China evaluation


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  • Why a country program review – what is the difference to a CPE?All consultant and especially the teamleader was new to APR and even IFAD. Only one consultant (Zheng Bo) had worked with APR before, and this was for 2 supervision and the design of a Gef grant
  • High praise for introducing participation, training and human capital among the poor, esp. women..
  • Participation was an innovative concept at county levels in the early days of IFAD in ChinaProject Management : modular approachExtension: farm demonstration with the poor farmers; Technical envoy - TEAgricultural technology: intercroppingMarket access: farmer cooperativeRural Finance: new lending products,Weather index insuranceReplication:Rural Finance: no KM platform => replication was limited.Need more analytical to capture and scale up innovationsExchange visits among projects met with high successTechnical innovations were replicated through extension network, Biogas spread to projects in North ChinaConclusions: Lack of a mechanism to scout, promote and scale up of innovations
  • needs assessment & identification of right expertTri partite agreement – Ag bureau farmer and TEStart up fund to TE to allow the introductionRisk fund to offset any lossesJoint evaluation – determines the incentive to the TE
  • Chinese sub-site of ENRAP with MOF & FCPMC support
  • Redefine IFAD’s niche in ChinaWeakness: strong LF with concrete indicators, but no quantifications; which could have helped to set targetsNo identification of partners/institutionsInnovations, yes quite a few, but no mechanism to capture and disseminate them for introducing them elsewhereVerdict: relevant but weak on the innovation mechanism = moderately satisfactory
  • Environment and risk mitigation (e.g. weather, environmental assessments)
  • China evaluation

    1. 1. IFAD in PR China<br />Country Program Review1997-2010<br />Thomas Rath, Country Program Manager<br />IFAD-international Fund for Agricultural Development<br /> Rome 15 July 2011<br />
    2. 2. Why a country program review?<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4. China’s pathway to growth and wealth – Are all on board ?<br />Population: 1.3 billion (55% rural residents)<br />Extraordinary economic growths since 1975: per capita income grew at 8.3 % (1981 –2005)<br />China became world’s 2nd largest trading nation<br />GNI per capita: USD 3,650 (in 2009)<br />HDI: 0.541 (1980) to 0.772 (2007; rank 92)<br />Poverty fell from 652 mill. to 135 mill. (1981-2004)Poverty fell from 65 % to 10 % of the population<br />Inequality has increased: urban – rural ; east – west<br />
    5. 5. China<br />Pic of Beijing<br />Pic of an IFAD village or Farm<br />
    6. 6. - IFAD in China – 30 Years of rural development history<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Key Points – IFAD’s Country program<br /> <br />
    10. 10. Overall Rating of the Portfolio<br />
    11. 11. Effectiveness<br />Physical & financial delivery consistently high<br />Targets have been met or exceeded<br />Strong leadership of prov. PMOs<br />Example: Outreach to women <br />training on adult literacy<br />School drop outs for girls<br />Technical skills training<br />Improved access to water and energy => more time for training & IGA<br />Long-term impact on women’s status<br />Figure: Proportion of Women in Agricultural Training Activities<br />Source: Cumulative Data, Project Monitoring and evaluation systems. <br />
    12. 12. Benchmarking Project Efficiency<br />
    13. 13. Rural Poverty Impact<br />Domains:<br />1. Household income and assets<br />2. Food security and Agric. Productivity<br />3. Human & social capital & empowerment<br />4. Natural resources & environment<br />5. Institutions & policies<br />
    14. 14. Household Income & assets<br />Poverty reduced from 84% (1995) to 7 % (2001) in Jiangxi<br />Increase in income by 36.8 % in SW Anhui<br />Investments in rural infrastructure (e.g. feeder roads, irrigation,drinking water, biogas)<br />Rural Finance: resources in the hands of the poor farmers & women<br />
    15. 15. Food security<br />Grain availability: 256 to 500 kg per capita(Hubei - Qingling Mountains )<br />Food security: 95% in Guangxi (food sufficiency for > 12 months)<br />Challenges: Some malnutrition among children in marginal areas (20 – 30 %)<br />
    16. 16. Agricultural productivity<br />Partnerships with local AgBureaus<br />+<br />New products (niche products, fruits), technologies (extension, terracing, irrigation)<br />= Impact<br />Example: W-Guangxi PAP<br />95% of HH increased crop production<br />78 % HH increased livestock production<br />55 % HH increased fruit tree production<br />Gansu, Inner Mongolia & Ningxia:<br />Cropping index increased by 200-300% to greenhouses<br />Challenges: <br />Variable market demand<br />O&M in less organised villages<br />
