0
Seminar on South-south Cooperation
between China and IFAD (9.23-9.29)
Climate-smart Rural
Development and Poverty
Reductio...
Outline
• Climate change: processes, characteristics and
threats
• Climate Change and Poverty – An Integrated
View
• Clima...
Climate change:
processes,
characteristics and
threats
Source: UNEP/GRID–
Arendal
Incremental risks – present and pipeline
• Increase in exposure to drought and long-term
drying
• Reduced agricultural pro...
Incremental risks continued
• Coastal/Delta flooding and sea surges
(Bangladesh, Vietnam and Egypt)
• Port city exposure (...
Climate risks and vulnerability
• Inability to cope with climate risk is already a major
cause of poverty
• Incremental ri...
Climate
Change
• Increased severity and
frequency of weather
events
• Gradual changes in
temperature, sea level
and climat...
Increased short-term variability Gradual changes in mean
Protection -Protective infrastructure (dams, flood
walls, levees)...
Case from China, Loess Plateau
Loess Plateau in China
• Size: 640,000 km2
• Rural Population: 70m
• Location: upper &
middle reaches of the
Yellow River
...
The Loess Plateau
one of the most seriouslyone of the most seriously
eroded places on earth.eroded places on earth.
home t...
Eco-environmental Impact
• Reduction in water storage capacity
• Loss of soils, soil productivity; loss of farmland
• Loss...
Economic Impact
Lower yields & returns; Higher production costs
⇒ Farm income decline
⇒ Reduction in GDP
Loss of
grain pro...
Social Impact
• Poverty
• Reduced food security
• Increased health problems
• Vulnerability
• Accelerated migration
Climate-smart, Watershed Management
Approach (1994-2008)
Dual Objectives:
1. Improving income and livelihood
2. improving ...
Inner
Mongolia
Shanxi
Shaanix
Gansu
Project Area
The project covers 48
counties, 4 provinces, with
area of 30,000 km2 in t...
Institutional Measures
• Participatory watershed planning process
• Huge incentive through transfer of State
land to farme...
Central PLG
Central
TP
Provincial PLGs
Provincial PMOs Provincial TP
Prefecture PLGs
Prefecture PMOs
county PLGs
County PM...
Financial Instruments
• High counterpart funding (50%); strong
government ownership
• Community in-kind contribution
• Cle...
Implementation Arrangements
 Structure and no-structure interventions
 Sufficient staffing, clearly defined roles &
resp...
Policies and Enforcement
• Banned free range grazing of sheep and
goats
• Enforced land tenure policy: farmers
receive con...
Impact
• Physical: 920,000 ha rehabilitated; terrace 190,000 ha;
diversified agriculture; beneficiaries = 2.5 million
peop...
BEFORE: Mainly slope-
land cropping; sever soil
erosion; very poor natural
vegetation; gullies grazed
heavily by goats
AFT...
1999: Project site - site
preparation for tree planting;
earth shaped water
harvesting pits to catch run-
off; protection ...
1999: Project site - pits for
tree planting on top of
hills, protected by stones
preventing soil from
further erosion
… a ...
Contour planting of black
locust trees at early stage of
project implementation
… the same location in 2004
Comprehensive watershed
treatment in 1999
the same location in 2004
Large-scale Chinese
pine plantation in
northern Shanxi in
1999
… the same location in 2004
(notable strong grass
vegetatio...
Lessons
1. Planning process
2. Participation approach
3. Coordination mechanism
4. Investment mechanism
5. M&E system
1. Planning Process
• Considering interaction of land, water &
other natural resources
• Decentralized and participatory
•...
2. Participatory Approach
• Re-define government role as regulator
and service provider
• Communities and farmers are cent...
3. Coordination Mechanism
Institutional framework:
– Among Government agencies
– With farmers / private sector /
NGOs
– Na...
4. Investment Mechanism
• Integration and coordination of
fiscal resources
• Work in partnership with private
sector
• Com...
5. M&E Process
M&E system to inform all stakeholders about:
a) socio-economic and environmental impacts of
watershed-based...
Conclusion/checklist: climate-smart approaches (WDR 2010)
• Mgnt aligned with ecological processes and defined at appropri...
Thank You!
For more information, please contact:
Dr. Wendao Cao
World Bank Office Beijing, P R China
Tel: (86-10-58617693)...
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Climate Smart Rd & Pr Approach

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  • So far, I have talked about the china and local context, and the integrated watershed management approach. I’ve made five big points, including the dual objectives, the institutional measures, financial instruments, the implementation arrangement, as well as just now the policies and enforcement. I’d like to stop here and if you have any questions, please feel free to ask.
