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Smallholders ‐ under 2 ha 400 – 500 million smallholders 2 billion people 33 million in Africa 80% of farms in Africa
3 Facts• the size of land holdings is falling, with the fastest decline in Africa.• land and water are deteriorating and becoming scarce• smallholdings remain of primary importance not only to agriculture but to rural development
The Virtuous Circle• As agriculture develops – greater yields and production of subsistence and cash crops – smallholders become more prosperous. The landless also benefit through wage labour. Chronic hunger decreases.• The rural economy also grows – through the creation of small rural businesses ‐ providing more employment and improved rural facilities, especially schools and health clinics. Roads and markets develop. The rural economy connects to the urban economy and to the growing industrial sector.• Free trade provides opportunities for greater imports and exports. High value agricultural exports accelerate agricultural development, further intensifying the virtuous circle.
Appropriate Technologies• They are productive; in particular they generate high levels of income• The production they generate is stable and resilient• They are readily accessible and affordable. • They do not have significant environmental or human health downsides
Rasike Farm, Chililila WG. MBILI maize-soyabean intercrop providing 1215 kg maize and 545 kg soyabean per ha when conventional intercrops failed. These results indicate that MBILI is a means toward greater food security.Wamalwa Farm, Siritanyi FFS, Kanduyi.Maize-groundnut intercrop providing 5330kg maize and 1203 kg groundnut per ha.These results indicate that MBILI canproduce significant food surpluses.
Nwadjahane, Southern Mozambique Increasingly frequent and severe droughts, floods, and storms Fertile lowlands good crops but can be destroyed during floodEduardo Highlands good crops ofMondlane maize and cassava duringhttp://www.geog.ox.ac.uk/researc flood years, but lessh/landscape/projects/adaptiv... productive otherwise
In many places extreme events (e.g. droughts and floods) will occur with greater frequency and intensity How do we build Resilient Livelihoods?
Goddard GHCN_GISS_HR2SST_1200km _Anom07_2010_2010_1951_1980Russia and Pakistan 2010 Logistics cluster, Islamabad
Agriculture’s Greenhouse Gases• CO2 – deforestation, loss of soil carbon• Methane – flooded rice, enteric fermentation in cattle• Nitrous Oxide – microbial transformation of nitrogen in soils and manures
Win-win SolutionsConservation Farming in Zimbabwe Ploughed 3 years minimum
Going to Scale – Some principles• The private sector is key• In most cases there has to be a public‐private partnership. • Each value chain is likely to be different. • The value added needs to be biased to the lower levels of the value chain to achieve better equity. • There is likely to be a significant role for farmer associations• much of the success depends on the details of the pathways, processes and deals between the partners that are struck. •
A Comprehensive FrameworkEnabling national governments in partnerships with aid agencies, NGOs and the private sector, to help smallholders achieve food security for themselves and their communities and at the same time sustainably increase their incomes