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Session 1.4 Cassava Breeding Potential for Bioethanol by Becerra Lopez Lavalle
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Session 1.4 Cassava Breeding Potential for Bioethanol by Becerra Lopez Lavalle

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  • 1.
  • 2. Cassava breeding potential for bioethanol
    Becerra López-Lavalle, L.A. , Dufour, D., Sánchez, T. and H. Ceballos
  • 3. Outline
    • Introduction
    • 4. High, stable and reliableproductivity
    • 5. Noveltraits
    • 6. Processingmethods X rootqualityinteractions
    • 7. Perspectives
  • Outline
    • Introduction
    • 8. High, stable and reliableproductivity
    • 9. Noveltraits
    • 10. Processingmethods X rootqualityinteractions
    • 11. Perspectives
  • Cassava origin
    Flooded land
    Low Soil Fertility
    Degraded Soils
    Slopped Land
  • 12. Cassava modern production
    Sub-humid environment
    Acid –Soil environment
    19’000,000 hectares
    Near Hanoi, Vietnam
    Guan-Xi Province, China
  • 13. Cassava modern production
    Sub-humid environment
    Acid –Soil environment
    19’000,000 hectares
    233,000 Tonnes
    Near Hanoi, Vietnam
    Guan-Xi Province, China
  • 14. Main uses of Cassava
    Fresh - boiled
    Farinha - Gari
    Human consumption
    Fufu
    Cassava leaves
  • 15. Main uses of Cassava
    Dry chips for animal feed
    Chicken factory
    Animal feedstock
    Near Hanoi, Vietnam
    Pressed cake
  • 16. Main uses of Cassava
    Bio-Ethanol
    Starch
    Industrial use of Cassava
    Goren-Krupuk
    Fried-Chips
  • 17. Tropical/Sub-tropical crop
    Main cassava production regions in the world
  • 18. Outline
    • Introduction
    • 19. High, stable and reliableproductivity
    • 20. Noveltraits
    • 21. Processingmethods X rootqualityinteractions
    • 22. Perspectives
  • Crop Potential
    South-China 5
    Breeding successfully increased fresh-root (FR) productivity& dry-matter (DM) content. We now need STABLE-DM contents
    SM 1433-4
    84 t/ha FR in a 9.5 ha commercial field
    (~25 t/ha DM)
  • 23. Crop Potential
    The case of “watery” roots for ethanol
  • 24. Crop Potential
    The case of “watery” roots for ethanol
    High Dry Matter content does not seems critical to ethanol production
  • 25. Outline
    • Introduction
    • 26. High, stable and reliableproductivity
    • 27. Noveltraits
    • 28. Processingmethods X rootqualityinteractions
    • 29. Perspectives
  • Cassava “Novel” traits
    Amylose-free (“waxy”) starch mutation
    • Amylose is difficult to degrade
    • 30. Amylose-free starch should cost less to convert into ethanol
  • Cassava “Novel” traits
  • 31. Conventional processing
    GSHE processing
    Less amylose = more ethanol
  • 32. Less amylose =
    more ethanol
  • 33. Cassava “Novel” traits
    Fermentability: assess their potential in bio-ethanol, bio-plastics, sweeteners
  • 34. Cassava starch fermentation: with and without starch
    Total ethanol
    (mL/Kg of starch)
    4 1/3 days
  • 35. Small granule/high amylose
    Normal Starch
    Small granule Starch
  • 36. Small granule/high amylose
    Normal Starch
    Small granule Starch
    • A small granule and a rough surface facilitate the action of enzymes (less consumption of enzymes, lower costs of conversion).
    • 37. But higher amylose content would increase costs….