  • Transcript of "Climate Smart Rd & Pr Approach"

    1. 1. Seminar on South-south Cooperation between China and IFAD (9.23-9.29) Climate-smart Rural Development and Poverty Reduction Approach Dr. Wendao Cao Rural Development Specialist World Bank, Beijing
    2. 2. Outline • Climate change: processes, characteristics and threats • Climate Change and Poverty – An Integrated View • Climate-smart, Watershed Approach: Loess Plateau Concepts and Experiences • Conclusion
    3. 3. Climate change: processes, characteristics and threats Source: UNEP/GRID– Arendal
    4. 4. Incremental risks – present and pipeline • Increase in exposure to drought and long-term drying • Reduced agricultural productivity, especially in rainfed areas: - Global modelling points to losses of 10% for developing countries, ranging 7% Asia to 17% SSA, with gains for developed countries (Cline 2007) - Ricardian modelling for dryland SSA points to losses of 25% by 2060 - Probabilistic Monte Carlo crop modelling reveals high (95%) probability of large losses for southern African maize, West African root crops and sorghum in Sahel (Lobell et al 2008)
    5. 5. Incremental risks continued • Coastal/Delta flooding and sea surges (Bangladesh, Vietnam and Egypt) • Port city exposure (50 150m by 2070: Mumbai, Guangzhou, Shanghai…OECD 2008) • Storm damage (eg Central America) • Increased water stress on ecosystems • Glacial melting – Short-term flooding risks (Nepal, Central Asia) – Long-term threat to irrigation systems (Indus, northern India and China) – Urban water supply (Peru)
    6. 6. Climate risks and vulnerability • Inability to cope with climate risk is already a major cause of poverty • Incremental risks superimposed on global picture of 2bn living on less than $2 a day and 1/3 children malnourished • ‘Low human development traps’: • Ex ante losses in productivity • Asset erosion • Capability erosion (health, nutrition, education) • Human impacts • Ethiopia: children aged -5 are 41% more likely to be stunted if born in drought year and affected • Global modelling for growth impacts have tended to obscure distributional concerns: the poor face earliest and deepest damage
    7. 7. Climate Change • Increased severity and frequency of weather events • Gradual changes in temperature, sea level and climate zones, and fresh water Economic, Equity and Poverty Outcomes • Growth and its distributional pattern will be affected • Increased variability. Poverty traps (country, region and household) • Increased risk and vulnerability to climate change Transmission Channels • Effects on livelihoods • Changes in capital stock and productivity • Increases in mortality and morbidity rates • Changes in settlement patterns • Political tensions and conflict • Changes in relative prices • Macro and fiscal effects Climate Change and Poverty – An Integrated View (PR Board)
    8. 8. Increased short-term variability Gradual changes in mean Protection -Protective infrastructure (dams, flood walls, levees) -Same as short-term, although multiplies risk and overtime become prohibitive (negative externalities) Adaptation -Drought resistant agriculture -Adaptive infrastructure (houses on stilts, schools and health centers in boats) -Vaccination campaigns, improved services -Building code regulations - Land taxes and resettlement initiatives for vulnerable areas ------Subsidies and incentives to promote less climate sensitive activities. -Improved water and energy and management and pricing policies Response -Emergency response plans (national and community levels) (water, housing, resettlement, etc.) -Improved and rebuilding of services and infrastructure in vulnerable areas -Disaster Insurance (public/private) -Targeted safety net programs -Disaster and meteorological monitoring systems (national and community based). Policy Options and Trade-offs (PR Board)
    9. 9. Case from China, Loess Plateau
    10. 10. Loess Plateau in China • Size: 640,000 km2 • Rural Population: 70m • Location: upper & middle reaches of the Yellow River • Stretches over 7 provinces Map of China
    11. 11. The Loess Plateau one of the most seriouslyone of the most seriously eroded places on earth.eroded places on earth. home to more than 50 millionhome to more than 50 million mostly very poor farmers.mostly very poor farmers. centuries of overuse of the natural resources and unsustainable farming practices. 1.6 b tons of sediment annually clog up the Yellow River, pose a serious flood risk in the lower reaches.
    12. 12. Eco-environmental Impact • Reduction in water storage capacity • Loss of soils, soil productivity; loss of farmland • Loss of vegetation, biomass & biodiversity • Climate changes • Poor air quality, increased dust storms • Increased pollution • Sedimentation downstream
    13. 13. Economic Impact Lower yields & returns; Higher production costs ⇒ Farm income decline ⇒ Reduction in GDP Loss of grain production
    14. 14. Social Impact • Poverty • Reduced food security • Increased health problems • Vulnerability • Accelerated migration
    15. 15. Climate-smart, Watershed Management Approach (1994-2008) Dual Objectives: 1. Improving income and livelihood 2. improving ecological conditions Equally important. Impact each other
    16. 16. Inner Mongolia Shanxi Shaanix Gansu Project Area The project covers 48 counties, 4 provinces, with area of 30,000 km2 in total. Project Scale The total investment of the project (two phases) was US$ 500million, among which US$ 300 million from the Bank loan.
