4.2 Disease Control and Pest Management in Cassava Production by Kumar, IITA

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4.2 Disease Control and Pest Management in Cassava Production by Kumar, IITA

  1. 2. Disease Control and Pest Management in Cassava Production Lava Kumar , R. Hanna, P. Kulakow, J. Legg, E. Kanju, P. Ntuhunguru and N. Mahungu International Institute of Tropical Agriculture E-mail: L.kumar@cgiar.org; www.iita.org
  2. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Need for cassava intensification </li></ul><ul><li>To meet the demands of increasing population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in demand for alternative uses - bioenergy </li></ul><ul><li>Way forward </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in yields in the same unit area in traditional growing areas </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation in new niches </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Poor adoption of improved varieties and crop management practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Threats from established and emerging pests and diseases in traditional and new cassava niches. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change effect on host, pathogens and pests. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of enabling environment (inadequate financial, policy and political support) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Cassava productivity EA = 8.8 Mt CA =8.9 mt NA=1.6 Mt WA=11.5 mt CA=11.9 mt SA=13.5 mt SA=32.5 mt EA=16.6 mt SEA=19.3 mt <ul><li>Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Pests and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of improved varieties and technologies from the outset </li></ul><ul><li>Low pests and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Poor adoption of improved varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases (CMD & CBSD) and pests </li></ul>
  4. 5. Genotype Environment Management Biotic stresses Abiotic stresses GEM factor on cassava yield Pests Diseases Planting material E Cassava yield M G
  5. 6. <ul><li>Exotic pests </li></ul><ul><li>Green spider mite ( Mononychellus tanajoa ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava mealy bug, ( Phenacoccus manihoti ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava Bacterial Blight ( Xanthomonas axonopodis) </li></ul><ul><li>Indian cassava mosaic virus </li></ul><ul><li>Pests of regional importance </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava brown streak virus </li></ul><ul><li>East African cassava mosaic virus – Uganda (EACMV-UG) </li></ul>Cassava pests in Africa <ul><li>Indigenous pests </li></ul><ul><li>African cassava mosaic virus </li></ul><ul><li>East African cassava mosaic virus complex </li></ul><ul><li>South African cassava mosaic virus </li></ul><ul><li>Whiteflies, fungal diseases, root scales etc </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Pests not present in the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava common mosaic virus </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava green mosaic virus </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava vein virus </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava X virus </li></ul><ul><li>Frog Skin Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava antholysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava witches broom </li></ul><ul><li>Super Elongation ( Sphaceloma manihoticola ) </li></ul>Quarantine pests of cassava in Africa
  7. 8. Cassava die-back caused by Collectotricum gloeosporioides Leaf spots caused by Collectotricum gloeosporioides
  8. 9. Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis Leaf spots caused by Cercospora caribea
  9. 10. Brown leaf spot Cercospora henigsii Super Elongation ( Sphaceloma manihoticola- Elsinoe brasilensis) Source: E. Alvarez, PD 87
  10. 11. Severe mottling and leaf distortion on indicator clone Secundina grafted on infected stake (leaves from buds on rootstock show no symptoms) Source: Dr L.A. Calvert, CIAT Frog skin disease (FSD)
  11. 12. Cassava green mite ( Mononychellus tanajoa ) <ul><li>Predatory mite -- Typhlodromalus aripo feeds on cassava green mite </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced to Africa from Brazil in 1993 for biological control of cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa </li></ul>and biocontrol
  12. 13. Whitefly ( Bemisica tabaci ) Pest and important virus vector Sooty mould
  13. 14. The viruses of cassava in Africa African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) Indian cassava mosaic virus East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus EACMV-Uganda (recombinant virus) Cassava brown streak virus ( Ipomovirus ) Cassava brown streak Uganda virus Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus* Cassava Kumi virus* Cassava ‘Q’ virus* Cassava common mosaic virus* ( Potexvirus ) CMGs CBSV
  14. 15. ACMV only ACMV+EACMV
  15. 16. ACMV+EACMV ACMV+EACMV
  16. 17. Movement of CMBV’s in SSA Source: Ndunguru et al. 2005
  17. 18. Viruses cannot move, they are moved <ul><li>They move with host (propagation material) </li></ul><ul><li>They are transmitted by vectors </li></ul>Cassava virus spread Whiteflies Stem cuttings In vitro cultures
