CROP DEVELOPMENT AND CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT IN SUB- SAHARAN AFRICA Dr ALAIN ANGE Technical Adviser to FARA FORUM FOR AGRICULT...
FAO grouping for SSA countries Eastern Africa Middle Africa Southern Africa Western Africa Burundi Comoros Eritrea Ethiopi...
Population growth - increased needs from agriculture  Population has doubled in the last 25 years. It will increase by 52%...
Agricultural population – Growth and ratio to total Agricultural population keeps growing. Ratio to total population evolv...
Effect of decreasing ratio of agricultural people If availability of products per inhabitant was only to be maintained  fr...
Changes in crop production for 25 years in SSA Indexes 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 cereals 1 1.13 1.21 1.38 1.70 1.86 Be...
SSA - Lessons from production development - 1 Increased production/ availability Lack of progress  Production/ inhabit. – ...
SSA - Lessons from production development - 2 Cropped area acreage - 1000 ha Huge increase of farmed land; no change of fa...
SSA - Lessons from production development - 3 Grain yields = STILL LOW Maize and Cowpeas progressed in 23y Tubers and bana...
What happened in farming in SSA since 1985 Production of  cereals  did not progress enough, while production for oilseeds,...
Cassava Production in West Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index  Population Index Production Benin...
Cassava Production in East Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index  Population Index Production BURUN...
Cassava Production in Middle Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index  Population Index Production ANG...
Progress of the availability of cassava in SSA Very high progress and availability in Angola and in Ghana Important progre...
Cassava Productivity in West Africa Kg / Agricultural people 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index  Ag. Population Index P...
Cassava Productivity in East Africa Kg / Agricultural people 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index  Ag. Population Index P...
Cassava Productivity in Middle Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index  Ag. Population Index Producti...
Progress of the Productivity of cassava in SSA The high progress of production in Angola, Ghana and Nigeria is related to ...
Cassava cropped area/ farm in West Africa Ha / 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Ha/farm Index  Ag. Population Index A...
Cassava Cropped area/farm in East Africa Ha / 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Ha/farm Index  Ag. Population Index Ar...
Cassava cropped area/farm in Middle Africa Ha/ 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Ha/farm Index  Ag. Population Index P...
Progress of cropped area of cassava/farm in SSA The land cropped with cassava per farm increased tremendously in Senegal, ...
Cassava yields in West Africa Kg/ Ha 1985 2000 2008 Index yield Index Production Index Area Benin 6,885 10,712 14,348 2.08...
Cassava Yields in East Africa Ha / 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Yield Index  Production Index Area BURUNDI 9,000 ...
Cassava Yields in Middle Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Yield Index  Production Index Area ANGOLA 3,425 8,299...
Progress of cassava yields in SSA Rather good yields have been obtained in Benin, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Kenya, Malawi and An...
CONCLUSIONS In the context of rapidly burgeoning population, and as far as the expansion of agricultural population genera...
Session 1.1 Crop development and Cassava development in Sub-Saharan Africa by Ange
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Session 1.1 Crop development and Cassava development in Sub-Saharan Africa by Ange