    17. 17. Institutional Measures • Participatory watershed planning process • Huge incentive through transfer of State land to farmers through long-term lease • Emphasize both bottle-up and top-down approaches
    18. 18. Central PLG Central TP Provincial PLGs Provincial PMOs Provincial TP Prefecture PLGs Prefecture PMOs county PLGs County PMOs township PLGs Township station Legend consultive function Administrative function CPMO Project Structure
    19. 19. Financial Instruments • High counterpart funding (50%); strong government ownership • Community in-kind contribution • Clear distinction between public and private goods • Make clear that the WB loan needs to be repaid by farmers
    20. 20. Implementation Arrangements  Structure and no-structure interventions  Sufficient staffing, clearly defined roles & responsibilities, stressing institutional and community capacity building  Strong emphasis on technology transfer  Enforcement of policy  Strict supervision of physical and financial progress, problem solving and feedback mechanism and rigorous M&E  Foster inter-agency collaboration partnership & networking
    21. 21. Policies and Enforcement • Banned free range grazing of sheep and goats • Enforced land tenure policy: farmers receive contracts with 30-50 years use rights • Banned planting on steep slopes
    22. 22. Impact • Physical: 920,000 ha rehabilitated; terrace 190,000 ha; diversified agriculture; beneficiaries = 2.5 million people; improved rural infrastructure • Financial: Grain production from 428 kg to 630 kg per capital; per capita income increased from US$ 45 to US$ 203 (US$ 44 more than non-project areas) • Social: 2.5 million people out of poverty; women’s social status and children school enrollment raised • Environmental: vegetation cover from 17% to 33%; bio-diversity increased and micro-climate improved; annual soil erosion reduced by over 107 million tons; downstream improvements
    23. 23. BEFORE: Mainly slope- land cropping; sever soil erosion; very poor natural vegetation; gullies grazed heavily by goats AFTER: moderate slopes are terraced; good yields due to water conser-vation; steep slopes planted with shrubs/ trees using contour trenches; entire watershed is disallowed for grazing, allowing vegetation to return
    24. 24. 1999: Project site - site preparation for tree planting; earth shaped water harvesting pits to catch run- off; protection ridges along gullies to prevent further cutting 2004: Similar site in the same watershed - water harvesting pits disappear in grass & vegetation
    25. 25. 1999: Project site - pits for tree planting on top of hills, protected by stones preventing soil from further erosion … a similar site 5 years later
    26. 26. Contour planting of black locust trees at early stage of project implementation … the same location in 2004
    27. 27. Comprehensive watershed treatment in 1999 the same location in 2004
    28. 28. Large-scale Chinese pine plantation in northern Shanxi in 1999 … the same location in 2004 (notable strong grass vegetation returns after grazing ban)
    29. 29. Lessons 1. Planning process 2. Participation approach 3. Coordination mechanism 4. Investment mechanism 5. M&E system
    30. 30. 1. Planning Process • Considering interaction of land, water & other natural resources • Decentralized and participatory • Iterative learning
    31. 31. 2. Participatory Approach • Re-define government role as regulator and service provider • Communities and farmers are central in rehabilitation programs • Secured land tenure & other natural resources users rights
    32. 32. 3. Coordination Mechanism Institutional framework: – Among Government agencies – With farmers / private sector / NGOs – National watershed management network
    33. 33. 4. Investment Mechanism • Integration and coordination of fiscal resources • Work in partnership with private sector • Combine resources with policies
    34. 34. 5. M&E Process M&E system to inform all stakeholders about: a) socio-economic and environmental impacts of watershed-based interventions b) interactions between people and environment c) long-term changes within the watershed ⇒ improve the quality and efficiency of data collection, handling, analysis, and sharing ⇒ ensure accountability ⇒ be cost effective Innovative approaches: participatory M&E
    35. 35. Conclusion/checklist: climate-smart approaches (WDR 2010) • Mgnt aligned with ecological processes and defined at appropriate spatial scale • Cooperation among administrative levels, sectors, and line departments; • Broad stakeholders and research centers, in problem solving and decision making • Enabling legislation and legal framework to support local action • Adaptable legislation and policies to response to new information • Long time horizon for planning and capacity building • Assessment of flexible and reversible measures • Experimentation and learning through policy experiments to inform management • Full consideration of alternative scenarios and of structural and nonstructural measures • Mechanisms to understand and challenge assumptions • Explicit communication of assumptions and consideration of uncertainty • Use of information and monitoring to inform policy • Generation of scientific and technical knowledge to develop new practices • Appropriate financing system
    36. 36. Thank You! For more information, please contact: Dr. Wendao Cao World Bank Office Beijing, P R China Tel: (86-10-58617693); Fax: (86-10-58617800) Email: wcao1@worldbank.org
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