or multimedia that are publishedand exchange messages, including automatic and shared in a social environment, such as a blog,notifications when they update their profile. Facebook, Twitter, or photo and video hosting site.Additionally, users may join common interest user More broadly, social media refers to any onlinegroups and Facebook pages of organizations. technology that lets people publish, converse and share content online.3 Courtesy of (accessed on 30 December 2010) G - 3 Annex III
  • 112. Annexes Social networking: Social networking is the act of Web2.0: Web2.0 refers to the second generation socializing in an online community. A typical social of the Web, which enables people to share network such as Facebook allows you to create different types of content, ranging from text a profile, add friends, communicate with other to photos, audio and video files. Web2.0 has members and add your own media.  transformed the internet to become a platform for self-expression, education and advocacy. Tags: Tags are keywords added to a blog post, photo or video to help users find related topics YouTube: YouTube is the world’s most popular or media, either through browsing on the site or video hosting site.  as a term to make your entry more relevant to search engines. Contact Tweet: A tweet is a post on Twitter, a real-time Roxanna Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge social messaging system. While everyone agrees and Internal Communications Unit, on usage of tweet as a noun, people disagree Communications Division on whether you “tweet” or “twitter” as a verb. e-mail:  Tel: +39 06 5459 2375 ; RT stands for retweet: Users add RT in a tweet if they are reposting something from another person’s tweet. Twitter: Twitter is a popular social network that lets members post updates of no more than 140 characters. People have begun using Twitter in interesting ways to point to news stories, to raise awareness about their activities and much more. G - 4 Annex III
  • 113. AnnexesJ Annex IVAfter-action review methodology Analyse both the things that worked well and theShortly after completing a major activity such as a things that did not work so well. Did you capturepresentation or training, it is a good idea to capture the audience’s attention with your opening?lessons learned while they are still fresh in your Did people laugh at your humour? Did the roommind. To do so, ask yourself these four questions setup work for you? Were you able to answerand write down the answers: the questions people raised?1. What was supposed to happen? 4. What did you learn? What were your goals, objectives and What did you do that you want to remember to do expectations? What was on the agenda? in the future? What do you want to do differently? What outcomes and outputs were intended? Every speech and presentation has, or should Resources have, a goal. What did you want the audience –– A more elaborate methodology to do as a result of listening to you? –– Introduction to After Action Reviews2. What actually happened? –– USAID After-Action Review Technical Guidance Describe and note what occurred without –– After-Action Review comment or judgement. You might want to start After_action_review by listing events in the order they occurred. Or you could focus on the main events, themes or issues that developed. Many things happen before, during and after a presentation that contribute to its success or failure. Review as many of them as possible. Then ask yourself, did your speech achieve its goal?3. What are the reasons for the difference between what was supposed to happen and what did happen? The point of this inquiry is not to assign blame or to grade the effort. Its purpose is to identify strengths and weaknesses, propose solutions and adopt a course of action that will correct problems or improve future performance. 2 G - 5 Annex IV
  • 114. Annexes J Annex V Tips for writing e-mails Send attachments that your recipients E-mail is a useful tool for connecting and can access. communicating with others. Follow the guidelines –– If you are sending a document for review below to use it effectively: in-house, send a link to the document on Use the right tool for the right job. Before the IFAD xdesk and be sure your recipient drafting a message, consider if e-mail is has access rights. the best medium for communication. Avoid –– If you send a document outside IFAD, keep sending an e-mail if a meeting or telephone in mind that your recipient may have a slow call would be more effective. Use other tools internet connection and find it difficult to such as Outlook Calendar or Doodle to set up open a large attachment. a meeting. Be courteous and considerate. As your recipient cannot ‘hear’ your tone in an e-mail Guidelines for replying to and your message can easily be misunderstood. forwarding e-mail Taking extra care to be courteous will reduce the Use ‘reply to all’ sparingly. Avoid using ‘reply possibility of your message being misconstrued. to all’ unless all recipients need to receive the Never criticize or blame in e-mail. If the information. Remove recipients from the ‘to’ and subject is sensitive or you are annoyed, save ‘cc’ lines if your response is not relevant to them. the message as a draft – come back to it later Practise the rule of three replies. If a and read it again before sending. message has cycled back and forth through Carefully target your addressees. An e-mail three or more messages, and the issue has message must be appropriate and relevant to not been resolved, use another communication every single recipient. method, such as meeting face to face. Use ‘to’ and ‘cc’ appropriately. Address the Do not send one-word responses. Avoid message to the person who must take action. replying just to say ‘thanks!’ or ‘okay!’