12,796

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
12,796
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Session 1.1 Crop development and Cassava development in Sub-Saharan Africa by Ange"

  1. 1. CROP DEVELOPMENT AND CASSAVA DEVELOPMENT IN SUB- SAHARAN AFRICA Dr ALAIN ANGE Technical Adviser to FARA FORUM FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN AFRICA ACCRA - GHANA
  2. 2. FAO grouping for SSA countries Eastern Africa Middle Africa Southern Africa Western Africa Burundi Comoros Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Reunion Rwanda Somalia Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe Sudan (in North Africa) Angola Cameroon Central African Rep. Chad Congo DRC Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Botswana Lesotho Namibia South Africa Swaziland Benin Burkina Faso Cabo Verde Cote d’Ivoire Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo
  3. 3. Population growth - increased needs from agriculture Population has doubled in the last 25 years. It will increase by 52% within the next 20 years. Total Population in 1000 – Source FAO Statistics -> The availability of food per capita progressed by 10% for the last 25 years. It should progress by >30% for the next 20 years = >80% more production Region 1985 2010 2030 Eastern 165,963 327,187 518,063 Middle 62,411 128,900 201,604 Southern 32,450 57,968 64,036 Western 159,843 306,060 463,134 SSA 425,667 820,123 1,246,837
  4. 4. Agricultural population – Growth and ratio to total Agricultural population keeps growing. Ratio to total population evolves differently between regions. Source = FAO – Statistics – interpretation A. ANGE Variable Regions 1985 2010 2030 Index for agricultural population Eastern 1 1.75 2.37 Middle 1 1.64 2.00 Southern 1 0.82 0.53 Western 1 1.38 1.82 SSA 1 1.58 2.07 Agricultural population in % to total population Eastern 82.5 73.2 62.6 Middle 71.0 56.4 43.9 Southern 25.5 13.5 7.9 Western 60.7 43.9 38.2 SSA 67.6 55.4 47.7
  5. 5. Effect of decreasing ratio of agricultural people If availability of products per inhabitant was only to be maintained from 1985 to 2030, the production from every agricultural people should increase by: 32% in Eastern Africa - 220% in Southern Africa 62% in Middle Africa - 57% in Western Africa For increasing food availability by 43% from 1985 to 2030, farmers should also increase their productivity with this progress rate. Total progress required is by: 89% in Eastern Africa - 220% in Southern Africa 132% in Middle Africa - 225% in Western Africa Intensification is urgently needed if massive encroachment on forests and bush-land is to be avoided in the next 20 years. Climate change will add to the need for improved productivity through intensification and significant changes in production systems induced by investments.
  6. 6. Changes in crop production for 25 years in SSA Indexes 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 cereals 1 1.13 1.21 1.38 1.70 1.86 Beans + peas 1 1.30 1.43 1.70 2.09 2.34 Oil seeds 1 1.42 1.52 2.03 2.55 2.63 Tubers + bananas 1 1.25 1.60 1.82 2.18 2.32 Vegetables 1 1.25 1.60 1.82 2.18 2.32 Fruits 1 1.13 1.31 1.60 1.82 1.88 Perennial food crops 1 1.05 1.06 1.24 1.33 1.32 Spices 1 1.14 1.19 1.47 1.64 1.73 Non food crops 1 1.20 1.34 1.52 2.14 1.74 Total Population 1 1.15 1.32 1.50 1.70 1.83 Agricultural population 1 1.12 1.23 1.34 1.46 1.53