  18. 19. CMG Distribution - 2004
  19. 20. CMG Distribution <ul><li>Increase in incidence of mixed infections in West Central Africa </li></ul>0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Nigeria Ghana 08 Ghana 89 Cameroon08-09 Cote d'Ivorie-09 Benin 07-08 Sierra Leone 09 Angola 08 ACMV Both None EACMV UgV % incidence
  20. 21. Tracking the spread of EACMV-UG <ul><li>As of 2005, Spread in 2.6 million sq. km causing an estimated loss of 47% in affected countries. </li></ul>2009 2008 2009 <ul><li>Spread into Cameroon in West-Central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Spread into Angola in Southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Also reported from Burkina Faso and Togo in 2009 </li></ul>
  21. 22. Farmer yields of improved and local varieties by state in SS and SE Nigeria
  22. 23. Cassava Mosaic Disease Severity Year of cloning Mean log(CMD severity) Genetic gain/year = 0.44% CMD decreased by 30.8% y = -0.0044x + 9.1817 R 2 = 0.1741 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
  23. 24. *Better management of cassava mosaic disease <ul><li>Additional production of 11.4 million tons </li></ul><ul><li>Additional value of US$ 798.6 millions </li></ul>Production (Million Mt) Value (million US$) 15% increase* (million Mt) Additional value (million US$) Nigeria 45.72 3200.5 6.86 480.1 DRC 14.97 1048.2 2.25 157.2 Ghana 9.64 674.7 1.45 101.2 Benin 2.52 176.7 0.38 26.5 Ivory Coast 2.20 154.0 0.33 23.1 Total 76.06 5324.0 11.41 798.61
  24. 25. Cassava brown streak virus <ul><li>First recognized in 1920s. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspected in DRC, Congo, Burundi and Rwanda. Evidence of westward spread </li></ul>Prior to 2005 Post 2005
  25. 26. Cassava brown streak disease
  26. 27. C3P Project Reports prior to 2004 (since 1920s) CBSD distribution <ul><li>Tracking CBSD distribution and spread </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2008, its occurrence in Rwanda, Burundi and Eastern DRC confirmed. </li></ul>New Reports Post-2004
  27. 28. CBSD CBSD disguise ready detection
  28. 29. Near normal tubers, but server damage to root quality
  29. 33. CBSV CBSUV Two viruses
  30. 34. Difficult to diagnose CBSD
  31. 35. Cassava brown streak disease CMD CBSD CMD+CBSD
  32. 36. Simple diagnostics developed at IITA for simultaneous diagnosis of CMD and CBSD Lanes 1 to 4: CBSV infected samples Lane 5: Healthy cassava Lane 6: CMD infected cassava Lane M: Molecular weight marker (100 kb ladder) M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M CBSV-S1/S2 + CMB CBSV-L1/L2 + CMB Sap DNA & RNA Sap DNA&RNA EACMV ACMV CBSV
  33. 37. USAID project
  34. 38. <ul><li>CBSD management </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of tolerant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Clean planting material </li></ul><ul><li>CBSD is a serious threat to cassava worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Consorted efforts are required to pre-emptive management of CBSD </li></ul>
  35. 39. Spiraling whitefly ( Aleurodicus dispersus ) Watch-out for new pests
  36. 40. <ul><li>Cassava mealybug ( Phenococcus manihoti ) well established in Latin America and SSA. </li></ul><ul><li>New outbreak in 200,000 ha in Thai Land </li></ul><ul><li>(CIAT Alert, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to other Asian countries. </li></ul>Watch-out for new outbreaks Anagyrus lopezi Biological control using natural enemy, a wasp, A. lopezi. Source: www.cgiar.org
  37. 41. <ul><li>Cassava bacterial blight in Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>New Phytoplasma disease in South-East Asia </li></ul>Watch-out for new outbreaks Source: www.cgiar.org
  38. 42. <ul><li>Training in field surveillance and laboratory diagnosis </li></ul>Training & capacity building
  39. 43. Awareness creation
  40. 44. Planting material Tubers Starch Ethanol Quality planting material is fundamental to increase cassava productivity Quality planting material to manage biotic threats Poor quality No management Poor yield Crop Management Increase in yield Good quality
  41. 45. Challenges due to clonal propagation <ul><li>Very low multiplication ratio (1:8), bulky & Perishable </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplication and distribution of stems are more expensive than conventional seed (grain based) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers do not specifically multiply stems for propagation, but use stems from harvested plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of incentive for the private sector to invest, and lack of markets (due to low affordability by farmers) </li></ul>
  42. 46. Challenges due to clonal propagation (2) <ul><li>Spread of pathogens particularly viruses (introduction and perpetuation) </li></ul>cutting from virus infected cassava Infected cassava Healthy cassava Infected cassava Direct spread Indirect spread Whiteflies Vectors Stems