. If you The ‘cc’ line should only contain addresses of wish to confirm that you have received a people who need to be informed. message, send a response only to the sender. Do not send confidential information via Give the recipient the full background at e-mail. You have no control over forwarding of the beginning of your reply. With e-mail your message. you should give the recipient some relevant Begin with a precise subject. The subject background at the start of your reply. For line should be as informative to the recipient example, state your location (and your time as it is to you. Never leave it blank. Change zone) if you are not at headquarters. the subject as required to keep it relevant – Be careful about forwarding. Forward for example, change automated subject lines messages only when the recipient needs to such as ‘Rank Xerox’ to something meaningful know or have the information. before forwarding. Never use e-mail for urgent matters. Use the three-hour rule: if your message requires a response within three hours, use a different method to communicate, such as the telephone or in person. Do not hide behind e-mail. To convey a sensitive message, use the telephone or meet in person. G - 6 Annex V
  • 115. AnnexesJ Annex VIWho’s Who in IFAD Communications David Paqui, Communications Officer – EventsThe Communications Division’s work covers e-mail: d.paqui@ifad.orgthe wide gamut of internal and external Tel: +39 06 5459 2213communications, including: event planningand coordination; media relations; writing and Jessica Thomas, Communications Assistantpublications; graphic design and photography; e-mail: j.thomas@ifad.orgradio, television and video production; web and Tel: +39 06 5459 2215electronic media; distribution; and informationand knowledge management. The Writing and Publications Unit researches, writes and coordinates production of a wideCassandra Waldon, Director of Communications variety of printed, spoken and web-basede-mail: products designed to raise global awarenessTel: +39 06 5459 2659 of rural poverty and promote an informed understanding of IFAD’s work.Bob Baber, Administrative Assistant and e-mail: wpu@ifad.orgCommunications Toolkit Coordinatore-mail:  Bruce Murphy, Manager, Writing and PublicationsTel: +39 06 5459 2023 e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2693 The Media Relations and External Communications Unit gives assistance and Hazel Bedford, Communications Officer – Writer advice on the best use of media opportunities. e-mail: The unit also offers help in preparing press Tel: +39 06 5459 2672 materials, advice on dealing with media requests and difficult reporters, and in-person Karen Zagor, Communications Officer – Writer media training. e-mail: e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2761 Farhana Haque Rahman, Head, Media Relations and External Communications, Communications Division e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2485 Katie Taft, Communications Officer – External Communications and Media Relations e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2396 G - 7 Annex VI
  • 116. Annexes The Graphic Design Services Unit supplies The Web, Knowledge and Internal graphic communications support to all IFAD Communications Unit plans, researches and divisions and country offices. The unit develops produces a variety of web-based, internal and produces graphic communications materials communications and knowledge products. for print, press, television, web, multimedia The Unit manages the content of IFAD’s products and events. website and coordinates the organization’s social media activities. Mark Forrest, Manager, Graphic Design Services e-mail: Roxanna Samii, Manager, Web, Knowledge Tel: +39 06 5459 2216 and Internal Communications e-mail: Birgit Plockinger, Graphic Designer Tel: +39 06 5459 2375 e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2529 Timothy Ledwith, Web Writer and Internal Communications Officer Susan Beccio, Photography and Print Producer e-mail: e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2356 Tel: +39 06 5459 2479 Beate Stalsett, Associate Professional Officer – Nancy Sadek, Communications Assistant Web and Internal Communications e-mail: e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2606 Tel: +39 06 5459 2487 Daniela Cuneo, Communications Assistant, The Broadcast Communications Unit Internal Communications and Social Media researches and produces a variety of television, e-mail: radio and multimedia products that raise global tel. +39 06 5459 2453 awareness of rural poverty. The unit ensures the quality of all visual media products that carry the Sophie De Vos, Communications Assistant, IFAD logo and provides a consultation service Geographic information System on video production to others in the institution. e-mail: e-mail: tel. +39 06 5459 2870 James Heer, Manager, Broadcast Communications Sundeep Vaid, Research Librarian e-mail: e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2550 tel. +39 06 5459 2473 Joanne Levitan, Broadcast Specialist Chiara Bellucci, Web Assistant e-mail: e-mail: Tel: +39 06 5459 2509 tel. +39 06 5459 2726 Enza Falco, Communications Assistant Christian Assogba, Research and e-mail: Distribution Assistant Tel: +39 06 5459 2033 e-mail: tel. +39 06 5459 2749 G - 8 Annex VII
  • 117. AnnexesPlease take a moment of your time to give usyour valuable feedback. Return your completedsurvey to Bob Baber, Communications Division, Are the explanations in this section easy to read 5. Were you looking for something specific in this and understand? section that you did not find? If yes, please tell us what information we can add that would be m Yes m No useful to you.2. How did you or do you intend to use the content of this section in your work? 6. If resources (web links and other references) were included in this section, did you use them? m Yes m No3. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = not useful; 10 = extremely useful), how useful did you find this section? 7. If yes, which resources did you find most useful? m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 104. If you responded 5 or below to the previous question, please explain why you did not find the section useful. Click here to access the interactive survey for the Annexes section