  7. 7. SSA - Lessons from production development - 1 Increased production/ availability Lack of progress Production/ inhabit. – Progress slowed down = oil seeds, legumes, tubers, bananas = cereals Production/agric. people – Progress slowed down Production kg/index 1985 2000 2008 Cereals 142.6 / 1 131.2 / 0.92 144.6 / 1.01 Beans + peas 10.6 / 1 12.0 / 1.13 13.5 / 1.27 Oil seeds 9.7 / 1 13.1 / 1.35 13.9 / 1.43 Tubers + bananas 241.0 / 1 290.7 / 1.21 304.6 / 1.26 Vegetables 35.1 / 1 38.9 / 1.11 39.4 / 1.12 Fruits 18.1 / 1 19.3 / 1.07 18.6 / 1.03 Perennial food crops 162.0 / 1 133.8 / 0.83 116.7 / 0.72 Spices 0.1 / 1 0.1 / 1 0.1 / 1 Non food crops 5.1 / 1 5.2 / 1.02 4.9 / 0.96 Production kg/index 1985 2000 2008 Cereals 210.9 / 1 217.7 / 1.03 256.7 / 1.22 Beans + peas 15.6 / 1 19.8 / 1.27 23.9 / 1.53 Oil seeds 14.3 / 1 21.7 / 1.52 24.7 / 1.73 Tubers + bananas 355.9 / 1 482.4 / 1.36 540.6 / 1.52 Vegetables 52.0 / 1 64.5 / 1.24 70.0 / 1.35 Fruits 26.8 / 1 32.1 / 1.20 33.0 / 1.23 Perennial food crops 239.6 / 1 222.1 / 0.93 207.1 / 0.86 Spices 0.15 / 1 0.17 / 1.13 0.17 / 1.13 Non food crops 7.6 / 1 8.6 / 1.13 8.6 / 1.13
  8. 8. SSA - Lessons from production development - 2 Cropped area acreage - 1000 ha Huge increase of farmed land; no change of farm size Cropped area/10 agric. people - ha Acreage 1000 ha /index 1985 2000 2008 Cereals 54,869 / 1 70,621 / 1.29 85,423 / 1.56 Beans + peas 9,637 / 1 14,630 / 1.52 19,633 / 2.04 Oil seeds 8,814 / 1 13,699 /1.55 16,498 / 1.87 Tubers + bananas 17,750 / 1 24,904 / 1.58 28,532 / 1.81 Vegetables 3,240 / 1 5,262 / 1.62 6,183 / 1.91 Fruits 860 / 1 1,306 / 1.52 1,532 / 1.78 Perennial food crops 11,883 / 1 15,099 / 1.14 15,957 / 1.34 Spices 153 /1 185 / 1.21 198 / 1.30 Non food crops 1,193 / 1 1,706 / 1.43 1,957 / 1.64 Total 106,398 / 1 147,412 /1.39 175,912 / 1.65 Cropped area ha / index 1985 2000 2008 Cereals 1.906 / 1 1.83 1 / 0.96 1.848 / 0.97 Beans + peas 0.335 / 1 0.379 / 1.13 0.425 / 1.26 Oil seeds 0.306 / 1 0.355 / 1.16 0.357 / 1.17 Tubers + bananas 0.547 / 1 0.646 / 1.18 0.617 /1.13 Vegetables 0.113 / 1 0.136 / 1.21 0.134 / 1.19 Fruits 0.030 / 1 0.034 / 1.13 0.033 / 1.10 Perennial food crops 0.413 / 1 0.392 0.95 0.345 0.84 Spices 0.005 / 1 0,005 / 0.96 0,004 / 0.86 Non food crops 0.041 / 1 0.044 1.08 0.042 / 1.03 Total 3.696 / 1 3.822 1.03 3.802 / 1.03
  9. 9. SSA - Lessons from production development - 3 Grain yields = STILL LOW Maize and Cowpeas progressed in 23y Tubers and bananas = VERY LOW Yams and bananas progressed in 23 y Region Kg/ha Rice Maize Sorghum Millet Cowpea Eastern Africa Yield 2008 2,100 1,301 1,069 1,079 516 Index/ 1985 1.18 0.92 1.24 1.04 1.16 Middle Africa Yield 2008 982 884 834 554 714 Index/ 1985 0.97 1.15 1.11 0.93 1.19 Southern Africa Yield 2008 2,324 3,824 1,847 270 507 Index/ 1985 0.66 2.07 1.43 0.82 0.88 Western Africa Yield 2008 1,774 1,759 964 1.002 436 Index/ 1985 1.12 1.66 1.13 1.17 1.64 Cassava Sweet potatoe Irish potatoe Yams Coco yams bananas plantains 8,974 4,964 9,119 7,143 5,585 6,748 5,588 1.24 1.10 1.32 1.70 0.99 1.22 0.99 8,349 4,446 4,700 7,344 5,160 7,206 4,963 1.16 0.79 1.46 1.09 1.26 0.87 1.22 - 3,026 31,992 - - 47,489 - - 0.79 2.08 - - 3.42 - 11,177 3,169 4,656 10,827 6,684 11,652 6,100 1.19 0.62 0.67 1.57 2.94 1.26 1.34
  10. 10. What happened in farming in SSA since 1985 Production of cereals did not progress enough, while production for oilseeds, legumes and roots and tubers improved availability; Progress in productivity halved on 2000 – 08 as compared to 1985 – 2000; Average farm size did not changed much; farm numbers increased by 58%; Cropped areas increased by 65% and doubled in West Africa , with huge cost of deforestation and land degradation; Progress of crop yields has been lower than 1.2% per year (half of population growth rate), with exception for: - Maize in Southern and western Africa, sorghum in Southern and Eastern Africa; - Cowpea in Western Africa; - Irish potatoes with exception in Western Africa; - Yams in Eastern and Western Africa and coco yams in Western Africa; - Bananas in Southern Africa and plantains in Western Africa; The progress of cassava yields has been very slow on the whole continent, within a context of poor progress of food availability.
