Box 1: What kind of CA are farmer practicing?In reality, farmers do not adopt all the principles ofconservation agriculture for various reasons.These include: limited access to inputs; labourconstraints; or insufficient resources to grow cashcrops. Therefore, what farmers practice may bequite different from the ‘ideal’ conservationagriculture.Source: Giller et al. (2009).
Component Positive aspects Constraints to full adoption Possible interventionsHerbicides Reduce manual weeding, Usually expensive More research on hence save time Disastrous and ineffective if compatibility of herbicides Ease labour bottlenecks not used correctly Obtain chemicals at Very effective if used Concerns over harmful subsidized prices carefully residual effects on Input loan schemes subsequent crops Enhance information dissemination Training in the safe use of herbicidesRipper Utilizes less energy and Requires availability of labour draught animals Less strenuous, ideal for Doesn’t incorporate seed Participatory technology use with early rains and fertilizer development (animals still weak) Drags piles of residues, Time saving hence early frequent stoppages to planting possible remove residues Provide equipment for renting by farmersJab planter Precision in seed and Difficult to use in wet clay fertilizer placement soils Not suitable for larger plot Provide facilities for local holdings manufacture Relatively expensive and not readily availableDirect seeder Saves time and labour Careful calibration needed Minimum soil disturbance Relatively expensive and not Private-sector involvement Higher yields achievable readily availableCrop residues Protects soils from direct Also needed to feed Incorporate fodder or sun and direct raindrop livestock agroforestry impact Threats from uncontrolled Live fencing Conserves moisture, fires Policy for restricting fires microbial activity May harbour pests (white and livestock grubs) Disturb equipment operation, frequent stoppagesCrop rotation Improves soil fertility Preference for staple food Development of legumes Reduces costs of crops markets production (use of Unavailability of alternative inorganic fertilizers) crops seeds and other inputs Difficulties in marketing other crops
Box 2: Faidherbia Albida tree leaves as source of plant nutrients Decades of research have shown that through leaf and pod fall, nitrogen fixation and associations with soil micro-organisms, fertility accumulation under mature canopy per hectare is as follows: 75kg N; 27kg P205; 183kg Ca0; 29kg MgO; 19kg K20 and 20kg S. This is equivalent to 300 kg of complete fertilizer and 250 kg of lime. This is worth US$163, and can sustain maize yields of 4 tons per hectare, as compared to smallholder farmers’ average yield of less than 2 tons per hectare in good seasons. Box 3: CFU staff and CAWhen asked, “Do you believe in thistechnology?” a Senior Officer at theconservation farming unit in Lusaka replied“I practice it.” He went on to explain that itis a prerequisite for all staff of the CFU toown farms cultivated under CF todemonstrate the technology to farmersthey train – the results are impressive.
Box 4: TransformationThirty-nine-year-old Request Mulwani is a farmer from Mukwelain Kalomo District with a family of eight. With three spans of oxenhe was able to plough about 15 hectares of land, 10 hectares ofwhich were dedicated to maize and 5 hectares to soybeans. Hisaverage yields from the plots were 3.5 tons per hectare and 0.8tons per hectare of maize and soybean.Request came into contact with conservation farming in 2008through the CFU. With the technical knowledge acquired fromCFU trainings, Request was able to harvest about 7.5 tons perhectare from 5 hectares of land managed under the CFtechnology. The results have encouraged him to put more landunder CF cultivation for the coming years.Request is currently a CFU Farmer Coordinator and has helpedto showcase the successes of the technology for other farmersin the southern region. Box 5: Conservation agriculture adoption: father and son Jeremy Simoloka and his son, Stembridge are both farmers in Choma. Jeremy owns about 88 hectares of land, and allocated 20 hectares to his son to engage in arable farming. When Stembridge heard about CF, he sought information about training opportunities and then underwent training with the conservation farming unit. His father, on the other hand, remains suspicious of the technology and will have nothing to do with it. Jeremy harvests, on average, about 70 bags of maize of 50 kilograms each from the 4 hectares he cultivates. Stembridge, on the other hand, cultivates all 20 hectares. Prior to adoption of the technology, his maize yield was between 250 to 300 bags (50 kilograms each). After incorporating CF technologies into his farming practices, his yields have increased to more than 450 bags for the same piece of land. Although he admires his son’s success with the technology, Jeremy remains skeptical about CF, as his own earlier attempts at it were unsuccessful. Stembridge praised the benefits of the technology, but raised the issue of access to inputs – obtaining fertilizer, in particular, is a major challenge for him. He also cited weed management as another challenge.