    17. 17. Human/Social Capital and Empowerment<br />Empowered communities: <br />VIG & VDP (Village Development Plan)<br />Representation of farmers and women <br />Dialogue with township governors<br />Women empowerment:<br />Literacy & health awareness<br />Women sign their credit contracts<br />Women specific training<br />Women taking on their IGAs<br />Ethnic minorities<br />Poverty is frequent in ethnic minority areas<br />Projects adapted measures to the needs of people (e.g. training in ethnic language)<br />
    18. 18. Innovations, replications & scaling up<br />GoC (2006) : “Innovation through introduction of useful new international experience is the most valuable role of IFAD in China”<br />Participation of men & women<br />Project Management : modular approach<br />Extension: on-farm demonstration with poor farmers; Technical envoy - TE<br />Agriculture: intercropping<br />Rural energy: Biogas <br />Market access: farmer cooperative<br />Rural Finance: new lending products, Weather index insurance<br />
    19. 19. Innovations in Agriculture<br />Continuous work on introduction of new products, technologies and approaches<br />2 Examples: <br />intercropping of cowpea and potatoes: - Increased land use efficiency - Soil fertility <br />Technical envoy: extension service model based on demand<br />
    20. 20. Replication and Scaling up<br />Photo: herders in Shimoguo Village of Qianshan<br />Township of Yiwu County in Xinjiang build simple<br />greenhouses on Gobi for mushroom production<br />introduced by a technical envoy supported by the<br />program. The original design is to use the idle warm shed<br />for mushroom production during summer while the<br />animals graze on pasture. Seeing the benefits of the<br />enterprise prompted herders to expand the operation on<br />Gobi. Local government subsidizes the establishment of<br />facilities.)<br />Some channels for dissemination: across projects:<br />Annual Country program review workshops<br />Project leading groups assembling managers of different departments in a province<br />Exchange visits <br />Publications & office websites<br /><ul><li>Successful technological innovations scaled up quickly like biogas and water cisterns, new tree and niche crops , animal breeds , farming techniques through experimentation and piloting
    21. 21. One example : warm shed of livestock in winter is used for mushroom cultivation in summer</li></li></ul><li>Knowledge management<br />IFAD approved KM strategy in 2007<br />IFAD – China: <br />Chinese sub-site of ENRAP <br />Project websites<br />Thematic studies e.g. gender , rural finance, organic agriculture<br />China book<br />CPO dedicated to KM<br />Annual program workshops<br />Project exchange visits<br />In RF policy and exchange platform was intended but not realized<br />South – south exchange visits<br />Last 2 projects have dedicated budget for KM<br />=> More systematic efforts to capture & disseminate knowledge<br />
    22. 22. COSOP 1999<br />Centered on an integrated multi-sector approach for rural development<br />VAM helped targeting the main poverty pockets (12 provinces)<br />Partnership with WFP (5 loans) was effective: FFW & FFT<br />Key decision: Microfinance was introduced through formal rural banks (RCC) to support agriculture & women IGA<br />Working through dedicated VIG – for participation, targeting and gender<br />
    23. 23. COSOP 2005<br />2 thrusts: Access and innovations<br />Strong relevance<br />Innovations: Modular approach, TE and organic farming<br />Strong: reinforcement of gender focus<br />Modest : organics, market access, NRM<br />Modest achievements in institutional building and policy reform<br />Innovation thrust has not gained much traction <br />Systematic approach to KM to capture innovations was missing<br />
    24. 24. Reducing poverty in China - summary<br />Strong government commitment & resources & policies<br />Targeting<br />Participation of the poor – VIG<br />Women at the centre<br />Focus on diversified agriculture<br />Combination of sectors (ag-rf-social-infrastructure)<br />Innovation & KM<br />
    25. 25. The way forward<br />COSOP 2011 <br />IFAD’s comparative advantage in China (MIC)<br />Targeting approach<br />Identifying and disseminating innovation is key<br />Improve the “E” in M&E<br />KM & South-South cooperation <br />Coherent partnerships (government, NGO and private sector)<br />Increase role of country presence<br />
    26. 26. THANK YOU 谢谢 <br />