  11. 11. Cassava Production in West Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index Population Index Production Benin 169.6 352.9 303.5 1.79 2.10 3.76 Burkina Faso 1.7 0.2 0.3 0.18 1.98 0.34 Cote d’Ivoire 119.5 121.5 143.3 1.20 1.97 2.36 Gambia 8.2 5.8 4.7 0.57 2.26 1.30 Ghana 176.8 415.1 486.1 2.75 1.80 4.94 Guinea 87.7 100.8 114.1 1.30 1.89 2.43 Guinea Bissau 9.8 24.5 30.3 3.09 1.71 5.30 Liberia 127.4 156.0 147.6 1.16 1.71 1.98 Mali 0.1 1.4 7.9 - 1.62 - Niger 28.7 14.9 7.5 0.26 2.15 0.56 Nigeria 142.0 256.4 294.8 2.08 1.78 3.68 Senegal 4.8 13.4 75.4 15.7 1.87 29.75 Sierra Leone 30.3 57.0 66.5 2.19 1.53 3.36 Togo 141.8 133.6 136.4 0.96 1.93 1.86 WEST AFRICA 112.2 198.3 219.5 1.96 1.82 3.57
  12. 12. Cassava Production in East Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index Population Index Production BURUNDI 103.2 101.4 94.9 0.67 1.65 1.11 COMOROS 59.1 76.1 70.6 1.19 1.86 2.22 KENYA 32.3 13.3 19.4 0.60 1.97 1.18 MADAGASCAR 219.1 161.3 125.6 0.57 1.95 1.12 MALAWI 28.8 236.2 235.2 8.17 2.04 16.68 MAURITIUS 0.3 0.1 0.2 - 1.26 - MOZAMBIQUE 270.2 293.8 225.1 0.83 1.68 1.40 RWANDA 94.7 103.2 100.7 1.06 1.59 1.69 SOMALIA 6.3 9.5 9.2 1.46 1.40 2.05 TANZANIA 376.3 156.5 155.3 0.41 1.95 0.80 UGANDA 182.5 203.2 160.2 0.88 2.14 1.88 ZAMBIA 53.1 77.9 61.3 1.15 1.86 2.15 ZIMBABWE 9.3 14.1 15.4 1.66 1.41 2.34 EAST AFRICA 115.0 94.7 84.0 0.73 1.87 1.37 SUDAN 3.7 0.3 0.2 - 1.72 -
  13. 13. Cassava Production in Middle Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index Population Index Production ANGOLA 146.8 310.4 558.1 3.80 1.93 7.34 CAMEROON 142.6 120.9 131.0 0.92 1.82 1.67 CENTRAL AFRICAN Rep. 221.3 149.6 143.3 0.65 1.66 1.07 CHAD 68.9 30.5 14.7 0.21 2.09 0.44 CONGO DRC 500.0 314.0 233.6 0.47 2.05 0.96 CONGO Rep 337.0 272.8 276.6 0.82 1.71 1.40 EQUATORIAL GUINEA 133.8 85.1 68.3 0.51 2.10 1.07 GABON 214.6 184.9 165.7 0.77 1.83 1.41 MIDDLE AFRICA 327.5 247.1 228.6 0.70 1.96 1.37
  14. 14. Progress of the availability of cassava in SSA Very high progress and availability in Angola and in Ghana Important progress and availability in Benin and in Nigeria High progress and good availability in Malawi Progress and modest availability in Cote d’Ivoire and Liberia Stable moderate availability in Guinea, Togo, Cameroon, Uganda Improving low availability: Sierra Leone, Comoros, Rwanda, Zambia Declining still high availability in Congo DRC and Congo Declining good availability in Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania Declining modest availability in Gabon and Central African Rep. Declining low availability in Burundi, Equatorial guinea, Chad Very much declining low availability in Niger and Kenya