  43. 47. Few actors involved in cassava stem multiplication <ul><li>Private non-profit organizations (e.g. NGOs, foundations); </li></ul><ul><li>Public institutions (e.g. extension services, research institutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Community organizations (CBOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on donor investments </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural issues sometimes affect multiplication projects </li></ul><ul><li>Weak seed sector, </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of area (intensification) </li></ul><ul><li>High demand for planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Short supply of planting material </li></ul>
  44. 48. Massive multiplication & exchange programs <ul><li>Demand met through massive multiplication projects </li></ul><ul><li>Massive movement of planting material within & between countries </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent risk of pathogen exchange through planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Particular problem with viruses </li></ul><ul><li>- Cassava mosaic disease </li></ul><ul><li>- Cassava brown streak disease </li></ul><ul><li>Planting material could carry pathogens harmful pests and pathogens. </li></ul>
  45. 49. Knowledge on pathogens and their distribution Essential needs for germplasm monitoring Availability of diagnostic tools Capacity (human skills and infrastructure) Guidelines: FAO, IPPC, IAPSC, NPPO Funds
  46. 50. Production of clean planting material <ul><li>Material from the field: </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Nematodes </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of pests and pathogens through tissue culture, but not viruses . </li></ul>
  47. 51. Scheme for CBSD-free planting material Variety No. of tested Number CBSV-free 1 MM06/0011 20 TC 15 2 MM06/0024 20 TC 10 3 MM06/0138 20 TC 3 4 MM06/0131 20 TC 3 5 MM06/0019 20 TC 9 6 MM06/0079 20 TC 11 7 MM06/0013 20 TC 1 8 MM06/0045 20 TC 20 9 MM06/0012 20 TC 20 10 MM06/0023B 20 TC 8 11 MM06/0139 20 TC 2 12 MM06/0124 20 TC 4 13 MM06/0112 20 TC 3 14 MM06/0076 20 TC 6
  48. 52. <ul><li>Provide adequate supply of cassava products at economically affordable prices through availability of improved cassava varieties, production processes and farm gate processing in seven countries . </li></ul><ul><li>Together with national programs and CSOs </li></ul>Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Africa – UPoCA (USDA project in response to food crisis)
  49. 53. <ul><li>To distribute clean planting material to 1.15 million households in 6 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen the capacity of local partners to address CMD and CBSD threat to food security and income of cassava-depending farm families. </li></ul><ul><li>8 national programs, 2 IARCs, 53 CSOs; 3,000 farmer groups. </li></ul>Great Lakes Cassava Initiative – GLCI (1) (CRS-led BMGF project)
  50. 54. Great Lakes Cassava Initiative – GLCI (2) (CRS-led BMGF project) <ul><li>Research activities (IITA led-component) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Studies on CMD and CBSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Improve disease control through better varieties and planting material quality management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Multiplication & dissemination of clean seeds (planting material) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Farmer group development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Partner capacity building </li></ul></ul>
  51. 55. <ul><li>Tanzania is amongst the worst hit by CBSD and CMD. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of planting material for ambitious biofuel production in Tanzania? </li></ul>Sourcing quality planting material is the major challenge to biofuel production in Africa ©IITA ©IITA
  52. 56. Sustainable production of quality planting material Need for sustainable clean seed systems Individual farmers, farmer groups Tertiary multipliers  1-2ha/ site  2ha/ site NGO’s, farmer groups Secondary multipliers Primary multipliers Research stations, NGO’s  10ha Foundation stock Research stations
  53. 57. Viral diseases CMD, CBSD <ul><li>CMD resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance to CBSD </li></ul><ul><li>Planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Quarantine monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>New resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Novel approaches for insect control </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building & stretching of monitoring programs </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in research & development </li></ul>Fungal & bacterial diseases CBB, anthracnose, super elongation <ul><li>Crop management </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Quarantine monitoring </li></ul>Insect pests Mealybugs, mites, whitefly, root scales <ul><li>Crop management </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Quarantine monitoring </li></ul>Diseases of uncertain etiology Frog skin disease <ul><li>Crop management </li></ul><ul><li>Planting material </li></ul><ul><li>Quarantine monitoring </li></ul>Summary & Conclusion Interest in biofuel can transform cassava potential in Africa.
  54. 58. IITA Campus - Ibadan Thanks for your attention [email_address] www.iita.org

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