DECENT AND PRODUCTIVEEMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN RURAL AREAS Impact study of IFAD projects in Egypt, Nepal, Madagascar, Nicaragua and Senegal Erik Whist Scanteam Oslo, Norway
Overall objective of the studyHelp develop elements of a framework of intervention for the promotion of decent and productive work for youth living in rural areas
Pillars of Decent and Productive Employment• Employment creation and enterprise development• Working conditions and social protection• Rights at work• Workers’ and employers’ organization and social dialogue
Scope of the study• Desk review of 18 projects• In depth study of five projects: – West Noubaria Rural Development Programme (WNRDP) in the Arab Republic of Egypt – Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Programme (LFLP) in Nepal – Support Programme for Rural Microenterprise Poles and Regional Economies (PROSPERER) in Madagascar. – Programa de Desarrollo Económico de la Región Seca de Nicaragua (PRODESEC) in Nicaragua – Promotion of rural entrepreneurship (PROMER) in Senegal
Methods and steps in the study1. ILO / IFAD Concept Note “Promoting Decent and Productive Employment of Young People in Rural Areas: A Review of Strategies and Programmes”,2. ILO “Detailed methodology for assessing rural development programmes through decent work lenses”.3. Preparation of Note on methodology for the study with questionnaires and interviewguides for focus group discussions4. Contracting of five consultants by ILO5. Extensive briefings of five national consultants6. Joint programming of field work by national consultants and project management7. Field work: Questionnaires and focus group dicussions8. Prepartion of table of content for national studies9. Drafting of five national reports by national consultants10. Merging databases for all projects youth, employers and local leaders11. Analysis of databases and writing of overall syntethis report12. National consultants review syntethis report13. Finalization of report
Number of interviewees Youth Producers Local leaders Total entrepreneursEgypt 127 89 88 304Nepal 297 0 129 426Madagascar 60 28 17 105Nicaragua 168 123 23 314Senegal 78 123 70 271Total 730 363 326 1420
Characteristics and approaches of projectsWNRD - Egypt General socio-economic rural development projects. DoLFLP – Nepal not have youth as a target group and do not directly address youth employment.PROSPERER – Madagascar Work clearly on youth employment and have youth as aPRODESEC - Nicaragua specific target group. Both PRODESEC in Nicaragua and PROSPERER in Madagascar follow a two-pronged strategy to support youth employment by providing assistance directly to youth as well as working with producers and entrepreneurs, trying to improve indirectly youth employment situation.PROMER - Senegal Main target groups are rural micro-enterprises and small enterprises. Priority is given to women, regardless of age. Youth is not a special target group, but youth are eligible for all project activities and a priority for activities which are not specifically addressing enterprises such as different types of skills training. PROMER tries supporting youth employment indirectly by its assistance to enterprises.
Positive impacts of programs on pillars Decent Employment Employment Working Rights at work Organization creation conditions and social Enterprise Social dialogue development protectionWNRDP – Some Little Little NoneEgyptLFLP – Some Little None NoneNepalPROSPERER Much Much Little NoneMadagascarPRODESEC Much Much Much LittleNicaraguaPROMER Much Much Much NoneSenegal
Findings and recommendationsAn integrated approach is necessary which requires a three-pronged strategy:• Focus on all the four pillars of Decent and Productive Employment• Design rural development interventions targeting Decent and Productive employment for Rural Youth• Ensure National Framework supports interventions
Employment creation and enterprise developmentFindings: All projects have had positive impact. Over 45 percent of the youth interviewed acknowledge that their employment situation has improved, 44 percent note an increase in their probability of finding employment; and 56 percent agree that the projects have provided good training opportunities.Recommendations: Support to production based on local resources, packages of market demand-based training for youth (including entrepreneurship training) along with access to land, funding, materials and start-up kits, and technical/legal support for self-employment and local enterprise development.
Working conditions and social protectionFindings: 39 percent of youth interviewed find that their income has increased, and 24 percent comment that working hours and other working conditions have improved; but only 8 percent note improvements in social security.Recommendations: Needs much emphasis through awareness raising among youth and enterprise owners, inducing producers and entrepreneurs to abide by national legislation, but also to support training in both technical and legal aspects of occupational safety, make available tools, equipment and technologies to improve safety, ensure health services, as well as awareness programmes.
Rights at workFindings: Only15 percent of all youth respondents feel their employment contracts have improved, and no more than 28 percent consider their employers to have greater awareness of and respect for workers’ rights.Recommendations: Prompting and assisting informal enterprises to acquire legal status, as well as awareness raising among youth and employers about workers’ rights, and developing labor inspection to monitor and advise on workers’ rights in rural enterprises
Workers’ and employers’ organization and social dialogueFindings: Only 2.7 percent of interviewed youth note increases in trade union membership and progress in collective bargaining.Recommendations: Encourage young workers, self-employed and entrepreneurs to see the value and mutual benefit of these associations, and of dialogue among them.
Design of rural development interventions• Ensure an integrated approach including all four pillars of Decent Employment• Projects including enterprise development have a greater impact on decent and productive employment of young people than “general” rural development projects• Promotion of decent and productive employment for young people is easier to attain if young men and women are an explicit target group• A two-pronged approach of working with both enterprises and youth is best suited for projects promoting decent and productive employment• Training of young women and men should aim both to strengthen their potential in the labour market and as self-employed entrepreneurs• Gender imbalances in access to resources, training and other empowering features need to be compensated• Including working conditions and social protection, rights at work, organization and social dialogue, all require using a rights-based approach• Both formal and informal activities need to be targeted, taking into account their specific opportunities and challenge
National Framework• Incentives for economic development in rural areas• Measures encouraging employers to recruit youth• Incentives for self-employment of youth• Reviewing enforcement mechanisms, including labour inspection, to ensure that youth enjoy their labour rights, appropriate working conditions, social protection and representation• Reviewing how social security may be strengthened and extended to cover small and informal rural enterprises• Incentives for owners of informal enterprises to give them formal status, which is often a condition for youth to enjoy labour rights, social protection, representation and bargaining rights• Labor unions and employers’ associations ought to work and to considerably strengthen their presence in rural areas as well as support their rural affiliates