  15. 15. Cassava Productivity in West Africa Kg / Agricultural people 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index Ag. Population Index Production Benin 261.0 654.1 656.5 2.52 1.49 3.76 Burkina Faso 1.9 0.2 0.3 - 1.97 0.34 Cote d’Ivoire 193.0 249.2 357.9 1.85 1.27 2.36 Gambia 9.8 7.3 6.1 0.62 2.08 1.30 Ghana 295.2 736.2 895.0 3.03 1.63 4.94 Guinea 98.5 100.8 141.5 1.44 1.69 2.43 Guinea Bissau 11.3 29.7 37.9 3.35 1.59 5.30 Liberia 170.9 230.7 233.4 1.37 1.45 1.98 Mali 0.1 1.7 10.3 - 1.42 100 Niger 32.2 17.4 9.0 0.28 2.02 0.56 Nigeria 293.5 770.7 1.115.3 3.80 0.97 3.69 Senegal 6.1 18.3 106.3 17.40 1.70 29.80 Sierra Leone 42.1 87.6 108.8 2.58 1.30 3.36 Togo 211.1 223.8 249.5 1.18 1.57 1.86 WEST AFRICA 184.7 396.4 487.8 2.64 1.35 3.57
  16. 16. Cassava Productivity in East Africa Kg / Agricultural people 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index Ag. Population Index Production BURUNDI 111.5 111.7 77.2 0.69 1.60 1.11 COMOROS 74.8 103.5 100.5 1.34 1.65 2.22 KENYA 40.0 17.6 27.0 0.68 1.75 1.18 MADAGASCAR 272.0 215.5 176.5 0.65 1.73 1.12 MALAWI 34.8 302.7 317.7 9.13 1.82 16.68 MAURITIUS 1.5 1.1 2.7 1.80 0.50 - MOZAMBIQUE 335.6 374.1 294.0 0.88 1.60 1.40 RWANDA 102.3 113.5 112.1 1.10 1.54 1.69 SOMALIA 8.3 13.5 13.8 1.66 1.24 2.05 TANZANIA 451.8 200.0 209.0 0.46 1.74 0.80 UGANDA 214.9 257.2 214.6 1.00 1.88 1.88 ZAMBIA 71.6 112.6 95.0 1.33 1.62 2.15 ZIMBABWE 13.1 22.3 26.6 2.03 1.15 2.34 EAST AFRICA 139.5 94.7 113.3 0.81 1.68 1.37 SUDAN 5.3 0.5 0.5 0.10 1.30 -
  17. 17. Cassava Productivity in Middle Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Prod./cap. Index Ag. Population Index Production ANGOLA 194.9 432.6 799.9 4.10 1.79 7.34 CAMEROON 213.8 227.4 302.0 1.41 1.18 1.67 CENTRAL AFRICAN Rep. 268.9 206.2 219.6 0.82 1.31 1.07 CHAD 81.9 40.5 21.6 0.26 1.68 0.44 CONGO DRC 719.1 505.1 401.2 0.56 1.71 0.96 CONGO Rep 638.0 681.0 824.4 1.29 1.08 1.40 EQUATORIAL GUINEA 175.7 121.6 103.9 0.59 1.81 1.07 GABON 367.1 490.3 591.1 1.61 0.88 1.41 MIDDLE AFRICA 461.3 394.3 396.4 0.86 1.59 1.37
  18. 18. Progress of the Productivity of cassava in SSA The high progress of production in Angola, Ghana and Nigeria is related to a sharp increase in farm productivity for cassava. In Nigeria, this improvement overwhelmed the effect of stagnating agricultural population. In Congo, the already high productivity improved significantly. The high production progress in Malawi is related to a shift to full stand cultivation and intensification , while total is still modest. In Benin, the productivity progress has been a bit less than above. In Cote d’Ivoire, Cameroon and Gabon, progress of production is directly related to improved farm productivity and compensated for a slow development of agricultural population. In Togo and Uganda, productivity gains are modest. In Guinea, Comoros and Zambia, progress in productivity have been good, while productivity is still modest. In Sierra Leone and Senegal, progress has been high, from low productivity. Productivity fell in Mozambique, Madagascar, Tanzania in relation to drought and in Congo DRC and Central African Republic in relation to civil unrest.