Name of conservation Approximateagriculture programme Implementing amountor project Period Activities Financier agency (US$)Reversing Food Research and development CFU of Zambia 23.6 millionInsecurity and 2006-2011 Norway National FarmersEnvironmental Extension and (NOK 146 million) UnionDegradation trainingUpscaling Conservation Extension andAgriculture for Increased training 8.5 millionProductivity and 2008-2010 Norway FAOProduction among small- Technical (NOK 52 million)scale farmers in Zambia aspectsConservation AgricultureScaling Up for increased 2008-2010 Extension and Norway FAO 5.0 millionProductivity and trainingProduction (CASPP) Alliance for CommodityClimate Change Technical Trade in Eastern aspects Norway 50.0 millionMitigation and and SouthernAdaptation Component 2010-2015 Extension and Africa (ACTESA)of Global Climate training (COMESA)Change Alliance Project Input support European ACTESA 5.2 million Commission (COMESA) (EUR 4.0 million) TechnicalConservation Agriculture 2009-2011 aspects European 9.8 Million FAOProgramme Extension and Union (EUR 7.5 million) training
Box 6: Average maize yields in selected countries and regions (2009/2010) Country/region tonnes/hectare World 4.5 Africa 1.7 South Africa 2.9 Zambia 1.6 Malawi 1.4 Namibia 1.4 Mozambique 1.0 Zimbabwe 1.0 Angola 0.6 Botswana 0.2 Source: FAO (country cereal balance sheets)
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Number Name and designation Mr Jan-Erick Studsrom Royal Norwegian Embassy1 Lusaka E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +260 977 791424 Mr Collins Nkatiko Conservation Farming Unit P O BOX 303952 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +260 211 265455 Cell: +260 977 793999 Fax: +260 211 264781 Lusaka Mr Sinya Mbale Conservation Farming Unit P O BOX 303953 E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +260 211 265455 Fax: +260 211 264781 Cell: +260 977 760364 Mrs Kasongo M. Chisa Conservation Farming Unit4 P O BOX 630003 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +260 02130221412 Choma Mr Davy Howes Conservation Farming Unit5 P O BOX 30395 E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +260 0211 840029 Cell: +260 211 0966 847053 Mr Chikakula Miti Climate Change Coordinator Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa6 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +260 211 229725/32 Fax: +260 211 225107 Lusaka Mr Piet Stevens Technical Advisor / Senior Agricultural Engineer Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust7 E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +260 211 213 739 Cell: +260 977 781 464 Zambia Mr Sina W.S. Luchen Agronomist FAO8 E-mail: Sina.Luchen@fao.org Tel: +260 211 252277/252558 +260 211 252568/251787 Fax: +260 211 254 173 Lusaka
No. Name and designation Mr Danny Tembo Field Officer9 Conservation Farming Unit Chilankata Mr Pasmore Handongwe Field Officer10 Conservation Farming Unit Choma Mr Stanley Nshimbi Field Officer11 Conservation Farming Unit Choma Mr Kasongo Chisha Assistant Regional Manager12 Conservation Farming Unit Choma Mr Philip Mbale Research Technician13 Magoye Farm Power and Mechanization Magoye Mr Sylvester Chingulu Agricultural Extension Officer14 Magoye Farm Power and Mechanization Magoye Mr Adroit Chintu Workshop Supervisor15 Magoye Farm Power and Mechanization Magoye Mr Martin Seshakar17 Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MACO) LusakaFarmers in Kafue, Mazabuka, Magoye, Chisamba, Chikankata, & Choma Districts Mr Stembridge Simoloka18 Choma Mr Jeremy Simoloka19 Choma Mr Phiri20 Kafue Mr Request Mulwani21 Chikankata Mr and Mrs Mumba22 Mazabuka Mr Christopher Ngandu23 Chisamba Mrs Agnes Ngandu24 Magoye Mr Ted Hamagila25 Magoye