  • Small granule/high amylose
    RVA Amylogram
  • 38. Starch-less mutation
    Source:
    L. Carvalho
    EMBRAPA
    Brazil
  • 39. Outline
    • Introduction
    • 40. High, stable and reliableproductivity
    • 41. Noveltraits
    • 42. Processingmethods X rootqualityinteractions
    • 43. Perspectives
  • Bio-ethanol production
    Ethanol factory in Thai Nguan near Khon Kaen (Thailand)
  • 44. Bio-ethanol production
    Ethanol factory in Thai Nguan near Khon Kaen (Thailand)
    5.27 kg of fresh root produce one liter of ethanol
    1.4 – 1.5 bath / kg fresh root
    25 bath / lt of ethanol produced
  • 45. Boiler
    Liquefaction & saccharification
    Ethanol
    Maize or Cassava
    Starch degradation
    Distillation &
    dehydration
    Sugarcane juices
    Sugarcane
    Fermentation
    Ethanol from corn or cassava is more expensive because starch need to be degraded to the equivalent of sugar cane juices
  • 46. Sorce of
    satrch
    Thermo-stable
    Alpha-amylase
    (Liquefacction)
    Yeasts
    Grinding
    Jet cooker
    >100 °C
    (5-8’)
    Saccharification
    60 °C (8-10 horas)
    Fermentation
    Storage
    tank
    Distillation &
    dehydration
    Slurry tank
    Secondary
    Liquefaction
    (95 °C – 90’)
    Solids
    Glucoamylase
    (Saccharification)
  • 47. Sorce of
    satrch
    Thermo-stable
    Alpha-amylase
    (Liquefacction)
    Yeasts
    Grinding
    Jet cooker
    >100 °C
    (5-8’)
    Saccharification
    60 °C (8-10 horas)
    Fermentation
    Storage
    tank
    Distillation &
    dehydration
    Slurry tank
    Secondary
    Liquefaction
    (95 °C – 90’)
    New enzymes
    Solids
    Liquefaction + saccharification
    Glucoamylase
    (Saccharification)
  • 48. Sorce of
    satrch
    Yeasts
    Grinding
    Saccharification
    60 °C (8-10 horas)
    Fermentation
    Storage
    tank
    Distillation &
    dehydration
    Slurry tank
    New enzymes
    + yeasts
    New enzymes
    Solids
    Liquefaction + saccharification
    Liquefaction + saccharification
    + fermentation
  • 49. Storage
    tank
    Distillation &
    dehydration
    Solids
  • 50. Medium throughput fermenters
  • 51. Digestion rate of different cassava starches
    (1.0 ml of pacreatic α-amilase)
    pH 6.9 at 37°C
    ~80%
    ~30%
  • 52. Digestion rate of different cassava starches
    (0.5 ml of StargenTM 2)
    pH 4.0 at 37°C
    ~60%
    ~30%
  • 53. Root processing vs. quality
    Starch degrading enzymes and yeast are being improved.
    The process to convert starch into ethanol constantlychanges.
    As in maize, there are genetic differences in cassava for ethanol production (small starch granule).
    We are in a unique position to analyze the best germplasm – processing method to maximize economic benefit and reduce negative impact on the environment.
    What is the potential of “sugary” cassava?
  • 54. Outline
    • Introduction
    • 55. High, stable and reliableproductivity
    • 56. Noveltraits
    • 57. Processingmethods X rootqualityinteractions
    • 58. Perspectives
  • Cassava Bio-ethanol perspective
    • Cassava is a competitive raw material for bio-ethanol production in Asia (Thailand, China, Vietnam, Indonesia?, Australia?)
    • 59. A large % of the ethanol production cost is constitute by the enzyme and yeast.
    • 60. Advances in microbiology and enzymologycan significantly reduce ethanol production cost from starches
  • Cassava Bio-ethanol prespective
    • There are clones with low dry matter content but maximum productivity per hectare that can now be used in ethanol production
    • 61. Different mutants could reduce costs of conversion from root to ethanol (including “sugary”?)
  • Energy crops: farms of 1-100 ha
    Ethanol (99,5%)
    Cassava
    Banana
    Coffee residues
    Sweet potato
    Sweet sorghum
    Sugar cane
    Small rural communities
    Central Plant (dehydration)
    Micro-plants
    1.000 – 2.000 lt/day5 – 10 t crop/day
    < – 1 ha crop/day
    Ethanol (50%)
    Transport
  • 62. Cassava Bio-ethanol perspective
    • For ethanol production a key issue is the continuoussupply of feedstock all year round.
    • 63. Processing of fresh roots (low dry matter?) at harvest time and dried chips during off-season is one potential alternative.
  • Cassava Bio-ethanol perspective
    • Combining feedstock from different crops. For instance, cassava/sweet-sorghum has proved advantageous.
    • 64. We need to further analyze the by-products and their potential use for animal feeding.
  • Thank you