  19. 19. Cassava cropped area/ farm in West Africa Ha / 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Ha/farm Index Ag. Population Index Area Benin 0.379 0.611 0.458 1.21 1.49 1.80 Burkina Faso 0.002 0.001 0.001 - 1.97 1.25 Cote d’Ivoire 0.213 0.312 0.473 2.22 1.27 1.75 Gambia 0.033 0.024 0.020 0.61 2.08 1.30 Ghana 0.372 0.599 0.662 1.78 1.63 2.90 Guinea 0.133 0.176 0.176 1.32 1.69 2.24 Guinea Bissau 0.013 0.019 0.038 2.92 1.59 4.80 Liberia 0.277 0.351 0.363 1.31 1.45 1.90 Mali 0.000 0.002 0.006 - 1.42 42.85 Niger 0.033 0.007 0.004 0.12 2.02 0.25 Nigeria 0.261 0.795 0.945 3.62 0.97 3.51 Senegal 0.015 0.037 0.131 8.73 1.70 14.46 Sierra Leone 0.092 0.169 0.218 2.37 1.30 3.08 Togo 0.275 0.396 0.361 1.31 1.57 2.06 WEST AFRICA 0.197 0.408 0.436 2.21 1.35 2.98
  20. 20. Cassava Cropped area/farm in East Africa Ha / 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Ha/farm Index Ag. Population Index Area BURUNDI 0.124 0.124 0.088 0.71 1.60 1.14 COMOROS 0.182 0.192 0.184 1.01 1.65 1.67 KENYA 0.031 0.026 0.020 0.65 1.75 1.09 MADAGASCAR 0.445 0.308 0.235 0.53 1.73 0.91 MALAWI 0.133 0.196 0.167 1.25 1.82 2.28 MAURITIUS - - - - 0.50 - MOZAMBIQUE 0.839 0.646 0.496 0.59 1.60 0.94 RWANDA 0.098 0.167 0.172 1.76 1.54 2.70 SOMALIA 0.008 0.013 0.014 1.75 1.24 2.32 TANZANIA 0.412 0.303 0.214 0.52 1.74 0.90 UGANDA 0.239 0.208 0.168 0.70 1.88 1.33 ZAMBIA 0.115 0.228 0.252 2.19 1.62 3.53 ZIMBABWE 0.032 0.051 0.062 1.94 1.15 2.25 EAST AFRICA 0.192 0.160 0.126 0.66 1.68 1.11 SUDAN 0.022 0.003 0.001 0.05 1.3 0.16
  21. 21. Cassava cropped area/farm in Middle Africa Ha/ 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Ha/farm Index Ag. Population Index Production ANGOLA 0.569 0.521 0.540 0.95 1.79 1.70 CAMEROON 0.134 0.171 0.441 3.29 1.18 3.88 CENTRAL AFRICAN Rep. 0.707 0.699 0.732 1.04 1.31 1.36 CHAD 0.182 0.038 0.027 0.15 1.68 0.25 CONGO DRC 0.893 0.623 0.495 0.55 1.71 0.95 CONGO Rep 0.892 0.757 0.907 1.02 1.08 1.10 EQUATORIAL GUINEA 0.628 0.486 0.416 0.66 1.81 1.20 GABON 0.734 0.968 1.158 1.58 0.88 1.38 MIDDLE AFRICA 0.638 0.490 0.475 0.74 1.59 1.19
  22. 22. Progress of cropped area of cassava/farm in SSA The land cropped with cassava per farm increased tremendously in Senegal, explaining half of production increase. The acreage under cassava per farm tripled in Nigeria, Guinea Bissau and Cameroon and this increase composes most of the progress in productivity. The acreage doubled in Cote d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Zimbabwe and this increase composes most of the progress in productivity. The acreage increased by 50 to 70% in Ghana, Rwanda and Gabon and this increase composes a large part of the progress in productivity. The acreage increased by 20 to 30% in Guinea, Liberia and Togo and this increase composes most of the progress in productivity. The cropped are sharply declined in Burundi, Kenya, Madagascar, Tanzania and Uganda, which is related to drought. This cropped area sharply decreased in Equatorial Guinea possibly in relation with more shift to perennial food crops. Civil unrest in Congo DRC caused the abandonment of half of cassava fields.
  23. 23. Cassava yields in West Africa Kg/ Ha 1985 2000 2008 Index yield Index Production Index Area Benin 6,885 10,712 14,348 2.08 3.76 1.80 Burkina Faso 8,289 2,000 2,250 0.27 0.34 1.25 Cote d’Ivoire 5,614 7,743 7,567 1.35 2.36 1.75 Gambia 3,000 3,000 3,000 1.00 1.30 1.30 Ghana 7,932 12,281 13,515 1.70 4.94 2.90 Guinea 7,394 6,830 8,025 1.09 2.43 2.24 Guinea Bissau 9,000 15,238 9,945 1.11 5.30 4.80 Liberia 6,164 6,575 6,437 1.04 1.98 1.90 Mali 7,221 11,589 16,667 2.31 100 42.85 Niger 9,800 23,217 22,060 2.25 0.56 0.25 Nigeria 11,247 9,700 11,800 1.05 3.69 3.51 Senegal 3,953 4,888 8,134 2.06 29.75 14.46 Sierra Leone 4,583 5,182 5,000 1.09 3.36 3.08 Togo 7,663 5,653 6,903 0.90 1.86 2.06 WEST AFRICA 9,355 9,715 11,177 1.19 3.57 2.98
  24. 24. Cassava Yields in East Africa Ha / 10 Agric. people 1985 2000 2008 Index Yield Index Production Index Area BURUNDI 9,000 8,995 8,727 0.97 1.11 1.14 COMOROS 4,103 5,392 5,455 1.33 2.22 1.67 KENYA 12,705 6,945 13,736 1.08 1.18 1.09 MADAGASCAR 6,110 7,004 7,500 1.23 1.12 0.91 MALAWI 2,608 15,461 19,076 7.31 16.68 2.28 MAURITIUS 13,913 15,100 13,636 0.98 - - MOZAMBIQUE 4,000 5,791 5,928 1.48 1.40 0.94 RWANDA 10,399 6,815 6,524 0.63 1.69 2.70 SOMALIA 10,811 10,000 9,535 0.88 2.05 2.32 TANZANIA 10,959 6,598 9,778 0.89 0.80 0.90 UGANDA 9,005 12,384 12,744 1.41 1.88 1.33 ZAMBIA 6,207 4,941 3,371 0.61 2.15 3.53 ZIMBABWE 4,141 4,375 4,315 1.04 2.34 2.25 EAST AFRICA 7,259 7,612 8,974 1.24 1.37 1.11 SUDAN 2,368 1,739 1,667 0.70 0.11 0.16
  25. 25. Cassava Yields in Middle Africa Kg / Inhabitant 1985 2000 2008 Index Yield Index Production Index Area ANGOLA 3,425 8,299 14,808 4.32 7.34 1.70 CAMEROON 15,953 13,299 6,849 0.43 1.67 3.88 CENTRAL AFRICAN Rep. 3,805 2,949 3,000 0.79 1.07 1.36 CHAD 4,500 10,691 8,059 1.79 0.44 0.25 CONGO DRC 8,050 8,114 8,111 1.00 0.96 0.95 CONGO Rep 7,156 9,000 9,091 1.27 1.40 1.10 EQUATORIAL GUINEA 2,800 2,500 2,500 0.89 1.07 1.20 GABON 5,000 5,067 5,106 1.02 1.41 1.38 MIDDLE AFRICA 7,233 8,038 8,349 1.15 1.37 1.19
  26. 26. Progress of cassava yields in SSA Rather good yields have been obtained in Benin, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Kenya, Malawi and Angola through moderate intensification. A modest intensification has taken place in Nigeria and Uganda. With pure stand, yields by 9t/ha are reached with traditional cropping methods (Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Senegal, Burundi, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Congo DRC). Drought and poor soil fertility maintenance cause lower yields (Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe). Many farmers crop cassava in mixed cropping ; yields are much lower than with pure stands (Burkina, Gambia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Comoros, Central Afr. Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon. CASSAVA is mostly an extensive traditional food crop in SSA.
  27. 27. CONCLUSIONS In the context of rapidly burgeoning population, and as far as the expansion of agricultural population generates the duplication of very small extensive farms, the role of cassava in food security is expanding in SSA. Cassava slow development compensates for the lack of progress of cereals production. Cassava processing for supplying quickly expanding cities is in progress, which explains recent production progress in the most urbanized countries. Declining cassava production in Eastern Africa and Sahel is possibly related to the already initiated Climate Change.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×